GLS 600  (Graduate Liberal Studies)  Reading the Good Life    

Intertextuality:  Reading, Writing and Research Tactics for the Good/Successful Life

            Presiding Teacher: James Tomek      662-846-7136


This course will serve as a core course for students seeking a MALS Degree (Master of Arts in Liberal Studies). Students will learn various concepts of interdisciplinarity, including intertextuality, sacramentality and reflexivity, as they improve research, writing and interpretive reading skills and arrive at a better understanding of the self in the postmodern world. Many disciplines across the arts and sciences will be discussed by representative teachers from these disciplines. From this course, students will be able to choose an advisor(s) and a track to continue their studies at a graduate level.


Textual Philosophy of  GLS 600 --  Each class session will be devoted to reading a text that will encourage us to “write” our own texts alongside it. The class itself will be a text as our discussions create new texts that will be in excess of traditional disciplines. Each session will have an “ordainer” who will order the night’s reading. Discussions will disseminate and produce future “ordainers” or facilitators or teachers and, of course, colleagues.



In the first five sessions, students and teachers will gain familiarity with the major concepts of intertextuality, sacramentality and reflexivity. Intertextuality can be seen as a reversal of the order of “texts” where what was formally the “sub” or “con” text becomes the major text. The “other” becomes the “subject.” For example, an historical or cultural background of a story, like the mentality of the 60s in the US, can proceed to be the major topic or “text” while the plot or characters of the “former” major text support the historical text. Another meaning of intertextuality is where one text can help you read another text.  Sometimes the texts can stay in the same field like interpreting Hebrew Scripture from a similar referent in the Christian Scriptures. Texts can also be from different fields like art, music, cultural history, political writings, films etc. One can read a painting from a poetry stand point or interpret a political situation from a narrative view. Using more fields to interpret texts gives the interpretation greater density than if read from one viewpoint alone. Sacramentality and reflexivity can be seen as versions of intertextuality that will help add some complexity and density to the use of intertextuality. A “sacramental” attitude is where one sees all reality is sacred, imbued with the hidden presence of “God,” where one sees the divine in the human, the infinite in the finite, and the spiritual in the material. Emmanuel Mounier calls “sacrament” the mystery of divine direction. To draw mystery into the light of day without losing its strength is the highest achievement of art and thought. To bring sacramentality to all people searching for spirituality, we can substitute “God” or “Divine Direction” with the mystery of higher reality, consisting of true human experiences that are difficult to articulate. In this sense, sacramentality brings in the notion of “symbol” where an image or a text can stand for a great human experience that is almost impossible to explain. This reflexive situation of experience and great truth can be seen in financial and market expert George Soros's theory of reflexivity, a theory that fails in natural sciences, but succeeds in social sciences, where you have thinking participants. Participants try to understand their world, but their current thinking about the world affects the world they are trying to think about. It is a reflexive process with a cognitive function (trying to understand a situation) and a participating function (the situation being affected by your thoughts). In the Stock Market, fundamentals, like assets and earnings, affect stock prices, but stock prices themselves also affect the fundamentals (we do not think in this second function says Soros). His goal is to see through prevailing biases to see ultimately what constitutes the reality of a situation. Students will acquire greater understanding of economic language of finance and trade and apply it to other “texts.” In the second part of the course, students and teachers will explore specific examples of intertextuality: gynography and gender studies; cultural history; racism and racialism; capitalism and exploitation; historical interpretation; poetry/prose distinctions. In the final part of the course students will explore the concept of “voice” and “vocation” and discover what texts they confront in a “writerly” or professional attitude.

TEXTS: Texts are listed in the “Class Schedule” section.

GENERAL COURSE OBJECTIVE:  At the conclusion of GLS 600 students will:

1. be able to read at a graduate level.

2. be able to do research and write papers at a graduate level.

3. be in a position to choose a major track of study.

PURPOSE: The primary goal of the course is to improve students’ skills in communication in reading, writing, speaking and listening.  In learning how people in various academic disciplines view the world, students will be improving their base of Critical and Creative Thinking skills and  gain greater cultural awareness of the world. Students will explore the nature of learning in these disciplines, hopefully in the goal of forming a better learning philosophy. In exploring the different meanings of the term “other,” students will be forming a philosophic base to analyze the self in the world and discover other value systems. The many disciplines will include many aspects of life, including artistic, economic, scientific, religious and social realms.  While not “testing” Quantitative skills and Technology skills [except maybe for some research methods, it is a hope that this course will lead some students to think about and explore these areas.

