A Selected Chronological Bibliography of Biology and Medicine


Part 2B


1858— 1884



Compiled by James Southworth Steen, Ph.D.

Delta State University


Dedicated to my loving family


This document celebrates those secondary authors and laboratory technicians without whom most of this great labor of discovery would have proved impossible.


Please forward any editorial comments to: James S. Steen, Ph.D., Professor Emeritus, jsteen08@bellsouth.net



Stanislao Cannizzaro (IT) demonstrated the validity of Avogadro's number (265).


Friedrich August Kekulé (DE) was the first to suggest that carbon is tetravalent, with the ability to bond with up to three other elements and possessing the ability to bond with one, two, three, or even four other carbon atoms. Kekulé also allowed for double and triple bonds (951).

Archibald Scott Couper (GB), contributed significantly when he suggested that the chemical bonds could be represented as dashes, assumed carbon to have a combining power of four, and the ability to combine with itself (337; 338).

Kekulé structures quickly became the most popular way of representing molecules. Kekulé along with Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Adolf Baeyer (DE) pioneered the concepts of structural organic chemistry.


Karl Friedrich Wilhelm Ludwig (DE) defined what would come to be known as molecular biology. "Whenever the body of an animal is subdivided to its ultimate parts, one always finally arrives at a limited number of chemical atoms…. One draws the conclusion in harmony with this observation, that all forms of activity arising in the animal body must be a result of the simple attractions and repulsions which would be observed in the coming together of those elementary objects." (1179)


Johann Peter Griess (DE) discovered the diazo compounds that are so important in the chemistry of dyestuffs (756).


Josef von Gerlach (DE) while experimenting with solutions of carmine and leaving a section of brain tissue in a dilute carmine solution overnight, reported good differential staining of the nucleus and nuclear granules compared with little or no staining of the cytoplasm and intercellular substance. He concluded that previous staining solutions had been too concentrated, and noted that the dye was absorbed by specific cellular elements and could not be washed out. He is regarded as the originator of controlled and standardized methods of staining in histology (1877; 1878).


Johann Florian Heller (AT) developed the caustic Potash Test for blood in the urine (818).


Otto Maschke (DE) succeeded in extracting the reserve protein of the Brazil nut and crystallizing it in his laboratory. Later this protein was called excelsin (1239; 1241).


Moritz Traube (PL) and Richard Gscheidlen (DE) proposed that catalytic power in tissues resides in proteins and that biological oxidations are based on the activation of molecular oxygen by intracellular enzymes (1809; 1811-1813).


Louis Pasteur (FR) reported that during the tartaric acid fermentation he had observed an organism (probably Penicillium) to use only the dextrorotatory ammonium tartrate when grown in a mixture of dextrorotatory and levorotatory ammonium tartrate. Thus, he developed a practical method for separating compounds, which are identical except for the spatial arrangement of the substituent group (1448; 1449).


Félix Archimède Pouchet (FR) began the presentation of a series of papers to the Academy of Sciences of Paris in which he claimed that he had proven the existence of spontaneous generation or heterogenesis. He was not of the opinion that life springs de novo from a fortuitous arrangement of molecules. He believed in the necessary existence of a vital force coming from pre-existing living matter. Like previous experimenters on the question of spontaneous generation, Pouchet admitted that the real point at issue was whether there are germs in the air or not (1517-1523).


Robert Remak (PL-DE) concluded that cells with more than one nucleus arose by failure of the cell to complete its division (1554).


Karl Wilhelm Nägeli (CH), coined the term meristem, described the function of the apical cell, explained the significance of primary meristem, and identified starch grains. He developed the distinction between meristematic tissue (bildungsgewebe) and structural parts (dauergewebe) whose cells do not multiply (1347).


Julius Gotthelf Kühn (DE) observed and described a fungus on diseased potato (Rhizoctonia solani) (1050).


Spencer Fullerton Baird (US), John Cassin (US), and George Newbold Lawrence (US) authored the most important treatise on the systematics and nomenclature of North American birds up to that time (57).

Spencer Fullerton Baird (US), John Cassin (US), and George Newbold Lawrence (US) authored the most important treatise on the systematics and nomenclature of North American mammals up to that time (56).


Louis Xavier Édouard Léopold Ollier (FR) described the inner layer of the periosteum, closest to the bone. The osteoblasts are in this layer (1406).


Heinrich Müller (DE) performed histological examinations of bone growth including a comparison of normal to abnormal bone structure. He described the healing of a ricketic lesion (1335).

Gustav Pommer (DE) carefully described the distinguishing histologic features of bone structure in rickets, osteomalacia, and osteoporosis (1516).


Heinrich Müller (DE) published descriptions of three eye muscles: the superior and inferior muscles of the tarsal plate, the muscle that bridges the inferior orbital fissure, and the innermost fibers of the circular portion of the ciliary muscle (1337; 1338).


Wilhelm Max Wundt (DE) described the isotonic curves produced by muscle under continuous and constant excitation (2015).


Rudolph Ludwig Karl Virchow (DE) confirmed Remak’s conclusion that the cells of diseased tissue descended from normal cells of ordinary tissue. There was no sudden break or discontinuity signifying the disease, but a smooth development of abnormality. Thus, he helped bring disease down to the cellular level (1854; 1859). The medical historian Ralph Herman Major states that for this and his other great works Virchow "…was unquestionably the outstanding physician of his generation, a man who stands aloof in the select company of Hippocrates, Galen, Morgagni, Auenbrugger, and Laënnec. He was the creator of the modern science of pathology, in which subject he had among his precursors only one rival, Morgagni, and among his successors none." (1209).


Maximilian Johann Sigismund Schultze (DE) described the sensory epithelium in the ear of fishes as composed of basal cells and cylinder cells, with numerous nuclei between them, surrounded by protoplasm and having prolongations upwards and downwards, the former passing between the cylinder cells, and the latter between the nuclei of the basal cells. These intermediate cells he called Fadenzellen (1673).


Rudolph Ludwig Karl Virchow (DE) confirmed that syphilis is a disease, which involves all organs and tissues of the body and showed that the causal organism is transferred through the blood to the various organs and tissues (1855).


