A Selected Chronological Bibliography
of Biology and Medicine
1971 — 1979
Compiled by James Southworth Steen, Ph.D.
Delta State University
Dedicated to my loving family
This document celebrates those
secondary authors and laboratory technicians without whom most of this great
labor of discovery would have proved impossible.
Please forward any editorial comments to: James S. Steen, Ph.D., Professor
Emeritus, DSU Box 3262, Cleveland, MS 38733. email@example.com
the only thing I’d like to say at the end is that it has all been wonderful
fun. I wouldn’t change a single thing; it has been a tremendous privilege, and
I hope that in the next generation, where things are going to be more
complicated, that it will still be possible for people to have as much fun and
reward as I had.” William Barry Wood, Jr. (1757).
Wilbur Sutherland, Jr. (US) was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or
Medicine for his discoveries concerning the mechanisms of the action of
Ephraim Lovelock (GB) invented the electron capture detector (ECD),
which ultimately allowed him along with Robert J. Maggs (GB), and Roger J. Wade
() to discover the persistence of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs)
and their role in stratospheric ozone depletion (1224; 1229). Note:
An electron capture detector (ECD) is a device for
detecting atoms and molecules in a gas through
the attachment of electrons via electron capture ionization. The
device was invented in 1957 by James Ephraim Lovelock (GB) and is used
in gas chromatography to detect trace amounts of chemical compounds
in a sample (1223; 1225).
Byungkook Lee (US) and Frederic Middlebrook Richards (US) introduced the
concept and a quantitative measure for the solvent-accessible surface (SAS) of
amino acid residues in folded protein structures. The surface is constructed by
tracing the center of an imaginary ball, its radius that of a water molecule
(taken as 1.4 Å), as it rolls over the van der Waals surfaces of the
proteins. Thus defined, the surface is continuous and each point on it is
unambiguously associated with a specific protein atom (the nearest) (1151). The Lee & Richards definition has been widely adopted as the
standard measure for solvent accessibility, for instance to evaluate exposure
per residue as a percentage of accessible vs. total surface area.
Sasaki (JP), Yoshimasa Hirata (JP), Masaaki Toda (JP), and Shosuke Yamamura
(JP) determined the structure of methyl homosecodaphniphyllate by x-ray
crystallographic analysis (1653; 1886). This chemical is a member of a family of
alkaloids originally extracted from the bark of the Yuzuriha tree, Daphniphyllum macropodum, and used to
Hou Kim (US), Gary J. Quigley (US), Fred Leroy Suddath (US), and Alexander R.
Rich (US) produced crystals of yeast tRNAPHE that diffracted to 2-3 Ångstrom
resolutions by using spermine, a naturally occuring polyamine, which bound to
and stabilized the tRNA (1052).
Kim (US), Gray J. Quigley (US), Fred Leroy Suddath (US), Alexander McPherson
(US), Daryll Sneden (US), Jung-Ja Park Kim (US), Jon Weinzierl (US), and
Alexander Rich (US) determined the molecular structure of yeast tRNAPHE
to a 4-Ångstrom resolution (1051). By 1974, together with Joel L. Sussman
(US), Andrew H.J. Wang (US), and Nadrian C. Seeman (US) they had interpreted
the three-dimensional tertiary structure of yeast tRNAPHE to a
resolution of three angstroms (1053). Note: This work represents the first
solution of a long-chain nucleic acid structure of any kind - RNA or DNA.
G. Morell (US), Gregory Gregoriadis (US), I. Herbert Scheinberg (US), Jean
Hickman (US), and G. Gilbert Ashwell (US) found that plasma membranes of the
liver are the primary site of binding for circulating glycoproteins (1360).
L. Hudgin (US), William E. Pricer, Jr. (US), G. Gilbert Ashwell (US), Richard
J. Stockert (US), and Anatol G. Morell (US) hypothesized that the exposure of
terminal, nonreducing galactosyl residues by the removal of sialic acid
provides a means by which the liver recognizes and removes the defective
molecules from circulation as part of their normal catabolic pathway. They
isolated the asialoglycoprotein binding protein from rabbit liver (928).
Kawasaki (JP) and G. Gilbert Ashwell (US) isolated an avian hepatic binding
protein that was specific for terminal N-acetylglucosamine residues on
Arnold Lardy (US), David L. Garbers (US), Wesley David Lust (US), and Neal L.
First (US) found that caffeine increases respiration and dramatically induces
whiplash-type motility in sperm by increasing cyclic AMP (1134).
L. Milkowski (US), Donner F. Babcock (US), and Henry Arnold Lardy (US) noted
that the respiratory response is dependent on the utilization of
Fakan (DE) and Wilhelm Bernhard (CH) found that nascent RNA is predominantly
found in the interchromatin region. High-resolution autoradiography associates
nascent RNA with perichromatin fibrils (592).
S. Lerman (US), Thomas Peter Maniatis (US), and John H. Venable, Jr. (US)
studied transitions in individual DNA molecules from an extended structure to a
highly compact structure as seen in the heads of bacteriophage or condensed
chromatin. They concluded that the higher-order structural transition occurs
without a dramatic alteration of the secondary DNA structure, presaging the
same conclusion for the structure of compact DNA in chromatin (1165; 1276).
Douglas Brutlag (US), Randy Wayne Schekman
(US), Arthur J. Kornberg (US), and William Wickner (US) discovered that short
RNA chains are synthesized onto DNA to act as primers during DNA replication (273; 2011).
Kornberg (US) and Malcolm L. Gefter (US) discovered DNA polymerase III (third polymerase recognized) of Escherichia coli (1100).
W. Dean Rupp (US), Charles E. Wilde III (US),
Donna L. Reno (US), and Paul Howard-Flanders (US) showed that replication is
used to repair or bypass DNA damage (1621).
Anne Marie Skalka (US) was the first to
suggest that recombination can be used to complete DNA replication (1741).
Bénédicte Michel (FR), S. Dusko Ehrlich (FR),
and Marilyne Uzest (FR) demonstrated fork breakage by replication arrest in E. coli (1335).
Andreas Luder (US) and Gisela Mosig (US)
detailed the first clear elucidation that phage T4 initiates most of its DNA
replication by a recombinational mechanism (1232).
Formosa (US) and Bruce M. Alberts (US) developed an in vitro DNA
synthesis system that requires seven highly purified proteins encoded by the T4
bacteriophage: the DNA polymerase
"holoenzyme" (four proteins), gene 32 protein, dda DNA helicase, and uvsX protein—an enzyme that catalyzes
homologous DNA pairing and is functionally homologous to the recA protein. In
the reaction observed, the 3'OH end of one single-stranded DNA molecule primes
DNA synthesis using a double-stranded DNA molecule of homologous sequence as
the template. They incorrectly surmised that DNA is synthesized by a
conservative mechanism (639).
Liu (US), Liewei Xu (US), Steven J. Sandler (US), and Kenneth J. Marians (US)
provided key evidence that recombination provides an important pathway for
completing DNA replication in E. coli (1207).
Sophie Maisnier-Patin (SE), Kurt Nordström
(SE), and Santanu Dasgupta (SE) directly measured how often (DnaC-dependent)
replication restart is invoked during E.
coli growth (1259).
