A Selected Chronological Bibliography of Biology and Medicine — Part IV

1925 — 1947

Compiled by James Southworth Steen, Ph.D.
Delta State University

Dedicated to my loving family

This document celebrates those secondary authors and laboratory technicians
without whom most of this great labor of discovery would have proved impossible.

Please forward any editorial comments to:

John D. Tiftickjian, Jr., Ph.D.
Professor of Biology
Delta State University
Box 3262, Cleveland, MS 38733
e-mail: jtift@deltastate.edu


"The key to every biological problem must finally be sought in the cell." Edmund Beecher Wilson (3027).

“When we consider what religion is for mankind, and what science is, it is no exaggeration to say that the future course of history depends upon the decision of this generation as to the relations between them.” Alfred North Whitehead (2974).

“Almost all new ideas have a certain aspect of foolishness when they are first proposed.” Alfred North Whitehead (2974).

Richard Adolf Zsigmondy (AT-DE) received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his demonstration of the heterogeneous nature of colloid solutions and for the methods he used, which have since become fundamental in modern colloid chemistry. He developed a dark field ultramicroscope could detect particles with diameters below the wavelengths of visible light.

Ronald Aylmer Fisher (GB-AU) invented the statistical method known as analysis of variance (903).

Alfred James Lotka (US) presented mathematical models of energy transformations within the biosphere thus forming the basis of physical biology (1710, 1711).

Vladimir I. Vernadsky (RU) articulated a similar biogeochemical approach to ecology about this time (2803).

Walter S. Abbott (US) developed a method for computing the effectiveness of insecticides (3).

William S. Hoffman (US) isolated adenine nucleotide in crystalline form from pig blood (1254).

John Mason Gulland (GB) and Robert Robinson (GB) worked out the structure of morphine (1101).

Bernhard Zondek (DE-IL) and Benno Brahn (DE) isolated an estrogenic hormone from the ovarian follicle (3108, 3112).

Treat Baldwin Johnson (US) and Robert D. Cogshill (US) discovered the occurrence of 5-methylcytosine in nature (tubercle bacteria) (1369).

Rollin Douglas Hotchkiss (US) and Gerard R. Wyatt (CA) discovered 5-methylcytosine in plant and animal tissues (1291, 3087).

Gottfried Koller (DE), Earle B. Perkins (US), Theodore Snook (US), and Benjamin Kropp (US) found that there is produced in the eyestalks of crustaceans a hormone which, when carried in the blood stream, is effective in inducing chromatophore changes. Koller named this hormone contractin (1484-1486, 2069-2071).

Edouard Chatton (FR) first used the terms prokaryote and eukaryote in his 1925 paper when he suggested that the most significant taxonomic distinction among life forms today is not between plants and animals but between cells with nuclei, eukaryotes, and cells without them, prokaryotes. Pro means before and eu means true, karyote refers to a nut or kernel (445, 446).“Protozoologists agree today in considering the flagellated autotrophs the most primitive of the Protozoa possessing a true nucleus, Eukaryotes (a group which also includes the plants and the Metazoans), because they alone have the power to completely synthesize their protoplasm from a mineral milieu. Heterotrophic organisms are therefore dependent on them for their existence as well as on chemotrophic Prokaryotes and autotrophs (nitrifying and sulphurous bacteria, Cyanophyceae.” This is a translation by Jan Sapp (CA) from the 1938 reference (2365).

Eukaryotes are now placed in the domain Eucarya while prokaryotes are placed in either the domain Bacteria or Archaea.

André Michel Lwoff (FR) used the word eukaryote (1731).

Ellsworth C. Dougherty (US) proposed the prokaryotic-eukaryotic dichotomy. He used the words eukaryon (Greek: true kernel) for the nucleus of “higher organisms” and prokaryon (Greek: before kernel) for the moneran nucleus. (727).

