LESSON 1

 

                   Getting acquainted

 

Imagine that we are in an American airport. Bill Jackson, a young American student has come to meet a French family.

 

MINIMUM KNOWLEDGE

 

            Learn to pronounce all the words on side 1.

            Learn to spell all the words on side 1.

            Looking only at side 2, learn to recite and write side 1.

 

 

                        Side 1                                                              Side 2

BILL: Pardon Monsieur, vous êtes Monsieur Beaufort?

M. BEAUFORT: Mais oui Monsieur.

BILL: Je m’appelle Bill Jackson. Je suis votre interprète.

M. BEAUFORT: Bonjour Monsieur. Voici Madame Beaufort.

BILL: Bonjour Madame.

M. BEAUFORT: Voici Jacques et Francine.

BILL: Bonjour Jacques. Bonjour Francine.

(They all shake hands.)

BILL: Excuse me. Are you Mr. Beaufort?

 

Mr. BEAUFORT: Yes, I am.

BILL: My name is Bill Jackson. I am your interpreter.

Mr. BEAUFORT: How do you do. This is Madame Beaufort.

BILL: Good morning.

Mr. BEAUFORT: This is Jacques, and this is Francine.

BILL:  Hi.

 

 

Your teacher will read side 1 while you listen. Glance at side 2 and make sure of the meaning.

 

[Your teacher may act out side 1 completely in French, and then, have you repeat the sentences.]

 

Your teacher will ask you to read side 1, sentence after sentence, together, separately, again and again. Listen to your instructor’s pronunciation. Imitate the sounds, gestures, and facial expressions.

 

Now, cover side 1 with one hand. Look at side 2. Can you reproduce side 1 exactly? Of course you may peek now. But try again, until you don’t have to look, and your answers match the text. Next try writing the phrases without looking.

           

This is called memorizing. There is no difference between memorizing and learning. When you learn to say “Hi, Mac,” you have memorized the words “Hi” and “Mac.” Of course you may decide to say “Hi, George,” but that is another story.

 

 

LESSON 1     WORKING KNOWLEDGE

Learn the following rules. Learn to pronounce all the words on side.

Looking only at side 2, learn to write, recite side 1.

 

 

After reading the preceding dialogue, you may have noticed that the French are a little more formal than the Americans. The French will expect you to shake hands with them when you meet for the first time. Of course, this does apply to women too!

           

French people of a “certain” age like to be addressed as Monsieur or Madame. Do not add the family name when you speak French. Bonjour Madame Beaufort would be gauche. The abbreviation for Monsieur is M. and Madame is Mme. However, when addressing them in writing, it is better to spell the words out.

           

 

Here are some greeting words with approximate translations. Since language is a reflection of a particular culture, all translations are approximate.

 

 

                        Side 1                                                              Side 2

bonjour

bonsoir

salut

ça va?

au revoir

à bientôt

good morning

good night

hi, hello!

How are you?

good bye

see you soon

 

 

                       

 

Are there any questions you would like to ask your instructor? Ask them after you have studied the dialogue and the WORKING KNOWLEDGE rules. Your teacher may answer some of your questions and say that others are premature. Do not be offended. You need quite a grammatical background to understand most of the answers. Be patient: you will get to know all the answers in a little while. In the meantime, you might have to accept, “I’ll tell you about that later.”

 

 

 

 

                       

 

 

 

 

 

 

LESSON 1     THOROUGH KNOWLEDGE

 

 

The third part of the lesson will consist of written exercises. Your teacher may want you to turn them in or be prepared to answer them orally in class. The exercises will be practical applications of the dialogues, the grammar rules and vocabulary of the Minimum Knowledge and Working Knowledge parts.

           

 

Today, with the help of the class list, greet one another.

 

ex:   -Vous êtes Bill Jackson?

        -Non, je suis Denis Bryan.

        -Vous êtes Ellen Davis?

        -Oui, je m’appelle Ellen. Voici Paul Miller.

        -Je m’appelle David. Voici Linda.

        -Je m’appelle Jack.

        -Salut Jack.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                           

LESSON 2

 

                  Let’s meet the characters of this story.

 

MINIMUM KNOWLEDGE

 

Do you remember Lesson 1? Do you know how to say in French, “My name is Bill Jackson”? Please review the preceding lesson. Your instructor may have a little quiz for you. Languages are not very difficult to learn, but they are easy to forget.  With this method you will learn fast and well.  But do take a few minutes to review the preceding lesson, particularly the preceding dialogue. We will not keep reminding you to do it, but please try!

 

Learn to pronounce all the words on side 1.

            Learn to spell all the words on side 1.

            Looking only at side 2, learn to write and recite side 1.

 

                                    Side 1                                                  Side 2

Monsieur Beaufort est un homme. C’est le père.

Madame Beaufort est une femme. C’est la mère.

Jacques Beaufort est un garçon. C’est le fils.

Francine Beaufort est une fille. C’est la fille.

Bill Jackson est un jeune homme. C’est l’ami de la famille.

Mr. Beaufort is a man. He is the father.

 

Mrs. Beaufort is a woman. She is the mother.

Jacques Beaufort is a boy (young man). He is the son.

Francine Beaufort is a girl (young woman).

She is the daughter.

Bill Jackson is a young man. He is the friend of the family.

 

 

Here are a few additional words for different relatives.

 

                                   

le frère

la soeur

le mari

l’oncle

la tante

le cousin

la cousine

le fiancé

la fiancée

the brother

the sister

the husband

the uncle

the aunt

the cousin (man)

the cousin (woman)

the fiancé (m.)

the fiancée (f.)

 

The French language has no word for wife (femme) or daughter (fille).

