SOC 423 SOC 523 COD 523

FALL 2007


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Readings Learning Opportunities and Grading Course Policies and Expectations Course Outline Student Engagement
& Success


View the report from SOC/COD 521 Sustainable Development, Fall 2006, on their research on Dahomey National Wildlife Refuge:

Dahomey Report, Fall 2006

View the photos from the trip to Dahomey National Wildlife Refuge on Sept. 15, 2007

Kiosk Photos


Course Information:

Meeting Time:
Tuesdays, 6:00–9:00 p.m.
Meeting Place:
229 Kethley Hall

Instructor: Dr. Alan Barton
Office:  Kethley Hall
Telephone: 846-4097


Office Hours:  The professor holds regular office hours at the following times:

            Tuesdays, 2:00–6:00 p.m. and Wednes
days 4:00–6:00 p.m.

If you cannot make one of these times, contact the professor for an appointment.

Course Web Page: A link to the course web site/syllabus is on the instructor’s home page (see above).  Announcements pertinent to the course will be posted on the web page.  Check this site periodically for updates, changes to the syllabus and other information pertaining to the course.

The URL for the course web page is:



SOC 423/523 and COD 523:

Freire, Paulo. 1973 (1987). Education for Critical Consciousness. Continuum Publishing Co., New York.  ISBN: 0-8264-0007-8.

Freire, Paulo. 2001. Pedagogy of Freedom: Ethics, Democracy, and Civic Courage. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc., Lanham, MD.  ISBN:  0-8476-9047-4.

Chambers, Robert. 1983. Rural Development: Putting the Last First. Longman, Inc., New York. 
ISBN:  0-582-64443-7.

Chambers, Robert. 1997. Whose Reality Counts? Putting the First Last. Intermediate Technology Press, London.  ISBN:  1-85339-386-X.

SOC/COD 523 Only:

Louv, Richard. 2006. Last Child in the Woods. Algonquin Books, Chapel Hill, NC.  ISBN: 1-56512-522-3.


Week 3

Sawhney, Puja, Masanori Kobayashi, Masahiro Takahashi, Peter N. King and Hideyuki Mori. 2007. "Participation of civil society in management of natural resources." International Review for Environmental Strategies, Vol. 7, No. 1, pp. 117
–132. FTEJ.

Cohen, John M. and Norman T. Uphoff. 1980. “Participation’s place in rural development: Seeking clarity through specificity,” World Development, Vol. 8, No. 3, pp. 213–235. CRP.

Ewert, D. Merrill, Thomas G. Yaccino and Delores M. Yaccino. 1994. “Cultural diversity and self-sustaining development: The effective facilitator,” Journal of the Community Development Society, Vol. 25, No. 1, pp. 20–33. CRP.

Van Riezen, Karsten. 1996. “Non-formal education and community development: Improving the quality,” Convergence, Vol. 29, No. 1, pp. 82–96. FTEJ.

Gaventa, John. 2004. Strengthening participatory approaches to local governance: Learning the lessons from abroad. National Civic Review, Vol. 93, No. 4, pp. 16
–27. FTEJ.

Week 4

Blackburn, James. 2000. “Understanding Paulo Freire: Reflections on the origins, concepts, and possible pitfalls of his educational approach,” Community Development Journal, Vol. 35, No. 1, pp. 3–15. CRP.

Ramdas, Lalita. 1997. “The Tao of mangoes, adult education and Freire: The continuing challenges and dilemmas,” Convergence, Vol. 30, No. 2-3, pp. 17–26. FTEJ.

Schugurensky, Daniel. 1998. “The legacy of Paulo Freire: A critical review of his contributions,” Convergence, Vol. 31, No. 1-2, pp. 17–29. FTEJ.

Note:  Readings designated "FTEJ" are available in the Full Text Electronic Journals at the DSU Library website.  Readings designated "CRP" are available in the Course Reading Packet.