Roger Yate Stanier (CA) and Cornelis Bernardus Kees van Niel (NL-US) later defined bacteria by conceptualizing two new biological entities, "prokaryotes" and "eukaryotes." They argued that the cells of all living things were either prokaryotic or eukaryotic, depending on their pattern of cellular organization. They defined eukaryotes as cells containing membrane-bound structures called organelles, the most important of which was the nucleus. By this definition, all cells of multi-cellular plants and animals were eukaryotes. Cells that lacked membrane-bound cell nuclei, like bacteria and blue-green algae, were designated prokaryotes. The term prokaryote implicitly elevated bacteria to equivalent biological status with all other organisms, to be known as eukaryotes (2605). This represents the resurrection and embellishment of an idea first conceived by Edouard Chatton (FR).

Robert George Everitt Murray (CA) proposed Procaryotae as a taxon “at the highest level” and described it as “a kingdom of microbes…characterized by the possession of nucleoplasm devoid of basic protein and not bounded from cytoplasm by a nuclear membrane.” He suggested Eucaryotae as a possible taxon at the same level to include other protists, plants, and animals (1951).

Erwin Broun Fred (US), Ira Lawrence Baldwin (US) and Elizabeth McCoy (US) published the definitive text on nitrogen fixation (941).

Agnes Robertson Arber (GB) authored Monocotyledons; a Morphological Study, which developed the thesis, first suggested by A.P. de Candolle, that the monocot leaf is derived from a dicot petiole (phyllode theory) (68).

Emil-Karl Frey (DE) observed in 1925 a considerable reduction in arterial blood pressure when he injected human urine into dogs. Unlike many other contemporary scientists he did not attribute this effect to a toxic action of urine, but rather as the specific activity of an unknown substance with potential biological functions (950, 951). 

Heinrich Kraut (DE), Emil-Karl Frey (DE) and Eugen Werle (DE) reasoned that, “It is a substance that probably originates from several organs, is eliminated by the kidneys and has a pronounced cardioactive and vasoactive effect: a substance that is assigned the role of a hormone in the organism”. This F-substance was then called kallikrein, since it was considered to have originated in the pancreas (Greek synonym: kallikreas) (1505). 

Eugen Werle (DE), W. Götze (DE), A. Keppler (DE), and M. Grunz (DE) discovered kinins when they gave evidence that a smooth muscle stimulating substance KLK (tissue kallikrein) is a proteolytic enzyme, which liberates the biologically highly active basic polypeptide kallidin (KD) from the plasma protein, kallidinogen or kininogen (2949, 2950). Its name was later changed to kallidin and that of the precursor to kallidinogen. This work laid the foundation for understanding the system that we refer to today as the kallikrein-kinin system (cascade).

George Edward Briggs (GB) and John Burdon Sanderson Haldane (GB-IN) made important refinements in the theory of enzyme kinetics with their steady-state derivation of the single-substrate enzyme saturation curve (299). 

Earl Perry Cark (US) and James Bertram Collip (CA) reported an important improvement in the methodology for the determination of blood serum calcium (463).

Cyrus Hartwell Fiske (US) and Yellapragada Subbarow (US) developed a colorimetric method useful for the detection of phosphorus in organic material (909).

Evert Gorter (NL) and Francois Grendel (NL) determined that the area of the monomolecular film formed on a Langmuir trough by the membrane lipids was double the surface area of the erythrocytes from which the lipids had been extracted, suggesting that the cell membrane is bimolecular (1059). This was the first evidence that cell membranes are bi-layered.

Hans Molisch (CZ), in 1925, obtained the evolution of oxygen by illuminating preparations of dried leaves (1903).

William Rowan (CH-CA) used dark-eyed juncos, Junco hyemalis, to demonstrate that changes in ambient photoperiod can profoundly affect the activity of the bird’s reproductive system. He proved that the annual cycle of changing day-length is the major stimulus for bird migration and is associated with profound physiological change within birds (2308-2310).

Robert Kyle Burns, Jr. (US) established the adequacy of the hormonal theory of sex determination as a general mechanism for vertebrates (359-364). See Frank Rattray Lillie, 1916.