 

 

LESSON 2     WORKING KNOWLEDGE

Learn all the following rules. Learn to pronounce all the words on side 1.

Looking only at side 2, learn to recite and write side 1.

 

1. Genders

French nouns are either masculine or feminine. You will have no problem with the words in this lesson since we are dealing with people. Obviously men are masculine and women are feminine.

 

Abbreviations:  m. masculine    f.  feminine    s.  singular    pl.   plural

 

 

2.  Definite articles

 

                        Side 1                                                              Side 2

le     (m.)                                 

la      (f.)                                             

les     (pl.)                               

l’         

the

the

the

the

 

In front of words beginning with a vowel and an h (in most cases) use l’ instead of le or la.

 

ex:  l’homme, la femme,                      the man, the woman,

       le jeune homme,                           the young man, 

       la jeune femme, l’ami                   the young woman, the friend

       les hommes, les femmes               the men, the women                                                                                       

 

 

3. Indefinite articles

 

                       

un    (m.)

une   (f.)

des   (pl.)

a (an

a (an)

some

                                               

ex:  un homme, une femme, des hommes,      a man, a woman, (some)men,

       des femmes, des amis                              (some) women, (some) friends

 

As a general rule, it is necessary to place an article in front of every French noun. In English the article is often omitted.

ex:  I came with friends. He likes money. I want water.

 

 

 

 

LESSON 2     THOROUGH KNOWLEDGE

 

The following exercises will help you clarify the concepts of Lesson 2.

 

I.  Fill-in with a definite or indefinite article.

       1. Monsieur Beaufort est ____ homme. 2. Madame Beaufort est ____ femme.

       3. Jacques est ____ cousin de Paul. 4. Francine est ____cousine de Georgette.

       5. Madame Martin est  ____ tante de Francine. 6. Monsieur Durand est ____ mari de     

           Madame Durand.  7. Jacques est ____ fils de Monsieur et de Madame Beaufort.

       8. Monsieur Dupont est ____ oncle de Madame Durand. Monsieur Beaufort est

            ____ père de Francine. 9. Madame Beaufort est ___ mère de Francine.

       10. Madame Beaufort est ____ femme de Monsieur Beaufort.

       11. Francine est ____ soeur de Jacques. 12. Jacques est ____ frère de Francine.

       13. Bill est ____ ami de la famille. 14. Bill est  ___ interprète de la famille.

 

II. Translate the above paragraph into English.

 

III. Figure out the relationships. Imitate the model sentence.

       Monsieur Beaufort est un homme. C’est le mari de Madame Beaufort.

       C’est le père de Jacques et c’est le père de Francine.

       Madame Beaufort. . .

       Jacques. . .

       Francine. . .

 

IV. Translate into French.

  1. My name is Paul.
  2. I am your guide.
  3. My name is Francine.
  4. Good morning Francine.
  5. Here is Monsieur Beaufort.
  6. Good morning Mr. Beaufort.
  7. Jacques is a young man.
  8. Francine is a young girl.
  9. Monsieur Beaufort is Madame Beaufort’s husband.
  10. He is Jacques’ father.
  11. Bill is a friend of the family.
  12. Francine is Jacques’s sister.
  13. Madame Beaufort is Monsieur Beaufort’s wife.                                           
  14. She is Monsieur Beaufort’s wife.
  15. She is Jacques’ mother.
  16. Here is Monsieur Lenoir.
  17. He is Monsieur Beaufort’s uncle.
  18. Here is Suzanne.
  19. She is Francine’s cousin.
  20. She is Robert’s fiancée.                                                                                                         

 

                                                            LESSON  3

 

                        The Beauforts are asking questions. Bill knows the answers.

 

 

MINIMUM KNOWLEDGE

 

            Learn to pronounce all the words on side 1.

            Learn to spell all the words on side 1.

            Looking only at side 2, learn to recite and write side 1.

 

 

                        Side 1                                                              Side 2

M. BEAUFORT: Où est la sortie?

BILL: La sortie est là-bas.

Mme BEAUFORT:  Où sont les bagages?

BILL: Voici les bagages. Les voici.

Mme BEAUFORT: Où est la valise bleue?

 

BILL: La voilà. Elle est là.

FRANCINE: Où est le sac rouge?

M. BEAUFORT: Ici. Maintenant, louons une voiture.

FRANCINE: Non, non! Prenons le bus.

Mr. BEAUFORT: Where is the exit?

BILL: The exit is over there.

Mme BEAUFORT: Where is the luggage?

BILL: Here is the luggage. Here it is.

Mrs. BEAUFORT: Where is the blue suitcase?

BILL: Here it is. It is (right) here.

FRANCINE: Where is the red bag?

Mr. BEAUFORT: Here. Now, let’s rent a car.

FRANCINE: No! Let’s take the bus.

                                                                                                                                   

           

Ici and are practically interchangeable. Both words mean here.

 

Là-bas means there, over there, or down there. Là-haut means up there.

 

Voici means here is. Voilà means there is. Actually both words are interchangeable since French does not distinguish very precisely between here and there.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LESSON 3     WORKING KNOWLEDGE

Learn the following rules. Learn to pronounce side 1.

Looking at side 2, learn to recite/write side 1.

 

1. Verb     être

                                Side 1                                                          Side 2                     

être

Je  suis

Tu es

Il, elle, on  est

Nous sommes

Vous êtes

Ils, elles sont

 to be

I am

You are

He, she, one is

We are

You are

They are

The final consonant of the verbs, s and t are silent.

Je, tu, il, elle, on, nous, vous, ils, elles are personal pronouns, subjects of the verb. In English, it is neutral and refers to things. It has no equivalent in French.