Casimir Joseph Davaine (FR) and Giovanni Battista Grassi (IT) determined that humans become infected with Ascaris lumbricoides by ingesting the eggs (382; 742).

Casimir Joseph Davaine (FR) observed that living Ascaris larvae can be found in the small intestine of a rat 12 hours after feeding Ascaris eggs (384).

Francis Hugh Stewart (GB) was the first to observe that in host animals not all the hatched Ascaris larvae were promptly eliminated in the feces, but that some penetrated the wall of the alimentary canal, and wandered to other parts of the body, during which time they increased in size and underwent other morphologic changes (1754).

Francis Hugh Stewart (GB) observed further that the Ascaris larvae do not remain in the lungs, but migrate into the bronchi and up the trachea into the mouth of the rat or mouse (1755).

Francis Hugh Stewart (GB) noted that after the Ascaris larvae had passed into the bronchi and up the trachea they then were conveyed down the esophagus and into the intestine, and accumulated in the cecum and large intestine. After arrival in the large intestine, a large number of the larvae are voided in the feces without undergoing any marked change in size cr structure from the stage attained in the lungs (1756).


Ernst Leberecht Wagner (DE) presented the first important contribution to the knowledge of the gross pathology of uterine cancer (1932).


Robert Remak (PL-DE) having treated some 70 patients with galvanic current believed that it was superior to faradic current for electrotherapy (1555).


Henry Gray (GB) and Henry Vandyke Carter (GB) produced the first edition of Anatomy, Descriptive and Surgical. This would become known simply as Gray’s Anatomy, the most influential human anatomy book in history, going through many editions (752). Note: Gray died of smallpox (spotted death) at thirty-four years of age. Carter died of tuberculosis very near his sixty-sixth birthday. Note: "For the illustrations, he commissioned a medical student at St. George's named Henry Vandyke Carter for a payment of 150 pounds spread over fifteen months. Carter was painfully shy but highly gifted. All of his illustrations had to be drawn in reverse so that they would print the right way around on paper, which must have been an almost unimaginable challenge. Carter did not only all 363 drawings but also nearly all the preparatory dissection."

"As a collaborator, Gray was spectacularly petty. It is not clear whether he ever paid Carter in full or indeed at all. He certainly never shared royalties. He instructed the printers to reduce the size of Carter's name on the title page and to remove a reference to his medical qualifications, to make him look like a journeyman illustrator. Only Gray's name appeared on the spine, which is why it became known as Gray's Anatomy rather than Gray and Carter's, as it really should have."(242)


Johannes Hubertus van den Broek (NL) pioneered work demonstrating that many normal tissues such as blood, urine, and vegetable matter are free of microorganisms. He aseptically cut open grapes then squeezed the juice into sterile containers. Even after months the juice showed no signs of fermentation. When he introduced sterile oxygen, no fermentation occurred. When he introduced yeast cells the grape juice underwent fermentation (1841; 1842).


Guillaume Benjamin Amand Duchenne de Boulogne (FR) delineated tabetic locomotor ataxia as a degeneration of the posterior roots and column of the spinal cord and the brain stem. Characterized by attacks of pain, progressive ataxia, loss of reflexes, functional disorders of the bladder, larynx, and gastrointestinal system, and impotence. It develops in conjunction with syphilis and most frequently affects middle-aged men (442; 445).


John Murray Carnochan (US) excised the superior maxillary nerve (including Meckel’s ganglion) for facial neuralgia (270).


Philip Lutley Sclater (GB) suggested six earthly zoological regions which he called the Palaearctic, Aethiopian, Indian, Australasian, Nearctic and Neotropical. They are still in use (1692).


Alfred Russel Wallace (GB), while ill in Borneo, had a brilliant insight into how natural selection works. He quickly wrote to Charles Robert Darwin (GB) expressing these thoughts. Darwin had for many years been working on the same theory. The two jointly published a paper, On the tendency of species to form varieties; and On the perpetuation of varieties and species by natural selection, in the Journal of the Proceedings of the Linnean Society expressing their thoughts on the subject. This article included Wallace's paper and excerpts from Darwin's unpublished book, as well as a letter Darwin had written to Asa Grey on the subject in 1857 (379). Darwin's monograph was published the following year (374).


Philip Lutley Sclater (GB) produced studies of the geographical distribution of birds, which resulted in the classification of the zoological regions of the world into six major categories. This was the first serious attempt to study geographical distribution of organisms (1692).

Philip and William Lutley Sclater (GB) later extended these studies to mammals, and it is still the basis for work in zoogeography (1693).

Alfred Russel Wallace (GB) gave an accounting of "what animals live where and why" which helped provide a firm foundation for the subsequent development of the field of zoogeography. Wallace’s Line separates the predominately Australian fauna from that of Asia (1941; 1942).


Henry Darwin Rogers (US) named the Pennsylvanian period, and Alexander Winchell (US) named the Mississippian period; both these divisions were given system/period status in Geology by Thomas Chrowder Chamberlin (US) and Rollin Daniel Salisbury (US) (286; 1582; 1992).


Joseph Leidy (US) reported the findings by John Estaugh Hopkins (US), in 1838, and William Parker Foulke (US), in 1858, of the first relatively complete dinosaur skeleton. Leidy named this creature, found in New Jersey, Hadrosaurus foulkii (1114).


Ibis, journal of the British Ornithological Union, was founded.



"At last gleams of light have come, and I am almost convinced that species are not (it is like confessing a murder) immutable." Charles Robert Darwin (373)


"You would be surprised at the number of years it took me to see clearly what some of the problems were which had to be solved…. Looking back, I think it was more difficult to see what the problems were than to solve them." Letter from Charles Robert Darwin to Charles Lyell (380)


"This depends not on a struggle for existence, but on a struggle between males for possession of the females; the result is not death to the unsuccessful competitor, but few or no offspring." Charles Robert Darwin (374). This is Darwin’s definition of sexual selection.