Martin R. Singleton (GB), Sarah Scaife (GB),
and Dale B. Wigley (GB) determined the structure of RecG helicase bound to a replication fork-like DNA molecule (1739).
Kleppe (NO-US-GB-NO), Eiji Ohtsuka (JP), Ruth Kleppe (NO), Ian Molineux (US),
and Har Gobind Khorana (IN-US) described a process called repair replication
for synthesizing short DNA duplexes and single-stranded DNA by polymerases.
This report outlined several features that are hallmarks of PCR but fell short
of an experimental test. It predicted, for example, that the DNA duplex would
have to be denatured to single strands, that an excess of primer to template would
be required to overcome secondary structures generated by single-stranded
template and that, following completion of the reaction by DNA polymerase, the
cycle would have to be reinitiated if the template duplex had renatured (1068).
Matsuo (JP), Akira Arimura (US), R.M.G. Nair (US), Andrew Victor Schally
(PL-US) synthesized active porcine luteinizing hormone-releasing factor (LRF)
with the following amino acid sequence: pGlu-His-Trp-Ser-Tyr-Gly-Leu-Arg-Pro-Gly-NH2 (1298).
L. Chapman (US), Michael Roy Engel (US), James P. Springer (US), and Jon C.
Clardy (US) synthesized carpanone, a lignin from the carpano tree (354).
S. Johnson (US), Michael B. Gravestock (US), Brian E. McCarry (US), Ronald J.
Parry (US), and Bruce E. Ratcliffe (US) synthesized progesterone, a hormone
that prepares the lining of the uterus for implantation of the fertilized egg (761; 986).
Fahnestock (US) and Alexander Rich (US) were the first to use the cell’s
protein synthesizing machinery to produce a polypeptide containing a
non-natural residue (588; 589).
Nagarajan (US), LaVerne D. Boeck (US), Marvin Gorman (US), Robert L. Hamill
(US), Calvin E. Higgens (US), Marvin M. Hoehn (US), William M. Stark (US), and
Joel G. Whitney (US) discovered the cephamycin
antibiotics (1383). Note: These antibiotics are produced
by species of Streptomyces.
J. Cohen (US), Irwin Fridovich (US), and Krishnakumar V. Rajagopalan (IN-US)
documented the presence and function of molybdenum in sulfite oxidase and described some aspects of its electron
paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signal (387). Note: In
subsequent papers they discussed the purification and properties of sulfite oxidase from bovine liver and
the nature of its heme prosthetic group.
L. Johnson (US), Bryan E. Hainline (US), and Kasturi V. Rajagopalan (IN-US)
developed a method to isolate the oxidized, inactive form of the molybdenum
cofactor from sulfite oxidase, xanthine oxidase, and nitrate reductase and provided evidence
that a pteridine moiety acts as a structural component of the cofactor (983). The molybdenum
cofactor consists of a complex between molybdenum and a unique pterin, which
they named molybdopterin.
Philip Kramer (US), Jean Luc Johnson (US), Anthony A. Ribeiro (US), David S.
Millington (US), and Kasturi V. Rajagopalan (IN-US) isolated a stable alkylated
derivative of molybdopterin, camMPT, from sulfite
oxidase and xanthine oxidase.
Structural studies on the product confirmed that molybdopterin is a
6-alkylpterin with a 4-carbon side chain, which has an enedithiol at carbons 1'
and 2', a hydroxyl at carbon 3', and a terminal phosphate group (1102).
E. Moore (US) and Paul J. Scheuer (US) were the first to isolate palytoxin (1359).
This substance is produced by certain soft corals of the genus Polythoa and is one of the most toxic
non-peptide substances known.
Uemura (JP), Katsuhiro Ueda (JP), Yoshimasa Hirata (JP), Hideo Naoki (JP),
Takashi Iwashita (JP), Richard E. Moore (US), Giovanni Bartolini (US), Joseph
J. Barchi, Jr. (US), Aksel A. Bothner-By (US), Josef Dadok (CZ-US), and Joseph Ford (US) worked out the
structure of palytoxin (1357; 1358; 1912).
Richard Habermann (DE) found that palytoxin
binds to Na/K pumps to generate nonselective cation channels (797).
N. Meloan (US), Linda S. Valentine (US), and Holde Puchtler (US) established
the structure of carmine and its Ca++ and Al+++ lakes (1326).
Chemical Company introduced the herbicide metribuzin,
a symmetrical triazine, useful in soybeans (Glycine
max), sugar cane (Saccharum
officinarum), and potatoes (Solanum
T. Doumas (US), W. Ard Watson (US), and Homer G. Biggs (US) developed a
bromocresol green assay for serum albumin (508).
Tsuyoshi Ueno (JP), Satoshi Hirayama (JP), Masayuki
Ito (JP), Emiko Nishioka (JP), Yoshifumi Fukushima (JP), Tomoaki Satoh (JP),
Mayumi Idei (JP), Yuki Horiuchi (JP), Hiromichi Shoji (JP), Hirotoshi Ohmura
(JP), Toshiaki Shimizu (JP), and Takashi Miida (JP) offered a modified
bromocresol purple method as superior to the bromocresol green method for
assessing nutritional status in malnourished patients with inflammation (1913).
Barnett Green (US), Ralph O. Erickson (US), and James Buggy (US) examined the
dynamic relationship of plant cell expansion to turgor pressure in the alga Nitella.
Their findings supported the concept of a minimum “yield threshold turgor” for
cell wall extension that is subject to rapid compensatory metabolic adjustments
following changes in turgor pressure, allowing relative constancy of elongation
rate despite changes in cell water status (764).
D. Griffith (US), Joel A. Huberman (US), and Arthur J. Kornberg ((US) produced an
electron photomicrographic image of Escherichia
coli DNA polymerase I bound to
DNA. This was not only the first EM image of DNA bound to a known protein, but
it also showed that electron microscopy had the potential to provide
quantitative information about macromolecular assemblies involving DNA (776).
Avrameas (FR), Brigitte Guilbert (FR), Eva Engvall (SE-US), Peter Perlmann
(SE), Bauke K. van Weeman (NL), and Anton H. W. M. Schuurs (NL) developed the
enzyme immunoassay procedure to quantify antigen and subsequently antibody (74; 75; 572; 573; 1931).
Seabright (GB) developed a rapid banding technique for human chromosomes (1692). Note: The immediate application was
to determine the location of break points in naturally occurring chromosome
rearrangement in patients with congenital defects, and to study the lesions and
patterns of exchange induced by X-irradiation.
Attardi (IT-US), Barbara Attardi (IT-US), Yosef Aloni (US), Donald L. Robberson
(US), Livia Pica-Mattoccia (IT), and Norman Davidson (US) made significant
progress toward understanding the structure of the human mitochondrial genome
and its role in human disease (36; 37; 71; 1497; 1569; 1570).
W. Kebabian (US), Paul Greengard (US) and James A. Nathanson (US) discovered
how dopamine (prolactin-inhibiting hormone) and several other transmitters
exert their action in the nervous system. The transmitter first acts on a
receptor on the cell surface. This will trigger a cascade of reactions that
will affect certain "key proteins" that in turn regulate a variety of
functions in the nerve cell. The proteins become modified as phosphate groups
are added (phosphorylation) or removed (dephosphorylation), which causes a
change in the shape and function of the protein. Through this mechanism the
transmitters can carry their message from one nerve cell to another (767; 1032; 1398).