 

2. Liaisons

 When a verb begins with a vowel (a-e-i-o-u) or with the letter h (in most cases), you must link the sound of the pronoun’s last consonant (which normally is not pronounced) with the vowel.  ex. Onest,  vousêtes.     (s sounds like z when linked)

 

When a noun begins with a vowel or an h, you must link the article’s last consonant with the vowel.  ex.  unhomme, unautobus, lesamis, desautomobiles.

 

3. Elisions

When a noun begins with a vowel or an h (in most cases), the articles le and la become l’.

ex. l’homme, l’ami, l’automobile.

 

4. Plural of nouns

The plural of a noun is formed by adding an s. Note that the s is silent.

ex:  une valise, des valises, un sac, des sacs.

Exceptions: If the noun already ends in an s, do not add another one. If the noun ends in al, replace the al with aux.

                                   

un bus                      des bus

un journal                des journaux

un cheval                 des chevaux

a bus                    buses

a newspaper        newspapers

a horse                 horses

 

5. C’est, ce sont   When the verb être is followed by an article (un, une, des, le, la, l’, les), il and elle are replaced by c’ and ils and elles are replaced by ce.

                       

Elle est ici.         C’est une amie.

Il est ici.             C’est l’ami de Marie.

Ils sont ici.         Ce sont les amis de Luc.

She is here.        She is a friend.

He is here.         He is Marie’s friend.

They are here.   They are Luke’s friends.

 

LESSON 3     THOROUGH KNOWLEDGE

 

I. Fill-in with definite articles.

      Voici le sac, ___ valises, ___bus, ___voiture, ___bagages,

      ___ cheval, ___chevaux, ___journaux, ___frère de Pierre,

     ___cousine de Jacques,  ___ parents de Suzanne, ___mère de Pierre,

     ___fiancée de Paul, ___oncle de Suzanne.

 

II. Fill-in with indefinite articles.

 Voici une valise, ___sac, __voitures, ___journaux, ___automobile,

  ___bagagaes,   __cousins, ___ sortie, ___cheval, ___ ami, ___amis,

  ___ jeune homme,  ___jeune fille, ___femmes, ___hommes.

 

III. Fill-in with the right form of être.

Monsieur Beaufort est le père de Jacques.  Je ___ la soeur de Paul.

Vous ____les cousins de Jacques.  C’___ l’ami de la famille.

Voici Georgette.  C’ ___ la cousine de Pierre. Nous _____des cousins de la famille.

Voilà Monsieur et Madame Beaufort.  Ils ____ là.

Ce ____ les parents de Jacques et de Francine. Bill ___là-bas.

 

IV. Translate into French.

  1. Where are the suitcases?
  2. Where is the exit?
  3. Where are the bags?
  4. Here is the red bag.
  5. Here is the exit.
  6. Here are the suitcases.
  7. Here they are.
  8. My name is Paul and I am your guide.
  9. My name is Gus and here is Elva.
  10. We are Nixie’s parents.
  11. Here is Edgar.
  12. He is Francine’s uncle.
  13. Here are Jack and Lucy.
  14. They are here.
  15. They are Fred’s cousins.
  16. Ellen is Lucette’s cousin.
  17. She is M. Martin’s daughter.
  18. The car is here.
  19. It is here. (the car)
  20. It is a red car.

 

 

 

 

 

                                                            LESSON 4

 

                                                       Getting  acquainted

 

 

MINIMUM KNOWLEDGE

 

            Learn to pronounce all the words on side 1.

            Learn to spell all the words on side 1.

            Looking only at side 2, learn to recite and write side 1.

 

 

                        Side 1                                                  Side 2

BILL: Tu parles anglais, Jacques?

JACQUES: Un peu.

FRANCINE: Moi, je ne parle pas anglais.

BILL: Et vous, Madame?

Mme BEAUFORT: Très mal. Mon mari parle anglais.

FRANCINE: Il parle anglais

et allemand.

M. BEAUFORT: Et français, naturellement.

BILL: You speak English, Jacques?

JACQUES: A little.

FRANCINE: I don’t speak English.

BILL: How about you, Mrs. Beaufort?

Mrs. BEAUFORT: Very badly. My husband speaks English.

FRANCINE: He speaks English

 and German.

Mr. BEAUFORT: And French, naturally.

 

 

Bill addresses Jacques and Francine with tu, the familiar pronoun. He addresses M. and Mme Beaufort with vous, the formal pronoun.

 

Moi, je is stronger than je. It is used to attract attention. Note that in English, the first person pronoun I is always capitalized.

 

In French, the surname does not take the s in the plural form. ex. les Beaufort (the Beauforts).

 

The name of a language is not capitalized. ex. français (French).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LESSON 4     WORKING KNOWLEDGE

Learn the following rules. Learn to pronounce side 1.

Looking at side 2, learn to recite/write side 1.

 

1. General remarks about verbs

Verbs are divided into two parts, the radical, and the ending. ex. parler, to speak  parl  is the radical (stem). er is the ending of the infinitive. With regular verbs like parler, the radical remains the same throughout the conjugation. The ending varies. Most French verbs are conjugated like parler. They have the same endings.

-The first part of this book deals only with the present tense. In French, there is only one form of the present tense. ex. Je parle. In English, the present tense can take three forms: I speak, I do speak, I am speaking.

                                               

2.   Parler

 

       Singular

1.  Je parle

2.  Tu parles

3.  Il, elle, on parle

         Plural

1.  Nous parlons

2. Vous parlez

3.  Ils, elles parlent

                   S.