"It may be considered as a general fact, very likely to be more fully illustrated as investigations cover a wider ground, that the phases of development of all living animals correspond to the order of succession of their extinct representatives in past geological times. As far as this goes, the oldest representatives of every class may then be considered as embryonic types of their respective orders or families among the living." Jean Louis Rodolphe Agassiz (CH-US) (10)


John William Dawson (CA) discovered fossil plant remains (Psilophyton princeps) in Middle and Lower Devonian rocks from the Gaspé Peninsula in Eastern Canada (387; 388).

Thore Gustaf Halle (SE), Robert Kidston (GB), and William H. Lang (GB) later found similar confirming fossils and established the order Psilophytes (788; 964).

Harlan Parker Banks (US) subsequently split the Psilophytes into three divisions: Rhyniophytina (Rhyniophyta), Zosterophyllophyta, and Trimerophytina (Trimerophytophyta) (75).


Jean Baptiste Joseph Dieudonné Boussingault (FR) demonstrated a spontaneous increase of nitrates in plant-free soil (189).


Charles Hanson Greville Williams (GB) made the dye safranin (326).


Otto Maschke (DE) introduced the use of indigo to histology. He noted that the affinity of proteins for dyes might serve to differentiate between the different members of this group (1240).


Heinrich Müller (DE) developed a simple dichromate solution (Müllers fluid) with an indifferent salt (potassium sulfate) that was used as a primary tissue fixative. It has limited application as a preservative, but it may be used as a secondary fixative for post chroming (1336).


Wilhelm Friedrich Kühne (DE) used strong salt solutions to extract then characterize the protein he called myosin from muscle (1051; 1054; 1061).


Carl H.D. Boedeker (DE) established the biochemical basis for alcaptonuria by isolating the chemical cause for the darkening seen in the patient’s urine. The chemical is 2,5-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid or homogentisic acid; he named it alcapton then later alkapton (171; 172).


Friedrich Wilhelm Ernst Albrecht von Graefe (DE) first described central retinal artery occlusion (1879).


Edward Smith (GB) made many observations on the relationship of human activity to energy requirements. He noted that the amount of urea in the urine was determined by the amount of nitrogenous substance in the diet and not by level of activity. He observed that output of exhaled carbon dioxide rose with the level of activity (1721).


Claude Bernard (FR) reported that he was unsuccessful when he tried to acidify blood by injecting dilute solutions of acetic or lactic acid intravenously. The animal always died before the blood reached neutrality. Here he also describes some organs as secreting substances outside the blood, others as secreting substances directly into the blood, while others secrete substances both outside and into the blood (107).


Moritz Schiff (DE-FR-CH) proved that removal of the thyroid gland in dogs is fatal (1655). He later discovered that grafts or injections of thyroid extracts can prevent death (1657). Schiff used ground sheep thyroid to successfully treat patients operated on for struma, i.e., goiter. They received injections of the extract twice a week, and after a few months were cured. See, Albucasis, c. 1000.

William Withey Gull (GB) was the first to describe the idiopathic form of hypothyroidism, called Gull’s disease, and associate it with atrophy of the thyroid gland—which he regarded correctly as the adult form of cretinism, later named myxoedema (myxedema) (770; 771).

William M. Ord (GB), who worked with Gull, is credited with coining the name myxedema for the non-pitting edema he observed in patients (1412).

Antonio-Maria Bettencourt-Rodrigues (PT) and Jose-Antonio Serrano (PT) reported success in implanting a sheep thyroid gland under the skin of the infra-mammary area of a woman suffering from myxedema. The operation was followed by immediate improvement (132; 133).

George Redmayne Murray (GB) postulated that extracts of thyroid glands should be effective in hypothyroidism. In July 1891 he presented at the Annual Meeting of the British Medical Association his observation of a female patient with hypothyroidism (myxedema) treated successfully with hypodermic injections of extract from the thyroid glands of sheep (1342). Note: Her treatment was successful and she lived to be 74 years of age.

Hector W.G. MacKenzie (GB) and Edward L. Fox (GB) reported respectively that oral administration of fresh sheep thyroid glands and thyroid extract were effective in reversing the signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism in a female patient (603; 1198).


Thomas Henry Huxley (GB) compared the serous and mucous layers characterized by Christian Heinrich Pander with the ectoderm and endoderm of the Coelonterata (888). See, Pander, 1817


Charles Robert Darwin (GB) published his book, On the Origin of Species by Natural Selection. In this book Darwin gave strong support for the new paradigm that life has had a complex, ever-changing history, i.e., evolution. He also put forward natural selection as the force propelling evolution.

Since this was such a seminal work I offer this excerpt: "A struggle for existence inevitably follows from the high rate at which all organic beings tend to increase. Everything, which during its natural lifetime produces several eggs or seeds, must suffer destruction during some period of its life, and during some season or occasional year, otherwise, on the principle of geometrical increase, its numbers would quickly become so inordinately great that no country could support the product. Hence, as more individuals are produced than can possibly survive, there must in every case be a struggle for existence, either one individual with another of the same species, or with individuals of distinct species, or with the physical conditions of life. It is the doctrine of Malthus applied with manifold force to the whole animal and vegetable kingdoms… There is no exception to the rule that every organic being naturally increases at so high a rate, that if not destroyed, the earth would soon be covered by the progeny of a single pair.

Owing to this struggle for life, any variation, however slight and from whatever cause proceeding, if it be in any degree profitable to an individual of any species, in its infinitely complex relations to other organic beings and to external nature, will tend to the preservation of that individual, and will generally be inherited by its offspring. The offspring, also, will thus have a better chance of surviving, for, of the many individuals of any species which are periodically born, but a small number can survive. I have called this principle, by which each slight variation, if useful is preserved, by the term of Natural Selection, in order to mark its relation to man’s power of selection. We have seen that man by selection can produce great results, and can adapt organic beings to his own uses, through the accumulation of slight but useful variations, given to him by the hand of nature. But Natural Selection… is a power incessantly ready for action, and is as immeasurably superior to man’s feeble efforts, as the works of Nature are to those of Art." (374) See Anaximander, c.580 B.C.E. and Patrick Matthew, 1831.