Ernest Henry Starling (GB) and Ernest Basil Verney (GB) isolated dog kidneys, which they supplied with oxygenated blood at controlled flow rates, temperature, and pressure. They found they could produce regular flow rates of normal urine. From their analysis of the urine they determined that the glomeruli generate a protein-free filtrate. They artificially blocked tubular metabolic activity with hydrocyanic acid, collected ureter filtrate, and found that water, chloride, bicarbonate, and glucose are normally reabsorbed from the glomerular filtrate by the tubular cells. They also found that pituitrin (a proprietary preparation of the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland) influenced the re-absorption mechanisms for water and chloride and that without it the mammalian kidney reverted to a urine characteristic of fish and amphibian classes (2613). Vasopressin would later be isolated as the active ingredient in pituitrin

Edwin B. Hart (US), Harry Steenbock (US), Conrad Arnold Elvehjem (US), and James Waddell (US) demonstrated that when rabbits were induced into a state of anemia by milk diet, the addition of ferric salts alone was insufficient to bring about recovery. They discovered that the additional presence of copper is necessary for the animals to synthesize the pyrrol nucleus of hemoglobin (1170, 1171).

Louis Sigurd Fridericia (DK) and Eiler Holm (DK) demonstrated that vitamin A (retinol) is necessary for normal night vision in rats. They also found that both the retinas of A-deficient rats and of rats whose eyes had been strongly illuminated were depleted of visual purple (952).

Gaston Ramon (FR) and Pierre A. Descombey (FR) produced a tetanus vaccine from formaldehyde-treated tetanus toxin (2160).

Simeon Burt Wolbach (US), Otto A. Bessey (US), and Percy R. Howe (US) concluded that vitamin A (retinol) deficiency in diets led to improper development of teeth and retardation of the growth of the skeleton and that vitamin C deficiency led to a deficiency of formation of intercellular cement substance leading to fragility of blood capillaries (3043-3048).

J.H.C. Ruyter (BE) was the first to call attention to the structural peculiarities of unique cells lining the afferent arteriole as it approaches the glomerulus. He suggested that by swelling these cells could occlude the lumen of the afferent arterioles and thereby regulate blood flow to the glomerular capillaries (2331).

Norbert Goormaghtigh (BE) named the juxtaglomerular apparatus and suggested that it might have an endocrine function (1045).

Norbert Goormaghtigh (BE) and Keith S. Grimson (US) confirmed that the modified cells in the afferent arteriolar wall of the juxtaglomerular apparatus are endocrine in nature (1046-1053).

George White Pickering (US), Myron Prinzmetal (US), Juan Carlos Fasciolo (AR), Bernardo Alberto Houssay (AR), and Alberto C. Taquini (AR) rediscovered renin from the kidney as an inducer of hypertension (862, 2093). See Tigerstedt, 1898. 

Eduardo Braun-Menéndez (AR), Juan Carlos Fasciolo (AR), Luis Federico Leloir (AR), Juan M. Muñoz (AR), and Irvine Heinly Page (US) determined that renin is an enzyme which acts on a substrate (hypertensinogen) in the plasma converting it to a decapeptide (angiotensin I) (286, 2024).

Leonard T. Skeggs, Jr. (US), Kenneth E. Lentz (US), Joseph R. Kahn (US), Norman P. Shumway (US), and Kenneth R. Woods (US) determined that a serum enzyme (angiotensinase) converts the inactive decapeptide (angiotensin I) to the active octapeptide (angiotensin II) (2512). This activity occurs primarily in the lungs.

William Stanley Peart (GB) demonstrated that the juxtaglomerular apparatus cells produce renin within the kidney (2062).

Edward M. East (US) and Albert J. Mangelsdorf (US), using Nicotiana tabacum as their research material, laid the foundation for understanding gametophytic self-incompatibility (764).

Thomas Hunt Morgan (US), Calvin Blackman Bridges (US) and Alfred Henry Sturtevant (US) showed that chromosome imbalance could produce intersex types in Drosophila.

They also observed that occasionally crosses produced female-biased sex ratios, a clear violation of Mendel’s first law. Daughters from the distorted brood produced an equal number of males and females, but half of their sons produced female-biased sex ratios, whatever the origin of their mates. The remaining grandsons produced normal sex ratios and were shown to have lost the trait (1917).

David Policansky (US) and John Ellison (US) showed that in the Drosophila males producing biased sex ratio offspring there is a high mortality among sperm bearing the Y chromosome. They concluded that in some way a gene on the X chromosome kills sperm bearing a Y chromosome (2116).