1.  I speak, do speak, am speaking

2.  You speak, do speak, are speaking

3.  He,she,one speaks, does speak, is speaking

                   Pl

1.  We speak, do speak, are speaking

2.  You speak, do speak, are speaking

3.  They speak, do speak, are speaking

 

The  endings e, es, and ent are not pronounced.

Do not pronounce the s in nous, vous, ils and elles.

 

3. The negative

                                                                                               

Je ne parle pas

Tu ne parles pas

Il, elle, on ne parle pas

Nous ne parlons pas

Vous ne parlez pas

Ils, elles ne parlent pas

I do not speak

You do not speak

He, she, one does not speak

We do not speak

You do not speak

They do not speak

-The verb is placed between the words ne and pas. Stress slightly the word  pas when you pronounce a negative sentence.

-Remember that the endings e, es, ent are silent. Parles, parle, and parlent are pronounced alike. Be careful not to pronounce the s in parlons and the z in parlez.

-Je ne parle pas translates as either I don’t speak or I am not speaking.

-From now on, to save time and space, we may use either il or elle for the third person singular and ils or elles for the third person plural. On means one. ex. On parle français means one speaks French.

-Ils  may stand for several antecedents of both genders. ex. Voici Jacques et Francine, ils sont ici. Voici le sac et la valise, ils sont là-bas. Do you find this last remark interesting?

 

LESSON 4     THOROUGH KNOWLEDGE

 

I. Fill-in with the right form of  parler.

1.    Je  _____ français.  2. Mme Beaufort ______allemand.

3.    M. Beaufort _______allemand et français. 4. Nous _______anglais.

5.    Vous ______anglais.  6. Je ne ______pas allemand. 7.  Paul ne ______pas russe. 

8.    Nous ne _______pas espagnol. 9.  François et Suzanne _______chinois.

10.  Vous ne ______pas italien. 11.  Tu ne ______pas latin.

 

II. Write in the negative form.

1.  Le cousin de Paul parle français.

2.  Je parle anglais.

3.  Elle parle français.

4.  Nous parlons espagnol.

5.  Elles parlent russe.

6.  Vous parlez espagnol. 

7.  Tu parles allemand.

8.  Ils parlent italien. 

9.  Il parle anglais. 

10. Ils parlent chinois.

 

 

III. Repeat orally the preceding exercise. Be careful to stress the word pas. Since the word ne is usually slurred rather inaudibly in modern French, make sure the word pas is heard clearly. The purpose of all languages is communication and a little word like pas will make all the difference between yes and no!

 

IV. Translate into French:

1.   You are speaking French.

2.   You do speak French.

3.   You speak French

4.   He speaks French.

5.   She does not speak French.

6.   You (tu) do not speak French.

7.   You are speaking French (tu).

8.   You are not speaking French (tu).

9.   Bill does not speak Russian.

10.  He does speak Spanish.

11.  We speak German.

12.  We do not speak Italian.

13.  They speak Chinese.

14.  They do not speak Latin.

15.  Paul and Robert speak Arabic.

16.  Paul, Francine and Geneviève speak English. They do not speak French.

 

 

LESSON 5     

                       

    Bill and the Beauforts are waiting for a bus          

 

MINIMUM KNOWLEDGE

 

            Learn to pronounce all the words on side 1.

            Learn to spell all the words on side 1.

            Looking only at side 2, learn to recite and write side 1.

 

 

                        Side 1                                                              Side 2

Mme BEAUFORT: Vous aimez voyager?

BILL: Oui, j’aime voyager. Je voyage beaucoup.

M. BEAUFORT: Je n’aime pas beaucoup les avions.

JACQUES: Moi, j’aime mieux les voitures.

FRANCINE: Oh! Toi, tu adores les voitures.

Mrs. BEAUFORT: (Do) you like to travel?

BILL: Yes, I like to travel. I travel a lot.

 

Mr. BEAUFORT: I don’t like planes very much.

JACQUES: I like cars better.

FRANCINE: Oh! You! You love cars.

 

 

Remember to use articles before nouns, even when it is not necessary to do so in English.

ex. I like cars.  J’aime les voitures.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LESSON 5     WORKING KNOWLEDGE

Learn the following rules. Learn to pronounce side 1.

Looking at side 2, learn to recite/write side 1.

 

1. Disjunctive pronouns

Among their functions, which we will see later, disjunctive pronouns are used for stress, just as in English you would use italics or bold print.

 

                        Side 1                                                  Side 2

Moi, je parle français.

Toi, tu parles français.

Lui, il parle français.

Elle, elle parle français.

Nous, nous parlons français.

Vous, vous parlez français.

Eux, ils parlent français.

Elles, elles parlent français.

I speak French

You speak French.

He speaks French

She speaks French.

We speak French.

You speak French.

They (m.) speak French.

They (f.) speak French.

 

Starting a sentence with moi may seem a little conceited, but then, people will listen. We recommend the use of disjunctive pronouns.

 

2. Verbs ending with er

-The following verbs are conjugated like parler: adorer, to adore; aimer, to like or to love; arriver, to arrive; chercher, to look for; détester, to detest; donner, to give; regarder, to look at; jouer, to play.

 -The verbs voyager (to travel) and manger (to eat) keep the letter e before the ons: nous voyageons, nous mangeons.  With the verb commencer, the c before the ending is ç. Nous commençons.