David Lambert Lack (GB) wrote The Galapagos Finches (Geospizinae) a Study in Variation; Darwin’s Finches; The Life of the Robin; and Swifts in a Tower, all important contributions to ornithology and an introduction of competition theory into animal ecology, stressing the importance of ecological isolation in speciation, and providing a cogent model for adaptive radiation. Darwin's Finches, is a landmark work in which the differences in bill size of finches, which inhabit the Galapagos Islands, are interpreted as adaptations to specific food niches, an interpretation that has since been abundantly confirmed. Darwin's finches are a group of about 18 species of passerine birds(1074-1077). Note: "The person who more than anyone else deserves credit for reviving an interest in the ecological significance of species was David Lack... It is now quite clear that the process of speciation is not completed by the acquisition of isolating mechanisms but requires also the acquisition of adaptations that permit co-existence with potential competitors ."(1246)


Karl Gegenbaur (DE) emphasized that structural similarities among various animals provide clues to their evolutionary history. He noted that the most reliable clue to evolutionary history is homology, the comparison of anatomical parts which have a common evolutionary origin (675).


Albert Günther (GB) published his Catalogue of the Fishes of the British Museum. This large work contains descriptions of over 6,800 species and mentions another 1,700 (772).


Charles Robert Darwin (GB) performed the first experiment to strongly suggest dispersal of aquatic invasive species by movement of waterfowl (374). This phenomenon is known as epizoochory.

Jules de Guerne (FR) reported dispersal of algae by waterfowl (2024). This information came by way of a report by Zacharias.

Jules de Guerne (FR) reported dispersal of leeches by duck (401).


Florence Nightingale (GB) by training, example, will, and strength of character changed nursing forever; becoming the founder of modern nursing (1209; 1374; 1375). The first edition of her book, Notes on Nursing: What it is, and What it is Not, was published in 1859.

Starting with her service in the Crimean War in 1885 Nightingale probably suffered from not one but four disorders. She likely had an underlying bipolar personality disorder, which both magnified the post-traumatic effects of her Crimean experience and enabled her to carry on despite them. She very likely contracted brucellosis in the Crimea, and, almost certainly, it was the post-traumatic-stress-disorder (PTSD) that sent her to bed for thirty years after the war. She recovered from the latter only to develop a form of dementia, possibly Alzheimer's (1200).


Charles Marie Édouard Chassaignac (FR) was not the inventor of surgical drainage, but he was the first to apply India-rubber tubes to drain abscesses (296).


Iwan Michajlowitsch Setschenow; Iwan Michajlowitsch Sechenov; Iwan Michajlowitsch Secenov (RU), working with Karl Friedrich Wilhelm Ludwig (DE), described the mercurial blood-gas pump, which enabled them to separate gases from a given quantity of blood (1708). This opened the way for studying the relationships between gases and the blood.


Samuel Wilks (GB) coined ulcerative colitis. The patient, a 42-year-old woman, had succumbed to an illness of diarrhea and fever, first mis-diagnosed as “arsenic poisoning.” Autopsy demonstrated a transmural inflammation of the entire colon and terminal ileum, initially labeled ulcerative colitis it was later re-classified as Crohn’s disease (547; 1982). See, Baillie 1793.

Antoni Lesniowski (PL) reported this condition (1121).

Thomas Kennedy Dalziel (GB) described what he called chronic interstitial enteritis (Crohn's disease) (365; 366).

Burrill Bernard Crohn (US), Leon Ginzburg (US), and Gordon D. Oppenheimer (US) described what they called regional ileitis, or cicatrizing enterocolitis (Crohn’s disease), a disease of the terminal ileum, affecting mainly young adults, characterized by a subcutate or chronic necrotizing and cicatrizing inflammation (349).

Hugh Evelyn Lockhart-Mummery (GB) and Basil C. Morson (GB) set out clearly the clinical and pathological features of Crohn’s disease of the large intestine as seen in a series of 75 patients. This combined clinical and pathological study makes it clear that Crohn’s disease is a different disease from ulcerative colitis and that the two do not occur together in the same patient (1158; 1159).


Auguste François Chomel (FR), in 1828, likely gave the first clinical description of a type of polyneuritis that would eventually be referred to as Guillain-Barré syndrome (300).

Jean-Baptiste Octave Landry (FR) described a case of what was later named Guillain-Barré syndrome (1085).

Georges Charles Guillain (FR), Jean-Alexandre Barré (FR), and André Strohl (FR) described two soldiers acutely ill with muscular weakening, paresthesias, and muscular pain with major pathology in the Achilles reflex and the quadriceps muscle (764; 765).

H. Draganesco (FR) and J. Claudion (FR) named this condition Guillain-Barré syndrome (435).

Note: This condition is the most common form of acquired neuropathy, most frequently affecting young adults. A variant characterized by ophthalmoplegia, ataxia, and areflexia is called the Miller Fisher syndrome (577).

Note: Today this syndrome is recognized as the most common form of acquired neuropathy affecting both sexes, most frequently affecting young adults and believed to be a form of autoimmune disease with a delayed hypersensitivity reaction. Campylobacter sp. infections are a common antecedent to the acute neurological disease, Guillain-Barré syndrome.


François Leuret (FR) and Louis Pierre Gratiolet (FR) pointed out that the two hemispheres of the brain develop asymmetrically: the frontal gyri are formed faster, i.e., earlier in fetal life, on the left than on the right, whereas in the occipital-sphenoidal, i.e., parietal area, the reverse occurs (1133).


Achille-Louis-Francois Foville (FR) described a syndrome (Foville’s syndrome) caused by the blockage of the perforating branches of the basilar artery in the region of the brainstem known as the pons. This produces ipsilateral horizontal gaze palsy and facial nerve palsy and contralateral hemiparesis, hemisensory loss, and internuclear ophthalmoplegia (601). Structures affected by the infarct are the paramedian pontine reticular formation, nuclei of cranial nerves VI and VII, corticospinal tract, medial lemniscus, and the medial longitudinal fasciculus.


Jean-Jacques Pouech (FR) was the first naturalist to discover dinosaur eggshells. The material was Late Cretaceous rock from the Pyrenees Mountains (1524).