W. Kebabian (US), Gary L. Petzoid (US), and Paul Greengard (US) produced
results suggesting that dopamine-sensitive adenylate
cyclase may be the receptor for dopamine (prolactin-inhibiting hormone) in
mammalian brain (1033).
Klaus-Joachim Blobel (DE-US), David D. Sabatini (US), and Bernhard Dobberstein
(DE) used data from experiments with in
vivo and in vitro systems to
predict that eukaryotic cells use signals to route proteins across membranes of
the rough endoplasmic reticulum. This concept became part of the signal
hypothesis (also referred to as topogenesis) (182-184).
Milstein (AR-GB), George G. Brownlee (GB), Timothy M. Harrison (GB), Michael B.
Mathews (GB), David Swan (US), Haim Aviv (IL), and Philip Leder (US) were the
first to experimentally support the signal
hypothesis. This was based on their studies of the manufacture and
secretion of antibodies. The signal is a group of amino acid residues at the
end of a nascent polypeptide with affinity for the membrane of the endoplasmic
reticulum (263; 1343; 1833). Note: Günter Klaus-Joachim Blobel
(DE-US) and his colleagues extended this concept to other proteins destined to
be secreted by the cell (see Blobel
Fairbanks (US), Theodore L. Steck (US), and Donald F.H. Wallach (US) were the
first to describe the proteins of erythrocyte ghosts (591).
Spatz (US) and Philipp Strittmatter (US) used detergents to isolate the
complete cytochrome b5 molecule. This
molecule contains an additional sequence of 40 amino acids more than the
version isolated using hydrolytic agents. The additional sequence contains a
predominance of hydrophobic side chains. They concluded that cytochrome b5 in its native form is anchored to the
hydrophobic interior of a membrane (1768).
M. Armstrong (US) provided the first general description of the K+ channel
pore, including the fundamental ideas of a selectivity filter, a wider inner
vestibule and a gate on the inside (63; 64).
U. Lamm (DK), Arne Svejgaard (DK), and Flemming Kissmeyer-Nielsen (DK) assigned
the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region to chromosome 6 (1128).
M. Chiller (US), Gail S. Habicht (US), and William O. Weigle (US) found that
apparently, immune unresponsiveness in only one cell type (either thymus or
bone marrow cells) is sufficient for the tolerant state to be exhibited by the
intact animal (361).
Hiyama (US) and Bacon Ke (US) examined spinach and several cyanobacteria where
they identified pigment 430 as possibly the primary electron acceptor of
photosystem 1 (896).
H. Weiner (US) and Leon A. Heppel (US) showed that E. coli contains a specific binding protein for glutamine uptake,
which they isolated, purified, and characterized. Their data suggested that
this protein plays a role in the active transport of the amino acid across the
bacterial membrane (1996).
Murdoch Mitchison (GB) reported that the gap 1 (G1) and gap 2 (G2) phases of
the eukaryotic cell cycle may vary considerably between organisms and cell
types but the synthesis (S) phase is typically restricted to a small fraction
of the cell cycle (1344).
Rodbell (US), Lutz Birnbaumer (US), Stephen L. Pohl (US), and Hendrik Michiel
Jan Krans (US) were the first to determine that G protein is involved in
transmembrane signaling. They noted that hormonal activation of adenylyl cyclase requires GTP (1579). They also noted that GTP interfers with
detection of hormone (glucagon)
binding to receptors which regulate adenylyl
cyclase activity (1580).
E. Maguire (US), Pamela M. Van Arsdale (US), and Alfred Goodman Gilman (US)
found that guanine nucleotides effected receptor binding for specific agonists
by reducing their affinity for the receptor (1257).
Cassel (DE), Zvi Selinger (DE), and Thomas Pfeuffer (DE) discovered that GTP
protein-linked systems are activated upon binding GTP; hydrolysis of GTP
initiates or is responsible for deactivation; dissociation of GDP is linked
with the rate-limiting step and is controlled by receptor (328-330).
Orly (IL) and Michael Schramm (DE) demonstrated that components of the adenylyl cyclase system could be mixed
and exchanged by cell fusion (1450).
M. Ross (US), Alfred Goodman Gilman (US), Allyn C. Howelett (US), Kenneth M.
Ferguson (US), and Thomas Pfeuffer (DE) reconstituted the adenylyl cyclase system in
vitro (1495; 1597-1599).
K. Northup (US), Paul C. Sternweis (US), Murray D. Smigel (US), Leonard S.
Schleifer (US), Elliott M. Ross (US), and Alfred Goodman Gilman (US) purified G
proteins associated with adenylyl cyclase (1423).
Michael Gill (US), Roberta Meren (US), Dan Cassel (DE), Thomas Pfeuffer (DE),
Joel Moss (US), Martha Vaughn (US), Toshiaki Katada (JP), and Michio Ui (JP)
discovered that cholera toxin and pertussis toxin possess ADP-ribosylate specific
G proteins (328; 703; 1023; 1024; 1368).
G.L. Shorr (US), Robert Joseph Lefkowitz (US), and Marc G. Caron (US) purified
the beta-adrenergic receptor (1727).
Pfeuffer (DE), Bernhard Gaugler (DE), and Heinz Metzger (DE) purified adenylyl cyclase (1496).
Kwok-Keung Fung (US), James B. Hurley (US), and Lubert Stryer (US) discovered
that G proteins are necessary for flow of information in the light-triggered
cyclic nucleotide cascade of vision in the retina (661).
D. Bremel (US), Annemarie Weber (DE-US), and John M. Murray (US) found that ATP
hydrolysis in solutions containing actin
filaments and heavy meromyosin
subfragment (HMMS-1) units will proceed quite well even at low calcium ion
levels, provided that the ATP level is also sufficiently low for rigor
complexes to form. They found that the formation of rigor complexes could
increase the affinity of troponin for calcium ions and that at high calcium ion
levels, when actin filaments should
be in the on state, the rate of ATP
hydrolysis increased, provided the ATP level was low, to give what was called
the potentiated state. This was found to be due to an increase in the rate of
binding of subfragment-1 to actin.
They found that potentiation by active complexes (i.e., force-producing) at
high ATP levels was also observed provided the concentration of subfragment-1
in solution was abnormally high (226-229; 1513; 1988).
Kundig (US) and Saul Roseman (US) isolated a phosphotransferase system from Escherichia
coli. It catalyzed the transfer of phosphate from phosphoenolpyruvate to
sugars of the D-gluco, and D-manno configurations, yielding pyruvate and the
corresponding sugar 6-phosphate esters. This mechanism provides a way of
concentrating sugars as their phosphates, against a gradient. Some of the
components of this system are membrane associated while others are cytoplasmic (1112; 1113).
D. Collins (US) and George R. Stark (US) synthesized a transition state
analogue for the reaction catalyzed by aspartate
transcarbamylase. The resulting analogue, N-phosphonacetyl-L-aspartate
(PALA), combined most of the structural features of the two natural substrates,
carbamyl phosphate and L-aspartate. They found that PALA was a very specific
inhibitor of aspartate transcarbamylase
at nanomolar concentrations and that it put the enzyme into a conformation
closely resembling that associated with binding the transition state (399).