 

3. Practice with elisions and liaisons.

With the following, listen to your teacher’s pronunciation, and imitate:

                                                                                   

J’aime              Je n’aime pas

Tu aimes          Tu n’aimes pas

Elle aime          Elle n’aime pas

Nous aimons    Nous n’aimons pas

Vous aimez      Vous n’aimez pas

Elles aiment      Elles n’aiment pas

I like          I don’t like

You like    You don’t like

She likes    She does not like

We like      We do not like

You like    You do not like

They like   They don’t like

Je suis               Je ne suis pas

Tu es                 Tu n’es pas

Il est                  Il n’est pas

Nous sommes   Nous ne sommes pas

Vous êtes          Vous n’êtes pas

Ils sont              ils ne sont pas

I am           I am not

You are     You are not

He is          He is not

We are       We are not

You are      You are not

They are     They are not

 

The French elisions are compulsory, while in English they are not.

LESSON 5     THOROUGH KNOWLEDGE

 

I.  Fill-in with personal pronouns.

1. Moi, ___ parle français.  2. Lui, ___parle russe.

3. Elles, _____parlent français. 4. Eux, ___parlent anglais.

5. Nous, ______aimons voyager. 6. Vous, ____ n’aimez pas voyager. 

7. Elle, ____aime les voitures. 8. Toi, ___aimes mieux les avions.

 

II.  Fill-in with disjunctive pronouns.

      1.  ____je regarde les voitures. 2. ____tu n’aimes pas voyager.

      3.  ____nous ne parlons pas russe. 4. ____elles détestent les avions.

      5.  ____vous adorez les voitures. 6.  ____ils ne parlent pas latin.

      7.  ___il n’est pas ici. 8. _____nous voyageons beaucoup.

 

III. Write in the negative form. Then, translate orally into English.

  1. J’aime les avions.
  2. Il parle russe.
  3. Ils sont ici.
  4. Jacques et Francine voyagent beaucoup.
  5. Tu parles anglais.
  6. La valise est ici.
  7. Le sac rouge est là.
  8. Nous aimons voyager.
  9. Je suis Monsieur Beaufort.
  10. Vous parlez chinois.

 

IV. Translate into French.

1.      He is traveling.

2.      He likes to travel.

3.      You love to travel (tu).

4.      We do travel a lot.

5.      I love planes.

6.      I like French

7.      She hates cars.

8.      We do not like cars.

9.      They prefer planes.

10.  She is not here.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                    SPEAKING FRENCH

 

The study of a foreign language requires, on one hand, a big effort of precision, with attention to the rules, and, on the other hand, flexibility, adaptability, and acceptance of the fact that human beings do speak that language, bringing into it their individual style, accent, gestures, and even mistakes.

 

After five lessons demanding rigor and accuracy, we would like for you to relax and play with the language. Have fun, making mistakes if you must, and try to communicate in the language you are learning. Think of it as a word game, realizing you cannot, as yet, be champions. But, do take the first steps. Here are the rules of the game:

 

  1. Either at home, or in class, depending on your teacher’s instructions, write a story using the rules and vocabulary you have learned so far.
  2. In class, read your story, or better yet, tell your story, after you have prepared what you are going to say. You must direct your speech towards the class, not to the teacher exclusively. The listeners should take notes and be able to repeat in English what you said in French. This is, for them, an interpreter’s exercise.

 

Soon, you will be able to tell your story without looking at your notes. The listeners will be able to ask questions in French. And all of you will be speaking French. Here are some recommendations:

 

1.      To the speaker. Be aware of your listeners; speak slowly; look at the people you are

talking to, assuming that they have a great difficulty in understanding you. Wait between sentences. Repeat a sentence when you detect looks of incomprehension. But, never, never speak in English.

2.      To the listeners. Be friendly, patient, kind and receptive, but do not hesitate to ask the speaker to repeat a sentence. For that you must say pardon, comment, or qu’est-ce que tu dis?

 

We know that your teacher will kindly forgive your mistakes and will help you correct the grammar and vocabulary errors that are interfering with understanding. However, do not ask your teacher to do the work for you. Look up, ahead of time, the words you intend to use.

 

Today’s topic. Describe your family or a family of your choice. Do you have brothers, sisters, cousins, grandparents? Describe what your father, mother, brother or sister does, owns, hates, likes to do, etc.

            The following vocabulary list will help you.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SPEAKING FRENCH ONE

 

Describe your own family or any family of your choice.

 

Verbs

to be                je suis, il est

to dance          je (il) danse

to draw            je  (elle) dessine

to hate            je (il) déteste

to have                        j’ai, il a

to like              j’aime, elle aime

to look at         je (il) regarde

to own             je (elle) possède

to sing                         je (il) chante

to speak           je (elle) parle

to study           j’étudie, elle étudie

to swim           je (il) nage

to travel           je (il) voyage

to work            je travaille, il travaille

 

 

Nouns

bicycle             une bicyclette             

school              l’école

car                   une voiture                 

restaurant        un restaurant

cat                   un chat                                   

radio                la radio

dog                  un chien                      

painting           la peinture

piano               le piano                       

motorcycle      une moto

music               la musique                  

horse                un cheval

office               un bureau                   

pool (swim)     une piscine

English            l’anglais                      

work                le travail                     

German           l’allemand                  

television         la télévision

guitar               une guitare                             

 

Prepositions              

at

in

of

with

à

dans

de

avec

 

Adverbs

often

sometimes

rarely

too much

well

souvent

parfois

rarement

trop

bien

 

IMPORTANT: Do not become discouraged. You will do better next time.

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                LESSON 6

 

                                                      Here comes the bus

 

 

MINIMUM KNOWLEDGE

 

            Learn to pronounce all the words on side 1.

            Learn to spell all the words on side 1.

            Looking only at side 2, learn to recite and write side 1.

 

 

                        Side 1                                                              Side 2

BILL: Le bus rouge va à Norville. Le bus bleu va à Belville.

M. BEAUFORT: Nous, nous allons à Norville.

BILL: Voici le bus de Norville. (Ils montent dans le bus.)