Stanislao Cannizzaro (IT), at a meeting of chemists in Karlsruhe, Germany, spoke so convincingly in support of Charles Frédéric Gerhardt’s system of atomic and molecular weights that most chemists in Western Europe quickly accepted it (24; 1387).


Gustav Robert Kirchhoff (DE) and Robert Wilhelm Eberhard Bunsen (DE) introduced the technique of spectroscopy into chemical analyses (969).


Pierre Eugène Marcellin Berthelot (FR) prepared invertase (beta-fructofuranosidase) in dry form from yeast cells by alcoholic precipitation. Invertase converts cane sugar into glucose and fructose. Berthelot named it, ferment inversif. This ferment’s (enzyme’s) hydrolysis of sucrose contradicts the notion that fermentation requires an intrinsic vital force present only in living cells (124). Bèchamp (FR) called this enzyme zymase.

Victor Paschutin (DE) and Claude Bernard (FR) independently discovered that the epithelial cells of the mucosa of the small intestine secrete invertase (112; 1447).

Horace T. Brown (BR) and John Heron (BR) discovered invertase in the leaves of higher plants (230).


Alvan Wentworth Chapman (US) while living in virtual isolation from academic support, first in Georgia, then in Florida, produced his Flora of the Southern United States; a remarkable feat (287).


Light trap development started for insect control; chiefly for cotton leaf worm (1707).


Thomas Henry Huxley (GB) debated Bishop Samuel Wilberforce (GB) and Richard Owen (GB) under the auspices of the British Association for the Advancement of Science at Oxford, England on June 30, 1860. Their subject was the zoological position of man, i.e., Darwin’s theory of evolution. The audience numbered over one thousand. Although the debate was somewhat superficial it is one of the great turning points of human thought. The attitude of most educated people respecting our place in nature was permanently affected. Alas: The debate was not recorded.


Wilhelm Krause (DE) described specialized cutaneous nerve endings, which were later named Krause end bulbs (1044-1046).


Louis Pasteur (FR) wrote that he is a staunch upholder of the view that yeast is a living organism which, during its life, splits sugar not only into alcohol and carbon dioxide but also into other substances. Among these other substances he noted glycerol (1453; 1454).

He demonstrated that germs are not uniformly distributed in air by using several sterile sealed glass bulbs filled with infusion. He would break the sealed tips then re-seal them with flame a few minutes later. Flasks were opened and then re-sealed at several locations including: the cellars of the Paris Observatory, the road to Dole, Mount Poupet (850 meters), Mount Montanvert (1,910 meters), and the Mer de Glace (1,400-2,140 meters). In general, he found that the air in rural and elevated locations contained fewer germs than air from urban and low altitudes (1450-1452).


Robert Caspary (DE) discovered that light promotes the germination of certain seeds (276).

Adolph Cieslar (DE) found that some colors stimulate germination while others inhibit (302).

Lewis H. Flint (US) and Edward D. McAlister (US), using Arlington Fancy lettuce seeds, revealed that light in the violet-blue-green region is inhibitory to seed germination with 760 nm being the most inhibitory. They found that yellow-orange-red light stimulates seed germination with 670 nm being the most effective. Flint and McAlister suggested that chlorophyll, the green pigment that harnesses light energy during photosynthesis, might be the photoreceptor in seed germination (585-588).


Karl Georg Friedrich Rudolf Leuckart (DE) demonstrated that the worm-like parasite known as Linguatulidae (Pentasoma) found in the body cavity of serpents and other vertebrates are degenerate Arthropoda, probably related to the Arachnida (1126).


John McCrady (US) and Fritz Müller (DE) were the first to identify the larvae of inarticulate brachiopods. The systematic position of these larvae was inferred correctly from the very beginning (1253; 1330).

Fritz Müller (DE) described the swimming behavior of these larvae, noting that they swim vertically because of the shell weight. He also observed that larvae clap their shells together and sink when disturbed and that they feed on diatoms (1331).

Felix Joseph Henri de Lacaze-Duthiers (FR) described larva of an articulate brachiopod at about the same time in France (Lacaze-Duthiers 1861).


Casimir Joseph Davaine (FR) wrote, Traité des Entozoaires et des Maladies Vermineuses de L'Homme et des Animaux Domestiques, a classic book in parasitology (383).


Theodor Ludwig Wilhelm Bischoff (DE) and Karl von Voit (DE) developed a test for studying nitrogen intake and output. By matching the nitrogen contained in the urea excreted with that contained in the protein ingested, they could tell the state of the nitrogen balance; that is whether the body was storing nitrogen, losing nitrogen, or keeping the balance even. They found that if animals were fed pure proteins such as gelatin they would waste away and die. This line of investigation led to the discovery of essential amino acids (144).


Adolph Eugen Fick (DE) proposed his method for measuring cardiac output. It is based on the principle that the total uptake of oxygen by an organ is the product of blood flow to the organ and the arteriovenous concentration difference of oxygen across the organ. Cardiac output is measured as the product of oxygen consumption of the lungs per minute and the arteriovenous oxygen difference across the lungs. If there is no intracardiac shunt, then pulmonary blood flow is nearly equivalent to systemic blood flow or cardiac output. Oxygen consumption is measured as the oxygen extracted by the lungs per minute by the polarographic method or the Douglas bag. His calculations are the basis for today's procedures of cardiac catheterization (543).


Rudolf Ludwig Carl Virchow (DE) was the first to describe the protozoan Isospora belli. He found it in the intestinal mucosa at autopsy (1857).

Charles Morley Wenyon (GB) officially named this parasite Isospora belli (1971). Isosporiasis is an uncommon diarrheal illness caused by Isospora belli. The genus Isospora is closely related to the genera Cryptosporidium, Cyclospora, and Toxoplasma. The parasite is now known as Cystoisospora belli and the infection as cystoisosporiasis.

H.M. Woodstock (GB) was the first to characterize a case of human infection (isosporiasis/ cystoisosporiasis) with Cystoisospora belli (2003).