F. Coleman (US), D. Parker Suttle (US), and George R. Stark (US) purified
mammalian aspartate transcarbamylase
and discovered that it is one of three enzymes covalently linked in a single
giant polypeptide, CAD, that also includes carbamyl
phosphate synthetase and dihydro-orotase,
two enzymes in the de novo pyrimidine
M. Wahl (US), Richard A. Padgett (US), and George R. Stark (US) investigated
the cause of CAD overproduction in PALA-resistant cells. They found that all
the mutant cell lines had increased levels of CAD mRNA. The increase in mRNA
was found to be due to an increase in the number of CAD genes in the mutants.
This was some of the earliest evidence for gene amplification in mammalian
Thomas Ferenci (AU) and Hans Leo Kornberg
(GB-US) were able to elucidate the main routes whereby
E. coli utilizes fructose as a sole carbon source for growth (606-608).
Abercrombie (GB), Joan E.M. Heaysman (GB), and Sue M. Pegram (GB) were the
first to identify focal adhesions. They observed them in electron microscopic
studies of cultured fibroblasts. Many cells grown in cell culture adhere
tightly to the underlying substrate through discrete regions of the plasma
membrane, referred to as adhesion plaques, focal contacts, or focal adhesions (12).
E. Summers (US) and Ian R. Gibbons (US) present evidence supporting the
hypothesis that the propagated bending waves of live-sperm tails are the result
of ATP-induced shearing forces between outer tubules which, when resisted by
the native structure, lead to localized sliding and generate an active bending
William Dutton (US), Reuben J.M. Falkoff (US), John A. Hirst (US), Michael
Hoffmann (US), John W. Kappler (US), Jack R. Kettman (US), Jayne F. Lesley
(US), and Douglas C. Vann (US) were the first to propose that soluble products
released from T cells might mediate helper functions of T cells (521). Anneliese Schimpl
(DE) and Eberhard Wecker (DE) confirmed this (1667).
Götze (DE) and Hans Joachim Müller-Eberhard (DE-US-DE) described the
C3-activator system: an alternate pathway of complement activation (748).
C. Allison (GB), A. Michael Denman (GB) and Roxann D. Barnes (GB) suggested
that thymus-derived lymphocytes play two roles in preventing autoimmunity.
T-lymphocytes, but not B- lymphocytes, are unresponsive to autoantigens. Ways
in which the requirement for autoreactive T- lymphocytes can be bypassed are
discussed. These result in stimulation of B- lymphocytes to secrete
autoantibodies. Suppressor T-lymphocytes can also inhibit autoimmune reactions (32).
Hoffmann (US) and Richard W. Dutton (US) found that depression of the in vitro immune response of mouse spleen
cell suspensions to sheep erythrocytes by removal of macrophages could be
reversed by the addition of supernatant fractions from peritoneal macrophage
cultures. The red cell antigen can absorb supernatant fraction activity, and
supernatant fraction-treated red cells are stimulatory in the absence of
macrophages or supernatant fraction (904).
J. Ryrie (US) and André Tridon Jagendorf (US) observed changes in the
conformation of the CF1 unit of chloroplasts when the chloroplasts
were illuminated or when the pH of the medium was changed from acidic to basic,
creating a momentary pH gradient (1629).
Kelly (US) reported the first successful in
vitro cultivation of a spirochete. He grew Borrelia hermsi in a complex organic medium under microaerophilic
S. Bretscher (GB) pioneered work that established the overall organization and
asymmetry of the erythrocyte polypeptides. He showed that most of the membrane
proteins, including the most prevalent protein, spectrin, are associated with the cytoplasmic surface of the
membrane. It was also recognized that spectrin
is involved in maintenance of erythrocyte shape. Bretscher developed an
important way of labeling cell membranes with nonpenetrating molecules such
that the inside of the membrane could be distinguished from the outside (233-240).
E. Gordesky (US) and Guido V. Marinetti (US) demonstrated that nearly all phosphatidylserine
and a minimum of seventy percent of phosphatidylethanolamine is on the inside
surface of the human erythrocyte membrane, thus suggesting an asymmetric
arrangement of membrane phospholipids (739).
A. Fisher (US) demonstrated that cholesterol in human erythrocytes is
asymmetrically distributed across the plane of the cell membrane, being more
prominent on the exterior side than on the interior side (629).
Lamb Nicolson (US), Serafeim P. Masouredis (US), Robert Hyman (US), Vincent T.
Marchesi (US), and Seymour Jonathan Singer (US) demonstrated that the
distribution of membrane proteins is asymmetric. They were the first to suggest
that there is likely to be an interrelation between protein array and membrane
function in cells with a variable distribution of proteins (1413-1416).
Harden Marsden McConnell (US), Roger David
Kornberg (US), Phillipe F. Devaux (FR), Mark G. McNamee (US), Kenneth L. Wright
(US), and Betty Gaffney McFarland (US) used electron spin-resonance
spectroscopy to show that lipid molecules move laterally and flip-flop within
cell membranes (489; 1098; 1306-1308; 1320).
F.A. Zwaal (NL), Ben Roelofsen (NL), Paul Comfurius (NL), and Laurens L.M. van
Deenen (NL) demonstrated an asymmetric phospholipid distribution in red cell
membranes from humans (2103).
Baltimore (US) defined all viral mRNAs as plus
strand RNAs. In this same publication Baltimore presented what is now
called the Baltimore classification, a classification scheme that groups
viruses into families, depending on their type of genome (DNA, RNA,
single-stranded (ss), double-stranded (ds), etc.) and their method of
M. Baer (US), Melvin K. Abelseth (US), John G. Debbie (US), William G. Winkler
(US), Robert G. McLean (US), and James C. Cowart (US) developed the concept,
strategy, and programs for oral vaccination of wildlife against rabies (83; 473; 2029-2031).
I. Payne (GB) and Tristan A. Dyer (GB) isolated 5.8S ribosomal RNA (5.8S rRNA)
from plant tissue (1476).
Tiollais (FR), Francis Galibert (FR), and Michel Boiron (FR) discovered 45S
ribosomal RNA (45SrRNA), also called hnRNA (1883).
A. Hadjiolov (BG), Georgui I. Milchev (BG) and others found that the 45S rRNA
is cleaved into 18S, 28S, and 5.8S rRNAs (798).
Sprent (AU), Jacques F. A. P. Miller (AU), and Graham F. Mitchell (AU)
described a methodology for selectively collecting thoracic duct lymphocytes
induced by a specific antigen (1771).
W. Craig (US) and John J. Cebra (US) found that Peyer's patches are a highly
enriched source of cells which have the potential to proliferate and
differentiate into IgA-producing immunocytes and that the Peyer's patch cells
are far more efficient in seeding the gut of irradiated recipient rabbits with
donor cells that give rise to immunoglobulin-producing cells than cells from
peripheral blood or popliteal lymph nodes (424).