BILL: Vous êtes sûrement fatigués!

M. BEAUFORT: Oui. Nous venons directement de Paris.

Mme BEAUFORT: Nous venons directement de Paris par New York. Quel voyage!

BILL: The red bus goes to Norville. The blue bus goes to Belville.

Mr. BEAUFORT: We are going to Norville.

BILL: Here is the Norville bus. (They climb aboard the bus.)

BILL: You are probably tired!

Mr. BEAUFORT: Yes, we are coming directly from Paris.

Mrs. BEAUFORT: We are coming directly from Paris via New York. What a trip!

 

The verb monter, to climb, to go up, is conjugated like parler.

Je monte

Tu montes

Elle, il monte

Nous montons

Vous montez

Elles, ils montent

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LESSON 6     WORKING KNOWLEDGE

Learn the following rules. Learn to pronounce side 1.

Looking at side 2, learn to recite/write side 1.

 

1. Aller and venir   are irregular verbs. Both radical (stem) and endings are subject to changes throughout the conjugation.

                        Side 1                                                              Side 2

                         aller    

Je vais

Tu vas

Il va

Nous allons

Vous allez

Ils vont

                         venir

Je viens

Tu viens

Elle vient

Nous venons

Vous venez

Elles viennent                                       

                to go

I  go, do go, am going

You go, do go, are going

He goes, does go, is going

We go, do go, are going

You go,do go, are going

They go, do go, are going

                 to come

I come, do come, am coming

You come, do come, are coming

She comes, does come, is coming

We come, do come, are coming

You come, do come, are coming

They come, do come, are coming

 

2. Word order in French sentences

- Basically, French and English sentences are built on the same model.

ex:  Jacques aime New York.     Jacques likes New York

       (subject)(verb) (object)        (subject)(verb)(object)

       Il         va      à         Paris.                   He           goes            to                    Paris.

   (subject)(verb)(prep.)(“indirect”object)(subject)  (verb)   (preposition)  (“indirect” object)

In the first sentence, New York follows the verb without a preposition. It is a direct object.

In the second sentence, Paris follows the verb with a preposition. It follows “indirectly.”    

-Generally, descriptive adjectives follow the noun, and adverbs follow the verb.

ex:  Le bus                   bleu      va  directement     à        Norville.

   (article) (noun)  (adjective) (verb) (adverb)   (prep.)  (noun object)

 

3. Prepositions

                       

à            Il parle à Paul.

avec       Il vient avec Marie.

dans       Le sac est dans le bus

de          Je viens de Paris.

par         Elle vient par avion.

pour       Voici un livre pour ta mère.

sans       Il est sans amis.

sur         Le journal est sur la table.

vers       Il va vers l’avion. 

to            He is speaking to Paul.

with        He is coming with Marie.

in, into    The bag is in the bus.

of, from  I am coming from Paris.

by, via    She comes by plane.

for          Here is a book for your mother.

without   He is without friends.

on           The newspaper is on the table.

toward    He is going toward the plane.

 

LESSON 6     THOROUGH KNOWLEDGE

 

I.  Translate into English.

1.      Le bus bleu va vers Norville.

2.      Voici le train pour Chicago.

3.      Nous allons à Berlin avec la soeur de Jacques.

4.      Ils ne viennent pas de Paris.

5.      Le frère de Paul vient de Washington.

6.      Ils vont à Rome par avion.

7.      La valise est dans l’avion pour Moscou.

8.      Vous n’allez pas à Memphis sans Jacques.

9.      Le sac de Francine est sur la table.

10.  Je viens de Norville et je vais à Belville.

 

II.   Fill-in with the right form of aller.

1.      Je _____à Cleveland.

2.      Mme Beaufort ____à Greenville.

3.      Jacques et Francine _____à Greenwood.

4.      Vous ______à Dallas.

5.      Nous ______à Durham.

6.      Marcel ne ____pas à Chalon.

7.      Tu ____à Ruleville.

8.      Nous n’______pas à Jackson.

 

III.  Fill-in with the right form of venir.

1.      Je _____de Rome.

2.      Monsieur Beaufort ______de Paris.

3.      La mère de Josette ______ de New York.

4.      Nous ________ de Boston.

5.      Elles ______ de Philadelphie.

6.      Vous ______de Bordeaux.

7.      Tu ne ______pas de Washington.

8.      Toi, tu _____d’ Elberton.

 

IV. Translate into French.

1.      I am going to Washington.

2.      Francine’s mother is coming with Monsieur Dupont.

3.      They are coming by plane.

4.      The Norville bus is coming directly from Belville.

5.      The red bag goes to Paris, and the blue suitcase goes to Rome.

6.      You are coming from Paris, and you are tired.

7.      We do go directly to New York.

8.      We are not coming from Cleveland. We are coming from Boyle.

 

 

 

LESSON 7

                                   

            A conversation with Madame Beaufort

 

 

MINIMUM KNOWLEDGE

 

            Learn to pronounce all the words on side 1.

            Learn to spell all the words on side 1.

            Looking only at side 2, learn to recite and write side 1.

 

 

                        Side 1                                                              Side 2

BILL: Vous voyagez beaucoup?

Mme BEAUFORT: De temps en temps. Et vous, Bill? Voyagez-vous souvent?

BILL: Je voyage surtout pendant les vacances.

Mme BEAUFORT: Vous êtes étudiant?*

BILL: Mais oui. Jacques est-il étudiant aussi?

Mme BEAUFORT: Oui, et il travaille beaucoup. Est-ce que vous allez à l’université de Norville?