Francois Jules Lemaire (FR), based on the germ theory of putrefaction, suggested that carbolic acid (phenol) be used to treat wounds. His work precedes that of Joseph Lister. Lister later applied this knowledge and organized a system of antiseptic treatment (1119; 1120).


Gustav Theodor Fechner (DE) developed Fechner's law (the intensity of a sensation produced by a varying stimulus varies directly as the logarithm of that stimulus) (527).


Rudolf Ludwig Karl Virchow (DE) noted the plasma origin of fibrin and named its precursor form fibrinogen (1856; 1858). See, Babington, 1830.


Pierre Bazin (FR) was the first person to coin the term psoriasis arthritique or arthritic psoriasis after the association between the two had been established by Jean-Louis Alibert (FR) in 1818 (89).

X. Villanova (), J. Pinol (), and Verna Wright (GB) declared psoriatic arthritis a nosologic entity, and not a coincidental occurrence of psoriasis with arthritides and Verna Wright (GB) psoriatic arthritis (1852; 2011).

John M.H. Moll (GB) and Verna Wright (GB) discribed the characteristics and uniqueness of psoriatic artheritis; clearly distinguishing it from rheumatoid artheritis (1310).


Friedrich Wilhelm Ernst Albrecht von Graefe (DE) pointed out that most cases of blindness and impaired vision connected with cerebral disorders are traceable to optic neuritis rather than to paralysis of the optic nerve (1880).


Guillaume Benjamin Amand Duchenne de Boulogne (FR) described a condition he called primary labioglossolaryngeal paralysis. The onset is typically between 50 and 60 years of age and characterized by gradually increasing dysphagia, i.e., difficulty swallowing, progressive speech defect, from minor defect in articulation to the production of incomprehensible sound (laryngeal). Weakness and spasticity of the muscles of the pharynx, larynx, and tongue, spasticity of extremity muscles, hyper-reflexia, and loss of emotional control with episodes of sudden laughing and crying (443). Duchenne’s syndrome is a synonym.

Adolph Wachsmuth (EE) suggested the name progressive bulbar paralysis (1931).

Jean Martin Charcot (FR) and Alexis Joffroy (FR) contributed the description of its characteristic pathology (293).


Bénédict Augustin Morel (FR) introduced the term démence-precoce (dementia praecox) to refer to a mental and emotional deterioration beginning at the time of puberty (1317).

Emil Wilhelm Magnus Georg Kraepelin (DE) was the first to clinically distinguish manic-depressive psychoses and dementia praecox. He described dementia praecox as a "tangible affection of the brain, probably damage or destruction of cortical cells…which was the result of chemical disturbances." (1040; 1041)

Paul Eugen Bleuler (CH) later introduced the term schizophrenia as synonymous with dementia praecox (161). "I call dementia praecox schizophrenia because (as I hope to demonstrate) the splitting of the different psychic functions is one of its most important characteristics. For the sake of convenience, I use the word in the singular although it is apparent that the group includes several diseases." (162). See, Willis, 1664


Auguste Ambroise Tardieu (FR) first described battered-child syndrome (1776).

C. Henry Kempe (US), Frederic N. Silverman (US), Brandt F. Steele (US), William Droegemueller (US), Henry K. Silver (US), and John Patrick Caffey (US) defined the battered-child syndrome, resulting in a dramatic increase in public awareness of the impact of overt physical abuse on children (263; 954). Note: Also called Tardieu's syndrome or Caffey-Kempe syndrome.


John Phillips (GB) diagramed the progressive but fluctuating diversity of life on earth based on the fossil record, publishing the first Phanerozoic diversity curve (Great Britain). His work evidences massive extinctions at the end of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic, and increased diversity in each subsequent age (1509).

David M. Raup (US) showed that global records of the Phanerozoic sedimentary rock record exhibit a pattern that is nearly the reverse of Britain by itself (1544).


Berliner Medicinische Gesellschaft was founded.



The U.S. Civil War brought epidemics of dysentery, typhoid fever, hepatitis, malaria, smallpox (spotted death), measles, and venereal diseases. More than three times as many soldiers died of infectious disease than died of battle wounds (1005).


During the first year of war there were 21,676 reported cases of measles and 551 deaths in the Union Army alone. Deaths were primarily from respiratory and cerebral (brain) involvement. It was recorded, ‘This infection is always serious, often fatal either directly or through its sequelae. The Prognosis therefore should be guarded.

The American Civil War was the last large-scale military conflict fought before the germ theory of disease was developed… Two-thirds of soldiers who died in that war, 660,000 in all, were killed by uncontrolled infectious diseases. Of these, in the Union Army over 67,000 had measles and more than 4,000 died.” Michael B.A. Oldstone (1403).



"The only satisfactory method of explaining our perception of colors is to suppose that we have in our eyes several different sets of nerves, one set being most affected by one kind of light and another set by a different kind of light." James Clark Maxwell (801).


Hermann von Meyer (DE) gave the name Archaeopteryx (Archeopteryx) to a fossil discovered in fine sandstone Jurassic strata of a quarry near Solenhofen in Bavaria. It appeared to be intermediate in character between reptiles and birds. The Natural History Section of the British Museum purchased the specimen, which was described by Richard Owen (GB) (1434). In 1876 another fossil Archaeopteryx was discovered. This fossil, which now resides in the Humboldt Museum für Naturkunde in Berlin, is of such rare quality and importance that Dr. Alan Feduccia says it, “may well be the most important natural history specimen in existence, comparable perhaps in scientific and even monetary value to the Rosetta stone” (528; 1702).


Alexander Mikhailovich Butlerov (RU) introduced the term chemical structure in the following context: "there will be possible only one such rational formula for each substance. If then the general laws will have been derived which govern the dependence of the chemical characteristics of the substances on their structure, such a formula will express all these characteristics … Time and experience will teach us best how the new formulas will have to appear if they are to express chemical structure." (982)


Ernst Wilhelm Brücke (DE) was the first to use adsorption methods for enzyme purification (236).


Friedrich Goppelsröder (CH) undoubtedly originated chromatography as an analytical laboratory tool. His work employed paper chromatography to separate individual dyes from complex mixtures (726; 727).