Course Overview:

The purpose of this course is to critically examine various aspects of community-based adult education and participatory community development.  The course covers educational theory and practice, and the implications of different educational approaches on community and national development, and on educators.  Students are encouraged to think practically and reflexively about the role of education and educators, and gain research experience through participation in course projects.  Major themes of the course include power, intervention, and change.

Important Concepts:

Important concepts we will examine in this course include:

Education Poverty Development Conscientization
Power Rural Community Ethics
Authority Local Knowledge Governance Responsibility
Participation Expert Knowledge Civil Society Critical Theory
Facilitation Intervention Democracy Social Change

Learning Opportunities and Grading:

(1)  Reading, Attendance and Participation in Class Discussions (10 points)

• You are expected to do all of the assigned readings and attend all class sessions
• You are expected to engage in classroom discussions, reflecting on the topic and readings

(2) Facilitate Class Discussions on Readings (20 points)

• You will facilitate class discussions on the assigned readings; dates will be determined at the beginning of the semester
• You should prepare a series of questions that stimulate a productive discussion on the topic of the readings, applying the course concepts and theories

Click here for a list of discussion leaders

(3) Weekly Reflection Papers (30 points)

• You will prepare and submit ten two-page (maximum) papers that summarize and reflect on the assigned readings for the week
• Papers MUST be typed, double spaced, 10 to 12-point font, 1 inch margins
• Each paper is due at the beginning of class
• The paper covers the assigned reading for the week; not the reading for the course project

• You can skip papers for three sessions during the semester without penalty (10 papers total due)

(4) Group Project (40 points)

• You will join with other classmates in a working group

• Your group will work to implement a participatory, community-based environmental education project in a Bolivar County community, collaborating with the Dahomey National Wildlife Refuge and the Friends of Dahomey NWR
You will collaborate with schools and organizations in the community to carry out the project
Each group will prepare and submit a twelve-page report summarizing their activities and findings, and a three page executive summary that describes the purpose and findings of your project
• In addition, each group member will submit a five-page log that describes your activities, and a one-page evaluation of other group members
• You will present your group project to classmates and community members on the final day of class (finals week)

Click here for more information on the group project
Click her to view the groups

(5) Critical engagement (+/- 10 points)
• The instructor will evaluate your contribution to the course, including your interest, motivation, creativity and initiative
• This course is taught in an interactive style, and you are expected to take an active interest not just in the course material, but in the course itself, making it a success for all participants

Computing Your Grade:

Your grade in this course is based upon your performance in the course.  That is, your grade will reflect what you do.

Your final grade in the course will be calculated as follows:

• There are a total of 100 points available for the semester.  Your final score is simply the sum of all points earned over the semester.
• If you accumulate 92 or more points during the semester, you will get an “A” in the course. If you accumulate 84 to 91 points, you will get a “B,” for 76 to 83 points you will get a “C,” and for 68 to 75 points you will get a “D.”  If you get less than 68 points, your final grade will be an “F.”
• Note that you start with zero and earn points; you do not start with 100 and lose points.


Course Policies and Expectations:


YOU are responsible for learning the course material and for your progress in the course.  You are expected to attend class regularly and complete all of the assignments.  You are expected to know all material presented during class sessions, whether you attended the class or not.  If you miss a class session, you should check with another student to see what you missed.  “I didn’t know” is NEVER a valid excuse.  If you don’t know something, it is your job to find out.

Learning Opportunities:

Assigned work is designed to provide you with learning opportunities, and you are responsible for completing all of the assigned work in this course in a timely fashion.  All work is due at the time specified; no late assignments will be accepted, and missed assignments generally cannot be made up.  If you miss class or an assignment, you are making a choice that prioritizes other activities above the class, and you will receive a grade of zero for any assignment that you fail to turn in.

ALL work that you submit (except in-class work) should be typed/word processed.  If you submit a paper with more than one sheet, please attach all sheets with a staple or paper clip BEFORE you bring the assignment to class to turn in.  The instructor will NOT ACCEPT work that is handwritten or that has multiple pages that are not attached with a staple or paper clip.