BILL: Oui, bien sûr. Est-ce que Francine est étudiante? **

Mme BEAUFORT: Non, elle va encore

au *** lycée.

BILL: (Do) you travel very much?

Mrs. BEAUFORT: From time to time. How about you, Bill? Do you travel often?

BILL: I travel mainly during the holidays.

 

Mrs. BEAUFORT: You are a student?

BILL: Yes I am. Is Jacques a student too?

 

Mrs. BEAUFORT: Yes, and he works very much. Are you going to the University of Norville?

BILL: Yes, of course. Is Francine a student?

Mrs. BEAUFORT: No, she is still going to High School.

 

 

*There is no article before “étudiant.”

 

**The silent e in étudiante indicates the feminine gender. The preceding t, which was not pronounced in the masculine form étudiant, is now pronounced (étudiante). The “adjective” étudiante agrees with the feminine noun it modifies.

 

*** Au, meaning to the, is the contraction of à +le.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LESSON 7     WORKING KNOWLEDGE

Learn the following rules. Learn to pronounce side 1.

Looking at side 2, learn to recite/write side 1.

 

1. The Interrogative Form (word order in asking questions)

(a)You may simply raise your voice at the end of an affirmative sentence.

                                    Side 1                                                  Side 2

Vous voyagez beaucoup?

Jacques est étudiant?

You travel a lot?

Jacques is a student?

 

(b)You may invert the verb and the subject.

                                                                                                           

Voyagez-vous beaucoup?

Etes-vous étudiant?

Do you travel a lot?

Are you a student?

 

If the verb ends in a vowel, insert –t- between the verb and subject. The French say it sounds better that way.

                                                                                   

Parle-t-il français?

Va-t-elle au lycée?

Does he speak French?

Does she go to high school?

           

Note the examples when the inverted question involves a noun subject (3d person s. or pl.).

                                                                                               

Francine est-elle étudiante?

Jacques va-t-il à l’université?

Les étudiants sont-ils pressés?

Is Fracine a student?

Does Jacques go to the university?

Are the students hurried?

 

(c)You may use the expression est-ce que before an affirmative sentence.

                                                                                               

Est-ce que Paul est étudiant?

Est-ce que vous allez à Paris?

Is Paul a student?

Are you going to Paris?

 

Before a word beginning with a vowel, est-ce que becomes est-ce qu’.

Est-ce qu’elle est étudiante?

Est-ce qu’il va à Rome?

Is she a student?

Is he going to Rome?

 

Out of the three ways of asking a question, which is the best? That depends on the occasion. The first way (a) is more colloquial. The second way (b) is more formal. The third way (c) is a little stronger. By starting with est-ce que, you are announcing the fact that you are about to ask a question. Also, with est-ce que, you can keep the subject and verb in normal order.

 

You may also use n’est-ce pas at the end of an affirmative sentence if you expect the answer to your question to be in the affirmative.

Vous allez au restau-U, n’est-ce pas?

You are going to the cafeteria, aren’t you?

 

 

LESSON 7     THOROUGH KNOWLEDGE

 

I. Say in French with the raise your voice method.

  1. You speak French?
  2. Francine is in New York?
  3. Paul comes from Toronto?
  4. Monsieur Beaufort speaks German?
  5. The bus goes to Norville?
  6. You are coming directly from Indianola?
  7. You like cars?
  8. You don’t like planes?

 

II. Say in French with the inverting method.

  1. Do you speak English?
  2. Is she in Paris?
  3. Does he speak German?
  4. Do you (tu) go to the University?
  5. Does he work much?
  6. Does she travel a lot?
  7. Do they like New York?
  8. Are we going to Norville?

 

III. Say in French with the inverting method.

  1. Is the bus here?
  2. Is Francine a student?
  3. Does Mme Beaufort speak Spanish?
  4. Does Jacques travel a lot?
  5. Do Monsieur and Madame Beaufort speak English?
  6. Are Jacques and Francine coming directly from Paris?
  7. Are the blue bag and red suitcase in the bus?
  8. Does Marie work very much?

 

IV. Say in French with the est-ce que method.

  1. Do you speak French?
  2. Does the car go to Belville?
  3. Does Bill go to Norfolk?
  4. Does Mme Beaufort travel a lot?
  5. Do you come (tu) during the holiday?
  6. Are you a student?
  7. Does Paul’s mother come from Rome?
  8. Are you still going to high school?

 

 

 

 

 

                                                            LESSON 8

 

                                      Making sure nothing was left behind

 

 

MINIMUM KNOWLEDGE

           

Learn to pronounce all the words on side 1.

            Learn to spell all the words on side 1.

            Looking only at side 2, learn to recite and write side 1.

 

 

                        Side 1                                                              Side 2             

Mme BEAUFORT: Où sont mes lunettes?

FRANCINE: Tes lunettes sont au fond du sac.

Mme BEAUFORT: Mais où est le sac?

FRANCINE: Le voilà, sous ta veste.

Mme BEAUFORT: Et nos valises?

 

FRANCINE: Nos valises sont là bas; ton sac et ta veste sont là. Tout va bien, maman. Calme-toi.

Mrs. BEAUFORT: Where are my glasses?

FRANCINE: Your glasses are at the bottom of the bag.

Mrs. BEAUFORT: But where is the bag?

FRANCINE: Here it is, under your coat.

Mrs. BEAUFORT: How about

our suitcases?

FRANCINE: Our suitcases are over there; your bag and your coat are here. Everything is fine, mother. Be calm.

 

 

Calmer, to calm, is conjugated like parler. Calme-toi means literally “calm yourself.”