L. Padgett (US), Gabriele M. Zurhein (US), Duard L. Walker (US), Robert J.
Eckroade (US), and Bert H. Dessel (US) cultivated a papova-like virus from the brain
of a case of progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy (P.M.L.)
complicating Hodgkin's disease. The virus was isolated by inoculation of
primary cultures of human fetal glial (P.H.F.G.) cells with extracts made from
brain obtained at necropsy. Electron-microscopic examination of sections of
brain and of infected P.H.F.G. cultures revealed cells with nuclei containing
virions, often in crystalline array, which are similar in size to members of
the polyoma-SV40 subgroup of papovaviruses (1459). Note: This
virus is also called PC virus
E. Carey (US), Rachel Reuben (US), K.N. Panicker (), Robert Ellis Shope (US),
and Richard M. Myers (US) discovered Thottopalayam thottimvirus, formerly
Thottapalayam virus (TMPV), in India where it is part of a group of
hantaviruses which are hosted by shrews instead of rodents (315). Note:
Thottimviruses are not known to cause any disease in humans.
Max Luciano Birnstiel (CH), Margaret I.H.
Chipchase (US), Jim Speirs (US), Donald D. Brown (US), John Bertrand Gurdon
(GB), and Kazunori Sugimoto (US) were the first to isolate and purify the genes
coding for ribosomal RNAs (18S, 28S, and 5S) (167; 252; 253).
J. Danna (US), Daniel Nathans (US), Ching-Juh Lai (US), George H. Sack, Jr.
(US), Stuart P. Adler (US), George Khoury (US), Malcolm A. Martin (US), Theresa
N.H. Lee (US), and Hamilton Othanel (US) used restriction endonucleases in the
analysis and restructuring of DNA molecules. They used HindII to cut the purified DNA of simian virus 40 and separated the
resulting restriction fragments by size using agarose gel electrophoresis. The
order of the fragments was deduced (and corresponding restriction sites) in the
5000-nucleotide circular chromosome, creating a restriction map. In the 1972
paper they established that replication of SV40 DNA is bidirectional and proceeds
symmetrically (21; 448-450; 1044; 1124; 1397). Note: These papers ushered in a new
era in genetics.
Oshima (JP) and Isamu Takano (JP), from genetic mapping data, predicted the
physical arrangement of the yeast mating-type genes on a chromosome in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (1455).
James B. Hicks (US), Ira Herskowitz (US), Amar
J.S. Klar (US), Seymour Fogel (US), and David N. Radin (US) found that the two
mating types of the yeast Saccharomyces
cerevisiae could be interconverted in both homothallic and heterothallic
strains. A defective alpha mating
type locus can be converted to a functional a locus and subsequently to a functional alpha locus (873; 1065). Note: This
has been called the "Cassette Model."
N. Strathern (US), James B. Hicks (US), and Ira Herskowitz (US) discovered that
mating type switching during the haploid phase of the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae is controlled
by three adjacent gene loci on chromosome 3. These loci determine whether the
cell is one of two mating types, a
or alpha. A gene designated MAT is flanked on one side by a silent copy of a, and on the other side by a silent
copy of alpha. If the a gene is duplicated, then inserted at
the MAT locus the resulting cell is
mating type a. If the alpha gene is duplicated then inserted
at the MAT locus the resulting cell
is mating type alpha (1809).
N. Strathern (US), Amar J.S. Klar (), James B. Hicks (US), Judith A. Abraham
(US), John M. Ivy (US), Kim A. Nasmyth (GB), and Carolyn McGill (US) worked out
many of the details of homothallic switching of yeast mating types in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (1810).
Bender (US) and George F. Sprague, Jr. (US) determined that the alpha 1 product
of the yeast alpha mating-type locus binds to homologous sequences within
the control regions of the three-known alpha-specific genes and there acts a
transcription activator (124).
A. Keleher (US), Michael J. Redd (US), Janet Schultz (US), Marlan Carlson (US),
and Alexander D. Johnson (US) found that Ssn6-Tup 1 proteins are a general
repressor of transcription, which influences many genes thereby resulting in a
pleiotropic effect. Part of this effect involves alpha 2-mediated repression
resulting in the a-specific STE phenotype (1035).
J. Konopka (US) discovered the Period gene, which he found to be involved in
the circadian clock of Drosophila (1090). See, de Marian1729
Reddy (US), William A. Zehring (US), David A. Wheeler (US), Ronald J. Konopka
(US), Charalambos P. Kyriacou (GB), Vincent Pirrotta (US), Christopher Hadfield
(US), Thaddeus A. Bargiello (US), F. Rob Jackson (US), Michael Warren Young
(US) Jeffrey Connor Hall (US), and Michael Morris Rosbash (US) cloned Period,
the first Drosophila clock gene and investigated the
relationship of genes in the restoration of circidian rhythms (94; 95; 1547; 2088).
E. Hardin (US), Jeffrey Connor Hall (US), and Michael Morris Rosbash (US)
discovered that period mRNA and its associated protein (PER) had fluctuating
levels during the circadian cycle. They proposed a Transcription Translation
Negative Feedback Loop (TTFL) model as the basis of the circadian clock.
Rosbash, Hall, and Hardin hypothesized that PER protein is involved in a
negative feedback loop that controls per mRNA levels, and that this
transcription-translation feedback loop is a central feature of the Drosophila
circadian clock (816; 817).
Amita Sehgal (US), Adrian
Rothenfluh-Hilfiker (US), Melissa Hunter-Ensor (US), Yifeng Chen (US), Michael
Myers (US), and Michael Warren Young (US) found strong functional connections
between the timeless gene (tim) and the period gene (per). Tim mutants
interfered with per mRNA cycling. After finding strong functional
connections between TIM and PER
they concluded that per and tim worked together (1697).
Lino Saez (US) and Michael Warren
Young (US) saw that PER and TIM associate with each other to stabilize each
other and to allow their nuclear accumulation (1635).
P. Myers (US), Karen Wager-Smith (US), Adrian Rothenfluh-Hilfiker (US), Michael
Warren Young (US), Choogon Lee (US), Vaishali Parikh (US), Tomoko
Itsukaichi (US), Kiho Bae (US), and Isaac Edery (US) revealed that light causes the
rapid degradation of TIM and resets of the phase of the circadian rhythm (1152; 1378).
Price (US) Justin Blau (US), Adrian Rothenfluh (US), Marla Abodeely (US), Brian
Kloss (US), and Michael Warren Young (US) discovered a kinase called "doubletime"
(casein kinase 1) that phosphorylates
PER on certain serine residues. This signal marks it for degradation.
When PER and TIM are bound, "doubletime" does not seem to be able
to phosphorylate PER, allowing it to accumulate (1523).
L. Toh (US), Christopher R. Jones (US), Yan He (US), Erik J. Eide (US), William
A. Hinz (US), David M. Virshup (US), Louis J. Ptacek (US), and Ying-Hui Fu (US)
discovered a form of Familial Advanced
Sleep Phase Syndrome (FASPS) in humans, which is linked to an hPer2
polymorphism that removes a serine normally phosphorylated by casein kinase 1 (1889).
John O´Keefe (US-GB) and Jonathan O. Dostrovsky (CA)
discovered neurons called "place cells," which fire only when a rat
moves to a specific spot in an enclosure (1435; 1436).
Vegard H. Brun (NO), Mona K. Otnæss
(NO), Sturla Molden (NO), Hill-Aina Steffenach (NO), Menno P.