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES:  At the conclusion of GLS 600, students will:

1. have arrived at deeper understandings of intertextuality, reflexivity, and sacramentality, and be able to apply them to various academic disciplines.

2. have encountered different meanings of "text" as they apply across the disciplines and have studied various structures of narrative in order to read and interpret according to various contexts.

3. have become familiar with critical terms that humanities scholars use for interpreting  texts like modernism, postmodernism, structuralism (signifiers, signifieds, syntagms, paradigms), deconstruction, figurative language (metaphor/symbol distinctions), culture, determinacy, formalist and intentional interpretation, form/content etc.

4. see “text” as an invitation to "get in" and do research for success in graduate school and a scholarly career, and identify disciplines that can help add meanings to texts in their primary field. 



1.  Students are expected to come to every class and participate in class discussions (25%).

2.  Students will write short and informal responses (150-200 words) to the weekly readings or viewings which can be based on the questions posed in the course outline. Four of these responses will be in paragraph form where students will make an observation and support it from the readings. The other weekly responses can be in the form of notations that students make as they read the required texts. These notes can be used in class discussions (25%).

3. Students will write a longer paper (10 pages) or research project where they will explore a thesis encompassing at least two academic disciplines. By the fourth meeting, students will meet with the reference librarian who will acquaint them with research techniques in the DSU library. By the fifth week, students will be submitting short reports on their research as they gather a bibliography. Students will stay in contact with their teacher or advisor during the research and writing process. One half of the project will concern research techniques while the other half will concern arranging the paper in coherent form.(40%).

4. A final informal essay-discussion where students synthesize ideas in the course and point to a future area of investigation. Students and teachers will discuss any changes in their habits of research and reading as well as any surprises in their interpretations using intertextuality (10%).



Class work                              30%   

Short response papers          20%

Research paper                      40%

Final presentation                 10%





Lecture and class discussion.


ACADEMIC HONESTY POLICY  (refer to the Bulletin p. 27)


ADA STATEMENT – REFERENCE TO COUNSELING CENTER FOR DISABILITIES (sample: The University will attempt to accommodate students with disabilities.  For assistance and to make arrangements for accommodation please contact Dr. Richard Houston, at the Reily Health Center, 846-4690. It is the responsibility of students who have professionally diagnosed disabilities to notify the instructor and present documentation in a timely manner so that necessary and/or appropriate modifications can be made to meet any special learning needs.)


Special Accommodations:  If you have a documented disability, please see Dr. Houston in Student Health Services for directions for obtaining special accommodations to meet your needs.  The ADA coordinator’s campus phone number is 846-4690.




In addition to the university policy in the DSU Bulletin (p.30), regular attendance is an integral part of the classroom requirement of your final grade. Unexcused absences will negatively affect your class participation grade. The teacher will excuse absences for most legitimate causes even if not allowed by the University.



Please silence cell phones and pagers upon entering the classroom.  Do not check messages or send text messages during class.  No food or drinks are to be consumed in the classrooms.


Website for teacher:    (662-846-7136)





Part I: Tactics of Reading: Intertextuality, Sacramentality and Reflexivity


Meeting 1:   Aug. 21  Intertextuality and theories of the "other."

            Issues:  Successful vs the good life. Concepts of intertextuality, sacramentality and the “other.” The foreigner as national alien.  “Others” as alterity that we accept, and “the other” as radical

alterity that we do not find “normal.” The threats to democracy from social and economic fields. The integrist factions and racial cleansing. Disciplines outside your specialty as "other." Intertextuality as a reversal of history from a supporting context to history as a major text. Introduction to the terms “modernism” and “postmodernism.”

            Texts: Guillaume et Baudrillard, Figures of Alterity. (Introduction - handout)

                        Michael RiffaterreSyllepsis:  hand out)

                        Dickinson, Emily. “Success is counted sweetest”

                        Jamaica Kincaid. “Girl.”   

