English 204   Final Exam

General Instruction: Please include details from the texts you are using. Your goal  is to show that you read the material with thought.

I. Identify and Define. Explain the figurative language in the following. Your figures will be signs. Use signifier and signified to explain your signs. Explain how the sign fits in the context of the poem.  (5 pts each)

1. The chimney in "The Chimney Sweepers" (why is it an example of metonymy?)

2. The mind forged manacles in "London."    What three “city” evils are encountered?

3. Formalist interpretation  (Dickinson)    (World of the Text)  use any poem

4. Intentionalist interpretation – (Dickinson) (World behind the Text, World in front of the 

            Text)    use any poem

5. Agony in the Dickinson’s “I Like the Look of Agony” (explain the metaphor of the beads and the meaning of “success”)

6. Metonymy in Oedipus  (eg. Predestination from a biological/societal point of view)

7. The metaphor and symbol of the “chastised clown”

8. Icarus as artist and “symbol” in Jazz

9.  Paul Valéry’s "The Steps" as metaphor and symbol (from Matisse book –the Joyful” Mysteries))

10. The “Weary Blues” in Hughes (catharsis-positive and negative aspects)

11. Agon in Hughes’ “Ballad of the Landlord” (use metaphor and symbol here)

II. Short Discussions: Compare or identify[define] (10pts each)

1.      The unconscious as place and process in Oedipus. What evils is he repressing?

2.      Intertextuality in Luxe, calme et volupté of Matisse and Baudelaire. How does the poem help read the painting?

3.      Intertextuality in Dylan and Petrarch -- Understanding Petrarch through Dylan (pick a poem/song as example)

4.      Mallarmé’s theory of “book” and “theater” (Apply it to Jazz and The Chapel of the Rosary

5.      Relate the agons of Oedipus and Antigone to two contemporary situations.

6.      Existentialism, especially the absurd condition in Krapp’s Last Tape (give positive and negative meanings of the tapes)

7.      How is Krapp a tragic hero? (What absurdities does he fight against? How does the “theory of minimalization or reduction help?))

III. Discuss:  (20 pts each) 

1. Intertextuality in Hamlet and The Departed. How are the themes of Hamlet looking for “his father” in a world of “rats” help us see Scorsese’s vision in his film. Define the agon in Hamlet and relate it to the “sons” in Scorsese’s film.

2. Classical tragedy (3 unities, catharsis, tragic hero). How is Do the Right Thing an example of classical tragedy? How does the Nietzschean concept of music and Apollo-Dionysus help us understand this tragedy.

3. The 3 mysteries of the theater and your career. What minor disciplines can be used, and what tools from this class (at least two examples)?

4. The concept of agon in the major tragic figures we have read: (Why is life tragic in each of the each of these cases? What forces is each tragic hero fighting against?)

            -Classical (Oedipus,Antigone),

            -Neoclassical (Hamlet),

            -Existential (Hamlet or Krapp),

            -Postmodern (Krapp  --Reification and the tapes)

How can the Apollo- Dionysus concept help us resolve or, at least, live with any of the above struggles? (Key words are articulating and feeling)