Witter (NL), May-Britt Moser (NO), Edvard Ingjald Moser (NO), Marianne
Fyhn (NO), Stefan Leutgeb (NO), Jill K. Leutgeb (NO), Alessandro Treves
(IT), Carol A. Barnes (US), Bruce L. McNaughton (US), Torkel Hafting (NO), and
Francesca Sargolini (NO) discovered "grid
cells" that fire at regularly spaced intervals as animals roam, forming a
navigational grid in the brain (268; 668; 799; 1169; 1170; 1652).
Julian Tudor Hart (GB) proposed the inverse
care law which states: The availability of good medical care tends to vary
inversely with the need for it in the population served. This inverse care law
operates more completely where medical care is most exposed to market forces,
and less so where such exposure is reduced. The market distribution of medical
care is a primitive and historically outdated social form, and any return to it
would further exaggerate the maldistribution of medical resources (827). Note:
Its conclusions are valid today.
Barry Pierce, Jr. (US) and Carol Wallace (US) demonstrated with squamous cell
carcinomas that some cells within a tumor can differentiate into benign cells
incapable of forming a tumor when transplanted. This finding supported the idea
of a cancer stem cell (1498).
Harris (AU-GB) observed that normal mouse cells are dominant
to malignant cells when the two types are fused in the laboratory. This work cast
doubt on the theory that (dominant) oncogenes
are the general rule (824).
David Comings (US) articulated a general
framework for a role of tumor suppressor genes in all types of cancer:
inherited tumors, he argued, are the result of a germ line mutation in
regulatory genes that suppresses tumor genesis, followed by the somatic loss of
the homologous allele. In non-heritable cancers, both alleles are affected in
somatic cells (403).
Francke (US) showed that cells of retinoblastomas
typically contained abnormalities involving chromosome 13 (641). Later Jorge J. Yunis (US), and Nora Ramsay
(US) refined the location as a deletion in the long arm of chromosome 13 (2085).
Coulondre (FR), Jeffrey H. Miller (US), Philip J. Farabaugh (US), and Walter
Gilbert (US) identified 5-methylcytosine as a mutational hotspot in Escherichia coli (421).
D. Riggs (US) and Peter A. Jones (US) reported that in mammalian DNA most if
not all 5-methylcytosine bases are found in the dinucleotide sequence CpG (1565).
Webster K. Cavenee (US), Thaddeus P. Dryja
(US), Robert Allan Phillips (CA), William F. Benedict (US), Roseline Godbout
(US), Brenda L. Gallie (CA), A. Linn Murphree (US), Louis C. Strong (US),
Raymond L. White (US), Marc F. Hansen (US), Magnus Nordenskjold (SE), Erik Kock
(SE), Irene H. Maumenee (US), and Jeremy A. Squire (CA) localized the retinoblastoma gene (RB; also known as RB1) to a small region on
chromosome 13 in man; they found that
tumor genesis may result from the development of homozygosity for the mutant
allele at the Rb-1 locus (334; 335).
Y. Sakaguchi (US), Peter A. Lalley (US), and Susan L. Naylor (US) found that a
rearrangement of human c-myc (cellular myelocytomatosis) gene was observed in Burkitt's lymphoma
cells possessing the t (8;14) translocation suggesting that human c-myc is
located close to the breakpoint on chromosome 8 (q24) involved in the t (8;14)
translocation. The mouse c-myc gene segregated concordantly with chromosome 15
in mouse-Chinese hamster cell hybrids. These gene assignments are noteworthy,
as structural and numerical abnormalities of human chromosome 8 and mouse
chromosome 15 are frequently associated with B-cell neoplasms (1638).
P. Feinberg (US) and Bert Vogelstein (US) compared gene methylation in DNA from
primary human tumor tissues with DNA from
adjacent normal cells. They found lowered DNA methylation in the tumor tissue
H. Friend (US), Rene Bernards (US), Snezna Rogelj (US), Robert Allan Weinberg
(US), Joyce M. Rapaport (US), Daniel M. Albert (US), and Thaddeus P. Dryja (US) isolated
a human cDNA that mapped to the RB region and, importantly, was deleted at
least partly in tumors. They were thus the first to discover a human tumor
suppressor gene—retinoblastoma (654).
Lee (US), Robert Bookstein (US), Frank Hong (US), Lih-Jiuan Young (US), Jin-Yuh
Shew (TW-US), and Eva Y. Lee (US) found a fundamentally different type of
oncogene associated with a rare childhood tumor, retinoblastoma. In this cancer, malignancy results from the absence
of a functional copy of the retinoblastoma
(Rb) gene, which is therefore said to
be recessive acting. Rb is an anti-oncogene, because its
presence (even in a single copy) inhibits formation of this cancer (1158).
Wen-Hwa Lee (US), Robert Bookstein (US),
Frank Hong (US), Lih-Jiuan Young (US), Jin-Yuh Shew (TW), Eva Y. H. P. Lee (US),
Yuen-Kai T. Fung (US), A. Linn Murphree (US), Anne T'Ang (US), Jin Qian (US),
Steven H. Hinrichs (US), and William F. Benedict (US) cloned RB by chromosome walking their way to
a cDNA fragment that hybridized to transcripts in normal tissue, but was
aberrantly expressed or deleted in retinoblastomas.
This pointed to the inactivation of RB as being causative for cancer (662; 1159).
Huei-Jen Su Huang (US),
Jing-Kuan Yee (US), Jin-Yuh Shew (US), Phang-Lang Chen (US), Robert Bookstein
(US), Theodore Friedmann (US), Eva Y.H.P. Lee (US), and Wen-Hwa Lee (US) confirmed this by rescuing the neoplastic
phenotype of RB-mutant retinoblastoma
cells with wild-type RB (923).
A. DeCaprio (US), John W. Ludlow (US), James Figge (US), Jin-Yuh Shew (TW),
Chun-Ming Huang (US), Wen-Hwa Lee (US), Erika Marsilio (US), Eva Paucha (US),
David M. Livingston (US), Peter Whyte (US), Karen J. Buchkovich (US), Jonathan
M. Horowitz (US), Stephen H. Friend (US), Margaret Raybuck (US), Robert Allan
Weinberg (US), Edward Harlow (US), Nicholas John Dyson (US), Peter M. Howley
(US), and Karl Munger (US) found that the viral oncoproteins: E1A of
adenovirus, large tumor (T) antigen of SV40, and E7 of papillomavirus bind to retinoblastoma protein (a tumor
suppressor). This provided the first evidence of a physical link between
oncoproteins and tumor suppressors (475; 525; 2010).
Greger (DE), Eberhard Passarge (DE), Wolfgang Höpping (DE), Elmar Messmer (DE),
and Bernhard Horsthemke (DE) showed
that an unmethylated CpG island at the 5' end of the retinoblastoma gene becomes hypermethylated in tumors from retinoblastoma patients, leading the
authors to speculate that methylation could contribute directly to the
silencing of tumor suppressors (768).
James A. DeCaprio (US), John W. Ludlow (US),
Dennis Lynch (US), Yusuke Furukawa (US), James Griffin (US), Helen
Piwnica-Worms (US), Chun-Ming Huang (US), David M. Livingston (US), Karen
Buchkovich (US), Linda A. Duffy (US), and Ed Harlow (US) found that the
product of the retinoblastoma
susceptibility gene, retinoblastoma protein (RB), has properties of a
cell cycle regulatory element (277; 476).