            Questions for response: Examples of "other" in your life. Could your "other" be someone else's "others"? Is this method of inquiry philosophic? How is it intertextual? Why is it important to

maintain the concept of radical alterity? What role does intertextuality have in keeping history going? Does Western thought have a tendency to transform “other” into “others?” Is there a danger here that can lead to generalizations – racism and sexism? Can the “other” have a positive value in the sacramental sense? (Sacrament is a sign with the hidden presence of God or the eternal or a higher reality.) A “sacra  mentality” would be an attitude that looks for deeper meaning of “ordinary things). Can the “other” here be the sacred that we do not usually see in material objects and nature? Can intertextuality be connected to interdisciplinarity and open up avenues of vocation? What is Intertextuality? Interdisciplinarity?

            Disciplines: Sociology, Political Science, Religion, History, Cultural Studies, Gender Studies, Literature, Geography, Criminal Justice.


Meeting 2:      Aug. 28   The Face of the other in philosophy. 

            Issues: The basic aspects of philosophy: theory or reality, ethics, and wisdom and their meaning in the “Greek” age, Christian age, the 18th Century or Enlightenment, and

Postmodernity.  Levinas’s position of ethics, and not ontology, as the basis of philosophy. Michel de Certeau’s voice vs. written language; strategy vs tactics.

            TextsLevinas, Emmanuel. “The Vocation of the Other.” In Jill Robbins, Ed. Is It Righteous To Be: Interviews with Emmanuel Levinas, 105-113 Translated by Jill Robbins. Stanford, Ca:

Stanford University Press,


Questions: How does Levinas’s “other” compare with the meanings of “other” and “others” that we have encountered? Can philosophy’s terminology help us explore other disciplines? What

does hearing the face of the other mean?  What is Philosophy?!

            Disciplines: Philosophy, Religion, History


Meeting 3:    Sept. 4   Intertextuality:  deconstruction and postmodernism through The Shining

            Issues: Concepts of structuralism (signifiers, signifieds, paradigms), deconstruction. modernism, postmodernism (reification),  and intertextuality. The modern horror story. Demonic imagery.

The novel as genre. The narrator. Reification (reduction of reality to its visual images) as a danger to sacramentality. La mode retro vs. the real past or nostalgia vs. our real history. Monopolies vs. Multinational corporations. The hell of consumer society vacations. The retreat of the middle class to servant status.

            Texts:  Kubrick, Stanley.  The Shining.       King, Stephen. The Shining

Jameson, Frederic. “ Historicism in the Shining”  in Signatures of the Visible. London: Routledge, 1999.

            Questions: Whose story is the narrator telling? What kind of writer is the protagonist? What era of history is King exploring? In a philosophic vein, how has global multi-national capitalism

changed the ways we view ourselves and our activities? Why does the film flashback to the twenties?  Compare the endings of the film (ice) and novel (fire), and the father's writing vocation as commodity or reification?          

            Disciplines: History, Literature, Film Study, Sociology


Meeting 4:   Sept. 11    Sacramentality and grace in the  modern and postmodern worlds and Reading as translation (Guest – Michael Smith)

            Issues: Racialism vs racism. Jansenism and grace  --   Modern and postmodern evils. Sacramentality. Translation as interpretation.

            Texts: O'Connor, Flannery. "Parker's Back" and “Revelation”

                        Kafka, Franz. Metamorphosis                         

                        Goethe. Faust  (selections)

Questions: What prevents Parker's tattoos from being sacramental? What is idolatry? Is it reification? Is Ruby doing a reflexive reading of herself in the end? What about the exploitation of

Gregor Samsa by his family and bureaucratic world? The role of the good/bad father. Reflection: Sacramentality is a perspective that “sees” the divine in the human, the infinite in the finite, the spiritual in the material, the transcendent in the immanent, the eternal in the historical. All reality is sacred. The opposite vision would be that “God” or the divine is so totally other and that this world is an obstacle to the divine. Do Protestants fear that Catholics will take the sacramental principle to the point of idolatry? A sacrament is a reality that is imbued with the presence of God (or the divine or a higher reality). Christ would be the visible sign or sacrament or symbol (heresy!) of God. The Church (all Christian churches here) would be the sacrament or sign of Christ. Grace is the divine presence and it can transform all of nature to its highest reality. What is grace?  The force, the gift, the quality, the feeling that lets us get out of our egos and really care for the other (Levinas is here). If one doesn’t believe in God per se, can one have a sacramental attitude?  To see the highest form of reality possible is going beyond the material.  Giving water to a thirsty person changes the nature of that water. A sacra  mental perspective is intertextual. An aspect of a particular text can transform into a higher text. O’Connor’s stories explore the movement of grace in various people.