Thomas Graham (GB) developed the concept of dialysis as a means of removing solute from a solution. Using parchment as the semipermeable membrane he demonstrated removal of urea from urine (736; 737).

Thomas Graham (GB) worked on understanding the colloidal state of matter and thus advanced the understanding of protoplasmic systems (738).


False hellebore (Veratrum californicum ) was first recommended as a bioicide for control of imported cabbageworm (1707). It contains the alkaloid veratrine and is also a good parasiticide. The inventor is unknown.


Adolf Friedrich Ludwig Strecker (DE) characterized a nitrogen containing substance in bile and named it choline (1682).


Gabriel Gustav Valentin (DE-CH) was the first to use polarized light in the study of plant and animal tissues (1831).


Maximilian Johann Sigismund Schultze (DE) defined a cell as, "a cell is a little lump of protoplasm, in the interior of which lies a nucleus." The actual words are: "Eine zelle ist ein kliimpchen protoplasma, in dessen innerem ein kern liegt." In this paper he declares that the likeness between animal and vegetable protoplasm is not only structural and chemical, but also physiologic (1674).


Louis Pasteur (FR) demonstrated that air really contains germs by creating an aspirator to draw outside air through a glass tube and pass it over a plug of gun cotton acting as a filter. After aspiration was complete the gun cotton was placed in a mixture of alcohol and ether to dissolve the gun cotton. The dust being insoluble collected at the bottom of the tube and was examined under the microscope. It showed, in addition to inorganic matter, a considerable number of small, round, or oval bodies, indistinguishable from the spores of minute plants or the ova of animalcules. The number of the bodies varied according to the temperature, moisture, and movement of the air, and the distance above the soil at which the gun cotton had been placed.

He showed that infusions could be sterilized in an open flask provided that the neck of the latter is drawn out and bent down in such a way that the germs cannot descend into the infusion. This type of experiment, previously used by Hermann Hoffmann (DE), removed all criticism on the question of air, as such, activating into life an organic infusion. If the bent neck of an open flask that had long remained sterile was cut off the infusion rapidly teemed with living things (856; 1456; 1460). See, Spallanzani, 1776.s


Louis Pasteur (FR) discovered anaerobes when he studied and reported on the butyric acid fermentation. Examining a drop of fluid containing the butyric vibrio under a cover glass on a slide, he was astonished to see on the margin of the drop where it was in contact with air that the vibrios had ceased to move although they were actively motile in the center. The question immediately arose as to whether the air or oxygen was necessary to their movement and vitality. He tested this by passing a stream of oxygen through an active butyric fermenting liquid with the result that the fermentation was inhibited. He discovered other anaerobes and coined the term anaérobies (anaerobes) in 1863 (1455; 1457; 1461).


Louis Pasteur (FR) showed that acidic infusions can be sterilized with temperatures around 100°C., but alkaline infusions require temperatures above 100°C (1456).


Louis Pasteur (FR) formulated a medium for growing bacteria, which became known as Pasteur fluid. It consisted of water 100 parts, pure candy sugar 10 parts, ammonium tartrate 1 part, and 1 part of ash of yeast (1455; 1457).


Louis Pasteur (FR) demonstrated that yeast can grow and ferment in the absence of gaseous oxygen and discovered that per gram of glucose more yeast is formed in the presence of air than in its absence. It was the first demonstration that aerobic metabolism is more efficient than anaerobic metabolism and the first clue to the difference in efficiency of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation. Pasteur also observed that in the presence of air, glucose disappeared more slowly than in the absence of air, which pointed to the operation of a control mechanism that was later called the Pasteur effect (1455; 1458; 1466).


John Bennett Lawes (GB), Joseph Henry Gilbert (GB), and Evan Pugh (GB) firmly established that green plants alone are incapable of using atmospheric nitrogen (1111).


Moritz Traube (PL) supported the idea that most respiratory activity occurs in the tissues outside the circulatory system when he wrote … "The released oxygen passes in a dissolved state through the capillary walls and forms with the muscle fiber a loose combination that is able to transfer the oxygen to other substances, dissolved in the muscle fluid, and [the muscle fiber] can then take up new oxygen. … the fact that all organs of the animal body require arterial blood indicates that not only the blood, but all organs of the body respire … What we call respiration is therefore a very complex process. It represents the sum of the consumption of all those quantities of oxygen needed by each organ, either for its nutrition or for its maintenance. Thus, there can be an increase in the respiration of the brain, or liver and spleen, or indeed individual groups of muscle, without an accelerated respiration in other organs of the body … The motive forces, however, which oxygen elicits in the muscles, nerves, spinal cord, and brain are a consequence of the characteristic construction and chemical nature of the apparatus in which the oxidative processes proceed, so that these forces do not appear in the form of heat, but in the form of their specific, as yet inexplicable, vital functions." (1812)


Max Josef Pettenkofer (DE) designed a respiratory machine large enough to accommodate a man. He and Karl Voit (DE) accurately determined the respiratory quotients of protein, carbohydrate, and fat when metabolized in the body. They were able to study man’s overall metabolic rate under various conditions and were the first to establish the basal metabolic rate. This would later help diagnose diseases like abnormal thyroid (1155).


Rudolf Albert von Kölliker (CH) authored the first work of comparative embryology, which includes the relationship of the notochord to the development of the spine skull in the adult. He was the first to interpret the development of the embryo in terms of the cell theory (1900).


Jean Louis René Antoine Édouard Claparéde (CH) discovered giant axons in annelid worms (303).


Thomas Henry Huxley (GB) wrote an essay, which was instrumental in humans being considered in zoological terms and their origin as a result of the evolutionary process (889). He also revised much of the information concerning fishes from the Devonian Epoch (890).


Étienne-Jules Marey (FR) and Jean Baptiste Auguste Chauveau (FR) elucidated the nature of the apex beat of the heart. They simultaneously recorded the apex beat movement and pressures in the right atrium and right ventricle in an awake horse using elastic balloons attached to catheters as motion and pressure transducers. Access to the right heart chambers was by way of the external jugular vein. Each movement or pressure change generated a pulsation within the air-filled catheters and was, in turn, transmitted to a rotating smoked-drum sphygmograph. Their finding that the apical impulse is caused by early forceful ventricular contraction was the first graphic recording of intracardiac events (297; 1228).