They reported, separately, that SV40 T
antigen, which can drive G1-arrested cells into the cell cycle, only binds
unphosphorylated RB — the first indication that this is the growth-suppressive
form of RB. Therefore, they surmised that unphosphorylated RB acts to block
exit from G1.
Note: Disruption of the pRb pathway liberates
E2Fs and thus allows cell proliferation, rendering cells insensitive to
antigrowth factors that normally operate along this pathway to block advance
through the G1 phase of the cell cycle. The effects of the soluble signaling
(transforming growth factor beta) are the best documented. TGFß prevents the
phosphorylation that inactivates pRb; in this fashion, TGFß blocks advance
A. Pietenpol (US), Roland W. Stein (US) (US), Elizabeth Moran (US), Peter
Yaciuk (US), Richard Schlegel (US), Russette M. Lyons (US), Mark R. Pittelkow
(US), Karl Münger (US), Peter M. Howley (US), and Harold L. Moses (US)
reported that in some cell types, transforming growth factor beta (TGFß)
suppresses expression of the c-myc (cellular myelocytomatosis) gene, which
regulates the G1 cell cycle machinery (1502). Note: Malfunctions in the c-Myc gene have also been found in
carcinoma of the cervix, colon, breast, lung and stomach.
A. Jones (US), William M. Rideout, III (US), Jiang-Cheng Shen (US), Charles H.
Spruck, III (US), and Yvonne C. Tsai (US) found 5-methylcytosine to be a source
of genetic mutation in tumors (992). These
findings implied that altered DNA methylation could underlie oncogene
M. Fynan (US) and Michael Reiss (US) discovered that the pRb signaling circuit,
as governed by TGFß and other extrinsic factors, can be disrupted in a variety
of ways in different types of human tumors (669).
J. Hannon (US), David Beach (US), Michael B. Datto (US), Patrick Pei-Chih Hu
(US), Timothy F. Kowalik (US), Jonathan Yingling (US), and Xiao-Fan Wang (US)
reported that TGFß causes synthesis of p15INK4B and p21 proteins, which block
the cyclin: CDK complexes responsible for pRb phosphorylation (452; 814).
W. Laird (US), Laurie Jackson-Grusby (US), Amin Fazeli (US), Stephanie L. Dickinson
(US), W. Edward Jung (US), En Li (US), Robert Allan Weinberg (US), and Rudolf
Jaenisch (US) provided evidence linking DNA hypermethylation
with cancer formation. Mice with the 'Min'
mutation in the adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc)
gene develop intestinal polyps early in life. They reduced DNA methylation in Min mice, which led to a decreased
number of polyps in the animals, lending support to the idea that
tumor-suppressor genes are hypermethylated and silenced in cancer and can be
reactivated by inhibiting DNA methylation (1125).
Hatakeyama (JP) and Robert Allan Weinberg (US) related that the retinoblastoma protein (pRb) is an
inhibitor of cell cycle progression from the G1 to the S phase of the cell
cycle. It acts through its ability to interact with cellular target molecules
such as the E2F transcription factors. Recent evidence indicates that pRB
inactivation is a key molecular event leading to the S-phase commitment at the
G1 restriction point in the cell cycle. Deregulated inactivation of pRB in G1
phase may be a universal mechanism underlying cellular transformation (829).
R. Merril (US), Mark R. Geier (US), and John C. Petricciani (US) were the first
to stably incorporate genes from bacterial viruses into mammalian cells and
have them expressed (1331).
D. Gardner (US), Anne M. Field (US), Dulcie V. Coleman (US), and Bill Hulme
(US) isolated the BK virus from the urine of a renal transplant patient (679). It is thought that up to 80% of the population contains a latent
form of this virus, which remains latent until the body undergoes some form of
immunosuppression. Note: later this virus would be classified as a
L. Padgett (US), Gabriel M. ZuRhein (US), Duard L. Walker (US), Robert J.
Eckroade (US), and Bert H. Dessel (US) isolated the polyomavirus JC responsible
for progressive multifocal
leukoencephalopathy (PML) (1459).
Geoffrey Achong (TT-GB), Peter W. Mansell (US), and Michael Anthony Epstein (GB)
discovered a new human virus in cultures from a nasopharyngeal carcinoma (16). Note: This
virus was later named simian foamy virus.
C. Hinkle (US) and Lawrence L. Horstman (US) took isolated mitochondrial inner
membranes and created some vesicles with the F0F1 ATPase facing inward and some with F0F1 ATPase facing
outward. Protons were pumped in only one direction, depending on the direction
in which the F0F1
ATPase faced (889).
B. Amos (GB) discovered two types of Ca++ binding contractile fibers in the
stalks of Vorticella; these proteins
are collectively called spasmin (50).
Febvre (FR) found these nanofilaments in the contractile organelles of the
myonemes in acantharia (598). Note: Since then, these
nanofilaments have been found to be the major constituents of the paraflagellar
rod (PFR) in euglena, trypanosomes and dinoflagellates. They are also found in
the rootlets of flagella and cilia in all eucaryotes studied so far and in
mammalian cells. In the latter, they are associated with the centrosomes, which
may suggest a crucial role in mitosis.
Lung T. Yam (US), Chin Yang Li (US), and William H.
Crosby (US) developed several cytochemical methods to identify the monocytes
and the granulocytes. These methods are simple, sensitive, easily reproducible,
and can be used either singly or in combination. They may be used as objective
means for accurate identification of the human blood cells (2063).
Judith L. Vaitukaitis (US), John B. Robbins (US),
Eberhard Nieschlag (DE), and Griff T. Ross (US) developed a method for
generating antisera with small doses of immunogen. With this technique, 100 ug
or less of immunogen induced specific antibody production in rabbits injected
intradermally. Moreover, animals injected with a single dose of the immunogen
continued to produce antisera for several months in response to the single
immunizing dose (1920).
Thomas Puck (US), Paul Wuthier (US), Carol Jones (US) and Fa-ten Kao (US)
introduced the technique of selectively killing cells by using antisera
directed against specific cellular surface markers. This simultaneously
selected against the chromosome, which likely coded for the marker (1528).
J. Carew (US), Eric Richard Kandel (US), Vincent F. Castellucci (CA), Harold M.
Pinsker (US), and Wayne A. Hening (US), using the sea slug Aplysia as their subject, determined that learning seemed to change
the nature of synapses between sensory and motor neurons. When the slug is
sensitized to a stimulus the synapse is strengthened; when the slug habituates
to a false alarm the synapse weakens (314; 1503).
Richard Kandel (US), Marcello Brunelli (IT), Jack Byrne (US), and Vincent F.
Castellucci (CA) found that cyclic AMP plays an important role in strengthening
or weakening the synapse (1009).
M. Schacher (US), Vincent F. Castellucci (CA), and Eric Richard Kandel (US)
determined that the actions of cyclic AMP included the activation of cyclic-AMP
response elements (CREBs) (1660). Note: Animals, which lack this
activated form of CREB, can still remember things, but cannot remember them for
more than an hour or so.