            Disciplines; Theology, Philosophy, Social Science, Literature


Meeting 5:    Sept. 18    Postmodernism and Sports History  (Guest – Chuck Westmoreland)

            Issues: The Social Construct of reality.  Reading through Sports History. Text, Narrative (intertextuality), and Discourse (interdisciplinarity).

            Texts: Susan Birrell  “Approaching Mount Everest: On Intertextuality and the Past as Narrative”

                        Vince Gilligan. Breaking Bad (first few episodes)

Questions: How does sports fit in with history? What disciplines would be involved? How is Everest a “text?”  Breaking Bad?” Roland Barthes’ concept of “writerly text” [see the Barthes

handout on Loyola, Sade, Fourier] is pretty close to Birrell’s “text.” The “readerly” text is one that we read and understand, but the “writerly” is where we enter the text and write along with it, creating new meanings. A text can be an event, a person, an object. Birrell and Barthes invite us to read other narratives about the text (intertextuality) in order to help us explore the text further, including coming from other disciplines or “discourses.”

Disciplines: Cultural Studies, history, theology.


Part II:  Specific cases of intertextuality


Meeting 6:    Sept. 25   EthnoHistory                                       (Guest Ethan Schmidt)

            Issues: What is ethnohistory? How do we write the history of those who left no written sources? 

            Texts:  Ethan A. Schmidt.  Cockacoeske, Weroansqua of the Pamunkeys, and Indian Resistance in Seventeenth-Century Virginia”

            Questions:  Is the goal of ethnohistory simply to write Indian-centered history for Native People and those who study them or is it to balance out the larger meta-narrative? What

responsibilities do the practitioner’s of ethnohistory have to the Native communities they study? 

            Disciplines:      Ethnography, Anthropology, the Anthropological turn, Archaeology, Native Studies, History, History from the bottom up


Meeting 7.   Oct. 2         Gender Studies    (Guest   Leslie Fadiga-Stewart)

Issues: Politics, Political Culture

Texts: Sydney White. “Mothers and Whores: The Relationship between Popular Culture and Women in Politics.”

            Tamara Kharroub and Andrew J. Weaver. “Portrayals of Women in Transnational Arab Television Drama Series.”

Questions: What is gender studies? Gynography? Essentialism? How are women portrayed on the screen?

Disciplines: Gender Studies, Politics, Comparative Politics, Cultural Studies, Film Studies,



Meeting 8:   Oct. 9                  Interpreting Scripture  (Guest -- Clint Tibbs)

            Issues:  What is biblical commentary?  What is Critical Inquiry into Texts? Does it have to do with ethics? Why is Spinoza the

                        father of biblical commentary?

            Text:   Benedict de Spinoza. “Of the Interpretation of Scripture.” 

           Questions:  Who wrote the Bible? How do I read the Bible from a Religious viewpoint? From a Critical View? Can we use both at the same time?

Are commentaries to be tied in with Morality? Liturgy and Morality?   -- do they go together?

            Disciplines:  Philosophy, Theology, Literary Criticism 


Meeting 9        Oct. 23    The Blues  and All That Jazz   or Trees  versus Rhizomes                   (Guests   Don Allan Mitchell and Shelley Collins)

            Issues: What are the “Blues?” What is their connection to “Jazz?” To “rhythm and blues”?  to “Rock and Roll”? To the canon?

            Texts:  Deleuze, Gilles and Guattari Félix. “Introduction: Rhizomes,” in A Thousand plateaus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia.

                        Certeau, Michel de. The Practice of Everyday Life. Translated by Stephen Rendall. Berkeley: U of California P, 1984.   (chapters, 1,2,6 )

            Questions: How does Certeau’s notion of voice versus print fit in with the question. Are the Blues political?