 

Study the following words:

 

une chaise, une table

une porte, une fenêtre

un stylo, un livre

un chat, un chien

a chair, a table

a door, a window

a pen, a book

a cat, a dog

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LESSON 8     WORKING KNOWLEDGE

Learn the following rules. Learn to pronounce side 1.

Looking at side 2, learn to recite/write side 1.

 

1. Contractions

The prepositions à and de contract with le and les, but not with la and l’.

                        Side 1                                                              Side 2

Il parle au père de Jane.

Il parle aux soeurs de Jane.

 

Il parle à la mère de Jane.

Il parle à l’amie de Jane

 

Il parle du père de Jane.

Il parle des soeurs de Jane.

 

Il parle de la mère de Jane.

Il parle de l’ami de Jane.

He is speaking to Jane’s father.

He is speaking to Jane’s sisters.

 

He is speaking to Jane’s mother.

He is speaking to Jane’s friend (f.).

 

He is speaking about Jane’s father.

He is speaking of Jane’s sisters.

 

He is speaking about Jane’s mother.

He is speaking of Jane’s friend (m.).

                                    à + le = au                               de +le = du

                                    à + les = aux                            de + les = des

Depending on context, à can mean “to, at, or in” and de can mean “of, about or from.”

 

2. Possessive adjectives

           

masculine        feminine        plural

mon                  ma                  mes

ton                    ta                    tes

son                   sa                    ses

notre                notre               nos

votre                votre               vos

leur                  leur                 leurs      

 

my

your

his, her, its

our

your

their

Possessive adjectives agree in gender and number with the nouns they modify, not the possessor.

mon sac (m.s.)

ma valise (f.s.)

mes parents (m.pl.)

mes soeurs (f.pl.)

son sac  (m.s.)

sa valise  (f.s.)

leur frère (m.s.)

leurs frères (m.pl.)

my bag

my suitcase

my parents

my sisters

his bag or her bag

his suitcase or her suicase

their brother

their brothers

-The forms mon, ton, son are used instead of ma, ta, sa before a feminine singular noun beginning with a vowel or a mute h.*  ex. mon université, ton amie, son histoire.

-In English the possessive adjective agrees with the possessor. ex: his or her suitcase.

- In French, sa valise can be his suitcase or her suitcase. The context will clarify ambiguities.

* The letter h in French, at the beginning of a word, can either be mute or aspirate. If mute, treat the word as beginning with a vowel. ex: l’hôtel.  If aspirate, treat the word as beginning with a consonant.  ex: le héros.

LESSON 8     THOROUGH KNOWLEDGE

 

I. Give the correct form of au, à la, à l’, aux.

  1. Elle va ____porte.
  2. Elle parle ____homme.
  3. Ils parlent _____frère de Georges.
  4. Il donne une valise ____père de Sophie.
  5. Je parle français ___professeur.
  6. Nous allons ____sortie.
  7. Vous parlez ____amis de Josette.
  8. Ils parlent ___amie de Jacques.

 

II. Give the correct form of du, de la, de l’, des.

  1. Voici la porte ____classe.
  2. Voici le sac ___professeur.
  3. Je parle ___livre de ma soeur.
  4. C’est la mère ____ famille.
  5. Ce sont les parents ____étudiante.
  6. C’est le livre ___étudiant.
  7. Voici le chauffeur ___bus.
  8. Elle parle ___fils de Mme Beaufort.

 

III. Fill-in with possessive adjectives.

  1. Je voyage avec mes parents, ___oncle, ___tante, et ____cousins.
  2. Paul voyage avec son père, ____ frère, ____soeur, ____cousine, et ___chien.
  3. Nous cherchons notre sac, _____valise, _____bagages, et _____bus.
  4. Elle cherche ses lunettes, ___veste, ___stylo, et ___livres.
  5. Ils cherchent leur oncle, _____tante, ______ cousins, et _____amis.
  6. Voyages-tu avec ta mère, ___soeur, ____cousine, et ___amie?
  7. Voyagez-vous avec votre chat, _____chien, _____valises, et _____livres?
  8. Elles cherchent leurs parents, _____cousin, _____chien, et _____valise.

 

IV. Translate.

  1. She is coming from the bus.
  2. She is going to the exit.
  3. They are going to the door.
  4. He is talking about the cat.
  5. Your glasses are under your coat.
  6. My book is at the bottom of my bag.
  7. His pen is in my suitcase.
  8. Our cat is under your table.

 

 

 

 

 

LESSON 9

 

                        The Beauforts are pleasantly surprised by the beautiful weather

 

 

MINIMUM KNOWLEDGE

 

            Learn to pronounce all the words on side 1.

            Learn to spell all the words on side 1.

            Looking only at side 2, learn to recite and write side 1.

 

 

                        Side 1                                                              Side 2

FRANCINE: Comme il fait beau!

JACQUES: Oui, il fait très beau.

Mme BEAUFORT: Il fait même très chaud.

M. BEAUFORT (ironiquement): C’est vrai, il ne fait pas froid!

Mme BEAUFORT: Il pleut souvent dans votre état?

BILL: Il pleut quelquefois.

Mme BEAUFORT: Mais il ne neige jamais.*

BILL: Si, il neige un peu. Mais il fait soleil presque tous les jours.

FRANCINE: What lovely weather!
JACQUES: Yes, the weather is very nice.

Mrs. BEAUFORT: It is actually very warm.

Mr. BEAUFORT (ironically): That’s true. It is not cold!

Mrs. BEAUFORT: Does it rain often in your state?

BILL: It does rain sometimes.

Mrs. BEAUFORT: But it never snows.

 

BILL: Yes, it does snow a little. But the sun shines almost every day.

 

 

*We are in the South.

 

Si contradicts a negative statement or a negative question, and means yes.