Hugh Ruddle (US), Verne M. Chapman (US), Florence C. Ricciuti (US), Mary J.
Murnane (US), Robert J. Klebe (US), and P. Meera Kahn (NL) established the
genetic linkage relationships of seventeen enzymes of humans (1616).
Duff (US) and Fred Rapp (US) showed that Herpes
simplex virus types 1 and 2 are capable of inducing host cell
transformation in vitro (515; 516).
W. Webb (US) estimated metabolic power input, mechanical power output, and
overall efficiency of swimming rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Webb’s efficiency data were significant as
they represented the first realistic values obtained using estimates of
mechanical power output derived from a swimming fish. Overall efficiency
approached 15% at the upper end of the sustainable speed range (1987).
Harumi Yen (US) and A. Ralph Barr (US), Jeffrey L. Dean (US), and Stephen L.
Dobson (US) found substantial numbers of rickettsia-like microbes (Wolbachia type)
in adults, eggs and embryos of mosquitoes. Mating compatibility of mosquito
strains seems to be correlated with the strain of the microbe present.
Mosquitoes that carry different strains of the microbe exhibit cytoplasmic
incompatibility; those that carry the same strain of microbe are interfertile (472; 2071).
Yate Stanier (CA) commenting on the blue-green algae said, “these organisms are
not algae; their taxonomic association with eukaryotic groups is an
anachronism…Blue-green algae can now be recognized as a major group of
Henry Hepting (US) wrote, Diseases of
Forest and Shade Trees in the United States, the most comprehensive text on
these topics (861).
S. Payne (US) found: 1) that barn owls (Tyto
alba) can locate prey in total darkness using only the sense of hearing,
with an error of less than 1° in both the vertical and horizontal planes, 2)
that differences between the behavior of barn owls flying at prey in complete
darkness (analyzed from films taken under infrared illumination) and their
behavior in the light are correlated with the problems they must face in
acoustic orientation, 3) that experiments with owls trained to strike a
concealed loudspeaker show that they depend on frequencies of sound above 5
kHz, 4) that measurements of sound pressure in the region of the owl's eardrum,
made with a probe-tube microphone while moving a loudspeaker around the owl's
head, reveal that for frequencies above 8-5 kHz the ear is highly directional.
At such frequencies, regions of high sensitivity (tightly isolated by
peripheral regions of low sensitivity) are directed along different neuronal
paths for the two ears, 5) that these regions of good sensitivity are
correlated with the asymmetry of the barn owl's external ears, and 6) that
movements of a flap of skin in front of the ear opening changes the overall
directional sensitivity patterns by redirecting the regions of maximum sensitivity.
posited a theory to explain how a barn owl might locate the position of a sound
source by moving its head until the intensity of all frequencies comprising a
complex sound is brought to a maximum in both ears (aided perhaps by
differences in inter-aural time delay that are enhanced by intensity
Lee Metcalf (US), Gurcharan
K. Sangha (US), and Inder P. Kapoor (US) developed a model ecosystem for the
evaluation of pesticide biodegradability and ecological magnification (1334).
G. Giannelli (GB) showed that the defect in DNA repair exhibited by Xeroderma pigmentosum cells could be
corrected when they were fused with normal fibroblasts (691).
Medoff (US), Megan Comfort (US), and Genki S. Kobayashi (US) observed for the
first time a synergistic effect of flucytosine (5FC) with amphotericin B (Amph
B) in vitro. At the same time the
monotherapy with 5FC caused in clinical trials a significant increase of
resistant mutants (1323). Note: From
these finding of additive effects in
vitro, over sophisticated animal models to clinical trials. Combination
therapy of 5FC plus Amph B became the gold standard for the acute phase of cryptococcal meningitis and was also
used for other opportunistic fungal diseases in severely immunosuppressed patients.
E. Storrs (US), Waldemar F. Kirchheimer (US) and Chapman H. Binford (US)
attempted to establish the nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus Linn.) as a model for the study of leprosy.
They reported that 18-24 hours following inoculation the animals developed a
systemic infection like lepromatous leprosy in humans (1060; 1061; 1805).
M. Giles (GB), John D. Crossland (GB), W.K. Haggas (GB), George H. Longster
(GB) discovered the Rh 33 blood group antigen (701).
M. Brenner (US), Julia L. Troy (US), and Terrance M. Daugharty (US) calculated
the net driving force for renal ultrafiltration in rats. The average value of
14 cm H2O is lower by some two-thirds than the majority of estimates
reported previously based on indirect techniques. Single nephron GFR
(glomerular filtration rate) was also measured, thereby permitting calculation
of the glomerular capillary ultrafiltration coefficient. The average value of
0.044 nl sec−1 cm H2O−1 glomerulus−1 is
at least fourfold greater than previous estimates derived from indirect
Krugman (US), Joan P. Giles (US), and Jack Hammond (US) produced the first
vaccine to hepatitis B virus by extracting proteins from the virus, diluting
them in water, and inactivating them by heat (1108).
Olaf Bang (DK), Jörn Dyerberg (DK), and Aase Brøndum Nielsen (DK) examined the
plasma-lipid pattern in 130 Eskimos (69 females, 61 males)—hunters and/or
fishermen, and their wives—in the northern part of the west coast of Greenland
and consuming a predominantly meat diet rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids.
Most types of lipid were decreased, compared with Danish controls and Eskimos
living in Denmark. The most remarkable finding was much lower levels of
pre-β-lipoprotein and consequently of plasma-triglycerides in Greenlandic
Eskimos than in Danish controls. These findings may explain the very low
incidence of ischemic heart disease and the complete absence of diabetes
mellitus in Greenlandic Eskimos (93).
Patrick Montrose Smythe (ZA), G.G. Brereton-Stiles
(ZA), H.J. Grace (ZA), A. Mafoyane (ZA), Mary Schonland (ZA), Hoosen Mahomed
Coovadia (ZA), Walter E.K. Loening (ZA), M.A. Parent (ZA), and G.H. Vos (ZA)
performed investigations of the thymolymphatic system and cell mediated
immunity in children with protein-calorie-malnutrition
(PCM) that showed a decrease in: tonsil size, chemical sensitization of the
skin, rate of lymphocyte transformation, the hemolytic serum complement, and
thymic and peripheral lymphoid tissue. Lymphopenia below 2,500 prognosed death.
In measles less than half had a rash and a giant-celled pneumonia
was common (1754).
L. Bonkowsky (US), Donald P. Tschudy (US), Annie Collins (US), Joyce M. Doherty
(US), Irene C. Bossenmaier (US), Ruth Cardinal (US), Cecil James Watson (US),
G. Jeelani Dhar (US), Zbyslaw J. Petryka (US), and Claus A. Pierach (US)
discovered that acute porphyric attacks can be successfully treated by
the infusion of hematin. They recognized that these attacks are associated with
severe heme depletion in the liver (195; 1981; 1982).
Louis Gluck (US), Maria V. Kulovich (US), Robert C. Borer, Jr. (US),
Paul H. Brenner (US), Gerald G. Anderson (US), and William N. Spellancy (US) in
studies on 302 amniocenteses showed that changes in phospholipids
in amniotic fluid (PLAF) reflect those in the l