            Disciplines: Music, Philosophy, Geography, Cultural Studies


Meeting 10:     Oct. 30   Intertexts of King Lear in 18th Century Illustrations and Hamlet in Scorsese’s The Departed    (Guest   Susan Allen Ford)

Issues: Through the course of the eighteenth century Shakespeare became redefined as England’s National Poet, a role evidenced not only by stage productions

and the proliferation of editions of his plays but also through artistic representation in book illustration as well as on the painterly canvas.  What

do scholars call adaptation or appropriation, specifically in representations of King Lear’s Cordelia through the course of the “long” eighteenth

century (1688 to 1830). Can we intertext  or adapt Mallarmé’s theory of sacred theater and Hamlet to Martin Scorsese’s The Departed adapting sacred

theater to the sacred classroom?

            Texts:   Shakespeare. Hamlet.

 Scorsese, Martin. The Departed.

 Greenblatt, Stephen. Hamlet in Purgatory.

 Ford, Susan, “The Eye of Anguish”: Images of Cordelia in the Long Eighteenth Century

Questions: What happens when artists use or respond to another (or many others)?  What can we learn from these adaptations about the changing cultural

 narrative (especially in terms of definitions of womanhood)? Shakespeare’s and Scorsese’s texts deal with the protagonists looking for their fathers?

Are they looking for their “good” teachers? Can medieval and modern concepts of “purgatory” help us read these texts and “our” personal texts.

Who are the “good” parents in our lives?

Disciplines: Historicism, Literature, Film Studies, Pedagogy, Cultural Studies, Gender studies/Feminist Criticism, Art History, Stage/Performance History.


  Meeting 11:  Nov. 6  Historiography and Issues in Writing History   Does History tell the Truth         (Guest Thomas Laub)

            Issues: Is there such a thing as objective truth? The historian as reporter of truth. Objectivity. Scientific objective truth vs. Relative subjective truth. Practical Realism

                        and the Hegelian Dialectic.

            Text:   Joyce Appleby, Lynn Hunt, Margaret Jacob.  Telling the Truth about History,         Ch. 7, “Truth and Objectivity,” pp. 241-270

            Questions: WHAT IS HISTORY? WHAT IS YOUR DISCIPLINE? DEFINE! What types of history can we do? Is anthropology history? Cultural studies? How

            does memory affect our knowledge of the past?   Is history a study of change and continuity in time in human societies?

            Disciplines: Cultural Studies, Anthropology, Literature, Delta Studies.


Meeting 12:  Nov. 13.    The Personhood “Debate”   (Guests: Leslie Fadiga-Stewart, Sally Paulson, Arlene Sanders, Yvonne Tomek, Robin Boyles, Michelle Johanson, Anna Paulson)

Issues: What Does It Take to be a Person? Focusing specifically on term “person,” how can language “name” reality or “shape” it from various contexts, including legal, historical, literary,

including gender, race and philosophic/political definitions. The following topics will be presented, followed by discussion.  

“Texts”  Johnson, Barbara. “Apostrophe, Animation, and Abortion” in A World of Difference

                Levinas, Emmanuel. And God Created Woman” in Nine Talmudic Readings

            Disciplines: Law, Political  Science, Sociology, Literature, Linguistics 


Part III: Searching  for “voice” in texts: your “vocation” and the need of discipline?


Meeting 13:    Nov. 20     Matisse, Baudelaire, Mallarmé: Reading poetry from a painter’s view Matisse and  Baudelaire (and Marx). The voice as authentic speech.  (Guest Terry Everett)

Issues: Ekphrasis. Mise-en-abime (setting in abyss- a modernist narrative technique). Voice (true subversive authentic speech) vs. written language (the legal language of the power class).

Reading with "mise-en-abyme" and reflexivity. Poetry and painting as similar reading genre. Political aspects of poetry, prose, and painting.

            Texts:  Windows After Matisse  on  (in the “papers” section and also on the index page under poetry)

                        Matisse, "Luxe, calme et volupté." (Baudelaire—“Invitation to a Voyage”)

                        Matisse, "The Open Window." 