You are expected to attend all class sessions and activities.  Please make sure that you sign the roll sheet at each class meeting, as this will serve as official documentation of your attendance.  If you miss class, you must document your absence, or points will be deducted from your grade (See the information on
grading attendance).  Please notify the instructor IN ADVANCE if you must miss class.  It is in your interest to provide the instructor with written notification (e.g. a note or e-mail) to document any missed classes.  It is risky simply to tell the instructor and expect him to remember.

Illnesses and Emergencies:
Illnesses and emergencies MUST be documented with a note from a doctor or other professional.  You should bring the note to the next class meeting and submit it to the instructor.  Illnesses and emergencies pertain only to the student, not to the student’s family, friends or others. 

University Activities:  If you must miss class for an official university activity, you should make arrangements with the instructor BEFORE the missed class.  Appropriate documentation is required.

Making Up Missed Work:  If you miss an exam or other assignment due to a documented illness, emergency or official university activity, a make up will be given at the end of the semester.  The make-up exam may use a different format, such as an oral exam with the instructor or an essay exam.

You are responsible for all material presented in all classes, even during an excused absence.  You should get class notes from another student for all class sessions you miss.

Class Participation:

Class participation is an important element in this course.  The purpose of class discussions is to provide you with an opportunity to practice thinking skills in a safe environment.  In discussions, you are encouraged to explore ideas presented in the readings and lectures, to think about and apply concepts, and to develop arguments and evaluate evidence.

If you repeatedly engage in disruptive behaviors during class discussions, you will be asked to leave the classroom.

  • You must demonstrate appropriate respect for the opinions and ideas of other students during class discussions.  It is acceptable (and encouraged) to disagree with the perspectives of other students or the instructor, but you should phrase this to show disagreement with the idea or opinion, not with the person presenting the idea or opinion.  If you repeatedly show disrespect for other class members, you will be asked to leave the classroom.
  • Class discussions are NOT a time to chat with other students about topics not related to the course.  Talking privately with other students while the rest of the class is trying to carry on a discussion is disruptive, bothersome, and disrespectful to other students and to the professor.  If you repeatedly speak when you do not have the floor, you will be asked to leave the classroom.
  • Class is NOT a time to catch up on your sleep.  If you are not prepared to stay awake and participate in class discussions and other activities, you should not come to class.  If you continually fall asleep during class sessions, you will be asked to leave the classroom.

If you are asked to leave the classroom for disruptive or disrespectful behavior, you cannot make up any work that you miss as a result.

Electronic Devices (Cell Phones, Pagers, etc.):

Please make sure that all cell phones, pagers, and similar electronic devices are turned off during class time.  If your phone or pager repeatedly interrupts class, you will be asked to leave the classroom.

DO NOT bring cell phones or other portable communication devices to class during exams or in-class assignments.  If the instructor sees a cell phone or other device during an exam or in-class assignment, you will receive a grade of zero on the exam or assignment, and you will be asked to leave the classroom.

If you must have a cell phone or pager (e.g. if you are a volunteer fireman or emergency responder), you MUST make arrangements with the instructor in advance.

Academic Honesty:

You are expected to comply with all academic standards and ethics as defined in the DSU Bulletin and Handbook.  You are expected to do your own work in this course.  Plagiarism, fraud and other forms of cheating will NOT be tolerated.

You should be fully aware of the
Course Policy on Plagiarism and Cheating.  If you are suspected of cheating in this course, your case will be assigned to the Division of Social Sciences Academic Honesty and Ethics Committee.  The minimum sanction for a first offense will be a 10 point deduction or a zero on the assignment, whichever is greater.  Repeat offenses will result in stiffer sanctions, including dismissal from the course with a grade of "F."  In addition, a report will be filed with the Chair of the Division of Social Sciences, the Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences, and DSU's Vice President for Academic Affairs.