Frederick Henry Horatio Akbar Mahomed (GB),using a primitive sphygmograph, described high blood pressure (1206). He also linked left ventricular hypertrophy to hypertension due to nephritis and reported the presence of high blood pressure in patients without renal disease (1207; 1208).


Friedrich Wilhelm Felix von Bärensprung (DE) is credited with being the first to describe the involvement of the Gasserian ganglion of the trigeminal nerve with Herpes zoster on the face (1868).


Jeffrey Allen Marston (GB) provided the first modern clinical description of brucellosis, which he termed Mediterranean gastric remittent fever (1238).

David Bruce (AU-GB) was assigned by the British military to find the cause of Malta fever, a debilitating disease long known from the Central Mediterranean and the cause of British soldiers dying on the island of Malta. He and his wife— Mary Elizabeth Steele Bruce (GB) — did so by discovering that a bacterium they named Micrococcus melitensis (later named Brucella melitensis) is the cause of this infection (later called brucellosis). This is an undulant fever like malaria, but unlike malaria it is transmitted by contaminated goat’s milk (233-235).

Bernhard Laurits Frederik Bang (DK) and Valdemar Stribolt (DK) isolated Brucella abortus and determined the etiology of contagious abortion (Bang’s disease) in cattle (74).

M. Louis Hughes (GB) suggested the name undulant fever (882; 883).

Themistocles Zammit (MT) discovered that the Brucellae are transmitted to man chiefly through the consumption of raw goat or cow milk (2025-2027). For this achievement he was knighted.

Bruce was an avid collector of marine copepods and is commemorated by Botrynema brucei Browne, 1908; Nicothoe brucei Kabata; Pseudomesochra brucei T. & A. Scott, 1901; and Paramphiascella brucei, T. & A. Scott, 1901.

Maybelle L. Feusier (US) and Karl Friedrich Meyer (CH-US) suggested the generic name Brucella in honor of David Bruce (AU-GB) (542).


Hubert Luschka (DE) provided the first authentic description of polyposis of the colon (1184).


Prosper Ménière (FR) was the first to attribute the sudden onset of vertigo, tinnitus (ringing or sounds in the ears), hearing loss, nausea and vomiting to an abnormality within the inner ear. This became known as Ménière’s disease or endolymphatic hydrops (glaucoma of the ear) (1272-1274). Note: This syndrome is easily confused with cerebral congestion of the apoplectic type.


Thomas Henry Huxley (GB) coined the term calcarine sulcus in referring to the spur shaped hippocampus minor in the black spider monkey, Ateles paniscus (891).


Paul Louis Duroziez (FR) described the double intermittent murmur over the femoral arteries as a sign of aortic insufficiency (455).


Erastus Bradley Wolcott (US) performed the first nephrectomy. It was for renal tumor (2000).


Henri Dunant (CH) wrote, Un Souvenir de Solférino, which was inspired by his having witnessed the suffering at the Battle of Solférino in 1859 (452). Note: The impact of his book led directly to the founding of the Red Cross by the Geneva Convention of 1864.



"Whoever, in the pursuit of science, seeks after immediate practical utility may rest assured that he seeks in vain." Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz (1897)


William Thomson; Lord Kelvin (GB) computed the age of the Earth at between 25 million years and 400 million years (1796).


Max Josef Pettenkofer (DE) devised a quantitative test for free carbonic acid. The gaseous mixture is shaken up with baryta or limewater of known strength and the change in alkalinity ascertained by means of oxalic acid. He also devised a qualitative test for strophanthin (1501).


Friedrich Wilhelm Beneke (DE) introduced the use of the aniline dyes to histology. He employed acetic acid colored with what he called “lilac” anilin (98).


Alexander Jakovlevich Danilevsky; Danielewski (RU) was the first to use preparative enzyme separation. He used selective adsorption onto collodion to subdivide a complex mixture of enzymes into purified fractions. His starting material was pancreatin (367).


Ferdinand Gustav Julius Sachs (DE) showed that plants like animals respond to their environments and documented plant tropisms; worked out plant transpiration and proved that chlorophyll in plant cells is confined to certain discrete green plastid bodies within the cell and produced experimental evidence that starch is a product of photosynthesis. He originated the Simple Iodine Test for the presence of starch (1625; 1626; 1631).

Andreas Franz Wilhelm Schimper (DE) later named these green plastids chloroplasts (1658). See, von Mohl, 1837, concerning chloroplasts.


Louis Pasteur (FR) discovered that the acetic acid fermentation is due to the activity of microorganisms in the genus Mycoderma (1459).


Charles Robert Darwin (GB) wrote a book that propelled floral ecology into respectability (375).


George Bentham (GB) and Joseph Dalton Hooker (GB) undertook the ambitious task of compiling an unambiguous descriptive classification of all seed plants. They produced the monumental Genera Plantarum covering 200 "orders" (analogous to what are now known as families) with 7,569 genera, which included more than 97,200 species. The families recognized in this work are, in general, those recognized today (103).


Pieter Bleeker (NL) published his Atlas Ichthyologique des Indes Orientales Néêrlandaises, a comprehensive account of his studies done in Indonesia, featuring over 1,500 illustrations. It was published in 36 volumes between 1862 and his death in 1878. Between 1977 and 1983, the Smithsonian republished the work in 10 volumes (160). Note: Bleeker published more than 500 papers on ichthyology, describing 511 new genera and 1,925 new species.


 The Congress of the United States created the Department of Agriculture and included within it a Division of Chemistry (327-329).


Henry Walter Bates (GB) observed mimicry of distasteful or poisonous species by harmless, palatable species in the lepidoptera and suggested that the mimics enjoy protection from predation because of their resemblance (80). This phenomenon is called Batesian mimicry in his honor.

Fritz Müller; Johann Friedrich Theodor Müller (DE) in discussing mimicry explained that predators must learn through warning characteristics which species are palatable, and that in the process some of the prey population must be sacrificed (1332-1334)