            Questions: What role does childhood play in Matisse and Baudelaire? Does Matisse's distinction between design and painting compare with Johnson's relationship of poetry and prose? Are

poetry and painting "voice" functions? What was the poet’s experience in front of the Matisse retrospective. How is ekphrasis used in his poems? 

            Disciplines: Art, Poetry, Psychology.



Meeting 14:      Dec. 4  PART ONE -- Reading for Remission: Reading as Prayer –Searching for the “Writerly” text and Discussions of Individual Projects

            Issues: The “readerly” text (where meaning can be readily interpreted through historical and cultural codes) and the “writerly” text (where there is a resistance to finding meanings – where

meanings can be found only by entering the text and “writing” with it – adding one’s marks). The good life vs. the successful life.

            Texts: Pascal, Blaise. Pensées. (on the death sentence),        Proust, Marcel. Swann’s Way. (passages),             “Reading for Remission”  (Tomek essay)

            Questions: What texts in this course are “writerly?” What disciplines? In what disciplines or texts do I feel eternal – outside the linear time chain?

            Disciplines: Philosophy et al.

                                    PART TWO    Student Presentations



Meeting 15:  Dec. 11      Final Discussions  -- Presentations




Anderson, E. Byron and Morrill, Bruce T., Eds. Liturgy and the Moral Self: Humanity

at Full Stretch Before God. Collegeville: Liturgical Press, 1998.   (Liturgy and Morality)

Appleby, Joyce, Hunt Lynn, and Jacob, Margaret. Telling the Truth about History, (Ch. 7, “Truth and Objectivity,” pp. 241-270)

Barthes, Roland. "Work and Text." In Image, Music, and Text. New York: Hill and Wang, 1977.

Baudelaire, Charles. The Flowers of Evil. Paris: Garnier-Flammarion, 1964.

________. Poems in Prose. Paris: Livre de Poche, 1964. 

Birrell, Susan. Approaching Mount Everest: On Intertextuality and the Past as Narrative. Journal of Sport History 34, no. 1(Spring 2007): 1-22.

Camus. Albert. The Stranger.

Certeau, Michel de. The Practice of Everyday Life. Translated by Stephen Rendall. Berkeley: U of California P, 1984.   (chapters, 1,2,6 )

Chopin, Kate. “The Story of an Hour” and “The Storm” in Literature. 11th Edition. Edited by Kennedy and Gioia.

Clifford, James. "Ethnographic Surrealism." In Predicament of  Culture. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1988.

Culler, Jonathan. On Deconstruction: Theory and Criticism after Structuralism. Ithaca, NY:  Cornell UP, 1982.

Crites, Stephen. “The Narrative Quality of Experience.” In Why Narrative?, 65-88. Edited by Hauerwas and Jones.  (Narrative Theology)

Deleuze, Gilles and Guattari Félix. “Introduction: Rhizomes,” in A Thousand plateaus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia.

Edmundson. Mark. Being Uncool. New York Times. Sept. 21, 2008.

Everett, Terry, Ross, Mary Anne, Tomek, James.  Windows After Matisse. Jackson: Dove Publications, 1998.

Feeny, Kathleen. “ Mystery of Divine Direction in ‘Parker’s Back,”  In Literature 12th ed., Kennedy and Gioia eds. 469.

Ferry, Luc. Apprendre à vivre: Traité de philosophie à l’usage de jeunes générations.Paris: Plon, 2006.

________. Qu’est-ce qu’une vie réussie?” Paris: Grasset, 2002.

Ford, Susan, “The Eye of Anguish”: Images of Cordelia in the Long Eighteenth Century. Borrowers and Lenders: The Journal of Shakespeare and Appropriation

Geis, Gilbert and Huston, Ted L. “Charles Manson and His Girls: Notes on a Durkheimian Theme.”

Gilligan, Vince. Breaking Bad. (AMC TV).

Greenblatt, Stephen. Hamlet in Purgatory. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton UP, 2001.

Guillaume, Marc and Baudrillard, Jean. Figures of Alterity. Paris: Gallimard, 1993.

Hadot, Pierre. “Mes exercises spirituels.” Le Nouvel Observateur 2279 (10 juillet 2008): 20-23.