IT IS YOUR RESPONSIBILITY TO UNDERSTAND THESE GUIDELINES.  Make sure you know what constitutes plagiarism and cheating BEFORE turning in any assignments.  Once you turn in an assignment, you are representing it as your own work.  If you are suspected of committing plagiarism, pleas of “I didn’t know what plagiarism was” will not be accepted.

If you are not sure what constitutes plagiarism, see the DSU Library's "
Plagiarism Prevention: A Guide for Students."  The Course Policy on Plagiarism and Cheating also outlines examples of plagiarism.  If it is still unclear, see the instructor.

Special Accommodations:

Appropriate accommodations will be made for students with medical problems or diagnosed disabilities.  Have Dr. Richard Houston at
Reily Student Health Center (846-4690) contact the course instructor to make arrangements.


Course Outline:











Review Syllabus and Expectations; Sociology of Knowledge




Participation and Facilitation
Community Development

Cohen & Uphoff (1980)
Van Riezen (1996)
Ewert, Yaccino & Yaccino (1994)
Gaventa (2004)

Course Project Sawhney, et al. (2007)



Introduction to Paulo Freire

Blackburn (2000)
Ramdas (1997)
Schugurensky (1998)

Course Project Louv, Ch. 1 & 2, pp. 1–26



Paulo Freire: Critical Consciousness

Freire (1973), pp. 1–58

Course Project Louv, Ch. 3 & 4, pp. 27–53



Robert Chambers: Defining Rural Development Chambers (1983), Ch. 1–3, pp. 1–74
Course Project Louv, Ch. 5 & 6, pp. 54–84



Robert Chambers: Addressing Rural Development

Chambers (1983), Ch. 4–6, pp. 75–167

Course Project Louv, Ch. 7 & 8, pp. 85–111



Robert Chambers: Enacting Rural Development 

Chambers (1983), Ch. 7–8, pp. 168–218

Course Project Louv, Ch. 9 & 10, pp. 115–131



Paulo Freire: Extension Education

Freire (1973), pp. 93–164

Course Project Louv, Ch. 11 & 12, pp. 132–158



Robert Chambers: The Professional Approach to Rural Development

Chambers (1997), Ch. 1–4,
pp. 1

Course Project Louv, Ch. 13 & 14, pp. 161–186



Robert Chambers: Incorporating a Local Vision into Rural Development

Chambers (1997), Ch. 5–7,
pp. 76
Course Project Louv, Ch. 15 & 16, pp. 187–222



Robert Chambers: Empowerment and Rural Development Chambers (1997), Ch. 8–10,
pp. 1
Course Project Louv, Ch. 17 & 18, pp. 223–238



Paulo Freire: Democracy and Freedom Freire (2001), Ch. 1 & 2, pp. 21–48
Course Project Louv, Ch. 19 & 20, pp. 239–281



Paulo Freire: Teaching for Democracy Freire (2001), Ch. 3, pp. 49–84
Course Project Louv, Ch. 21, 22 & 23, pp. 285–310





Paulo Freire: Teaching for Humanity Freire (2001), Ch. 4, pp. 85–129
Course Project Due  



Presentation of Group Projects



Student Engagement and Success:

The faculty and administration at Delta State University are committed to assisting all students achieve success while at DSU and in their future careers.  In addition to faculty office hours and periodic workshops and seminars, the following resources are always available to students to help them prepare for college-level work, and to improve their study habits and skills.  We encourage you to take full advantage of these resources:

Roberts-LaForge Library
         Reference Desk:  (662) 846-4431
         Further information

Writing Center
         Kethley Hall 201
         (662) 846-4088
 Further information


Academic Support Lab

         H. L. Nowell Union 311
         (662) 846-4654
         Further information

Academic Success Workshops
Further information



Office of Information Technology

         Bailey Hall 114

         OIT Help Desk:  (662) 846-4444

         Further information

Technology Learning Center

         Ewing Hall 130        

         (662) 846-4444

         Further Information

Counseling & Testing Center
         O.W. Reily Student Health Center
         (662) 846-4690
         Further Information

Office of Career Services
         H.L. Nowell Union 300

         (662) 846-4646

         Further Information