Jameson, Frederic. Signatures of the Visible. London: Routledge, 1999. (Chapter on The Shining)

Johnson, Barbara. The Critical Difference. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 1980.

____        . "Apostrophe, Animation, and Abortion," in  A World of Difference, 184-199. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 1989.         

Lentrichia, Frank, ed. Critical Terms for Literary Study (Barbara Johnson’s article “Writing”)

Leonhardt, David. “Larry Summers’s Evolution.” The New York Times Magazine.” June 10, 2007. 22-28. (on multi-discipliarity)

Levinas, Emmanuel. “The Vocation of the Other.” In Is It Righteous To Be:Interviews with Emmanuel Levinas.

Edited and Translated by Jill Robbins. 105-113. Stanford, Ca: Stanford University Press, 2001.

________. “And God Created Woman.” In Nine Talmudic Readings. Translated by Annette Aronowicz, 162-177. Bloomington and

Indianapolis: Indiana UP, 1994.

Lewis, Pierce K. “Axioms for Reading the Landscape: Some Guides to the American Scene.”

Kafka, Franz. Metamorphosis. In Kennedy, Gioia anthology.

Kennedy, X.J. and Gioia, Dana, Eds. Literature: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, Drama, and Writing. New York: Longman, 2010.  

Khandelwal, Meena. “ Arranging Love: Interrogating the Vantage Point in Cross-Border Feminism.” In Signs

Kharroub, Tamara and Andrew J. Weaver. “Portrayals of Women in Transnational Arab Television Drama Series.” Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media  58, no.2 (2014): 179-195.

Kristeva, Julia. “Women’s Time.” In Critical Theory Since 1965. Edted by Hazard Adams and Leroy Searle. Tallahassee: Florida State UP, 1986

MacIntyre, Alasdair. “The Virtues, the Unity of a Human Life, and the Concept of a Tradition.”

In Why Narrative?, 89-110. Edited by  Hauerwas and Jones. (narrative theology and virtue)

MacIntyre, Alasdair. “The End of Education: The Fragmentation of the American University.”

C21 Resources. Boston College: Church of the Twenty-first Century Center, Spring 2007. 15-16. (interdisciplinarity)

Meinig, D.W. “The Beholding Eye: Ten Versions of the Same Scene.”

Mallarmé, Stéphane. Divagations. Translated by Barbara Johnson. Cambridge, Ma. and London, England: The Belknap Press of the Harvard UP, 2007.

O'Connor, Flannery. "Parker's Back,"  and “Revelation” in  Literature:Kennedy/Gioia Anthology.   

Schmidt, Ethan A.  Cockacoeske, Weroansqua of the Pamunkeys, and Indian Resistance in Seventeenth-Century Virginia.”  American Indian Quarterly 36, no. 3 (Summer 2012): 288-317.

Shakespeare, William. Hamlet. In Case Studies in Contemporary Criticism: William Shakespeare Hamlet: Complete, Authoritative Text with Biographical and Historical

Contexts, Critical History, and Essays from Five Contemporary Critical Perspectives. Edited by Susan Wofford. Boston and New York: Bedford Books of St. Martin’s Press, 1994.

Showalter, Elaine. “Representing Ophelia: Women, Madness, and the Responsibilities of Feminist Criticism.” In Hamlet, Suzanne L. Wofford, ed.

Soros, George, The Alchemy of Finance. New York:  John Wilkey and Sons, 1994.

________. The New Paradigm for Financial Markets. New York: Public Affairs, 2008. 

Spinoza, Benedict de. “Of the Interpretation of Scripture.” In A Theologico-Political Treatise and A Political Treatise. Trans. R.H.M. Elwes. Mineola, NY: Dover


White, Sydney.  “Mothers and Whores: The Relationship between Popular Culture and Women in Politics.” Mapping Politics 4 (Fall 2012): 1-10. (?)




Kubrick, Stanley. The Shining, 1979.

Scorsese, Martin, Director. The Departed. Warner Bros. 2006.

Chadha, Gurinder, Bend It Like Beckham. 2002.

Gilligan, Vince  Breaking Bad   (2009-Present)



Matisse, Henri. "The Open Window," "Luxe, calme, et volupté." in Henri Matisse: A Retrospective. John Elderfield, ed. New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1992..