Felix Bernstein (DE) proposed that the human ABO blood group is inherited in a multiple allele pattern (198).

Hermann Joseph Muller, Jr. (US) reported on the mental traits and heredity as studied in a case of identical twins reared apart (1935).

Horatio H. Newman (US), Frank N. Freeman (US), and Karl J. Holzinger (US) presented a large study of heredity and environment in the development of 100 pairs of twins (1980).

Sears P. Doolittle (US) and Lewis Ralph Jones (US) demonstrated that Macrosiphum pisi Harris (pea aphid) acts as a vector for pea mosaic virus (717).

Carl Hamilton Browning (GB) defined substances that incite the formation of antibodies and react with them as antigens (322).

John Cunningham (GB), working in India, found that the organism, Borrelia carteri, occurs in two antigenic varieties in human infections of relapsing fever (577). John Cunningham (GB), J.H. Theodore (GB), and A.G.L. Fraser (GB) extended the number of antigenic varieties to nine (578).

William George Savage (GB) and Philip Bruce White (GB) laid the groundwork for antigenic analysis of the Salmonella group (2368).

Fritz Kaufmann (DK) greatly extended and refined Savage and White’s work (1412).

Gaston Ramon (FR) demonstrated that it was possible to augment the antitoxin response to diphtheria and tetanus by administering vaccines with pyogenic bacteria or with various additional compounds. This represents the first occasion on which immunological adjuvants were used. Ramon called them adjuvantes et stimulantes de l’immunite (2159).

Porter Warren Anderson, Jr. (US) and David Hamilton Smith (US), Richard B. Johnston, Jr. (US), Michael E. Pichichero (US), Richard A. Insel (US), Robert Frank Betts (US), and Ronald J. Eby (US) made the first polysaccharide-conjugate vaccines against Haemophilus influenzae to be tested in adults and infants (56, 57). They went on to develop a vaccine, which was a commercial success.

Louis P. Rodriques (US), John B. Robbins (US) Rachel Schneerson (US), James C. Parke, Jr. (US), C. Bell (US), James J. Schlesselman (US), Ann Sutton (US), Z. Wang (US), Gerald Schiffman (US), Arthur Karpas (US), and Joseph Shiloach (US) studied the antigenicity of the Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) polysaccharide then developed a clinically acceptable method of binding this polysaccharide to a medically useful protein, tetanus toxoid to form a conjugate vaccine. In sequential studies, their Hib-tetanus conjugate elicited protective levels in mice, rabbits, young rhesus monkeys, and then in human adults, children, and infants. Their achievement opened the door to their and others' development of conjugate vaccines for other bacterial pathogens whose surface polysaccharide could serve as a protective antigen (2271, 2395, 2396).

William C. Boeck (US) and Jaroslav Drbohlav (US) were the first to develop in vitro cultures of Endamoeba histolytica. They grew it in a diphasic egg slant medium they developed for isolation of intestinal flagellates (241).

Alfred Stock (DE) wrote about the danger of mercury vapor and concluded that mercury is a poison, which can accumulate in the tissues over a considerable period of time (2641).

Martha Schmidtmann (DE) by following the spread of dye in cardiac cells presented the first evidence for a direct intercellular pathway permeable to molecules (2393).

Walther Vogt (DE) prepared a fate map that showed where the cells on the surface of an early gastrula would be in the later embryo. That is, he determined the destiny, or fate, of the gastrula cells (2818, 2819).

Nicole Le Douarin (FR), Claude Le Lièvre (FR), and Marie-Aimée Teillet (FR) used chick-quail chimeras to track the fate of neural crest cells and found that many of them migrate to form a variety of structures (1604-1606).

John Thomas Scopes (US) was the defendant in Tennessee v. John Thomas Scopes, the so-called monkey trial held in Dayton, Tennessee in July 1925, in which a science teacher was arrested for teaching evolution in violation of the state laws at that time. Two-time presidential candidate William Jennings Bryan led the prosecution. Labor lawyer Clarence Darrow led the defense and goaded Bryan into declaring that humans are not mammals (2741).

George Hoyt Whipple (US), Frieda Saur Robscheit-Robbins (US), C. Arthur Elden (US), Warren M. Sperry (US), and George B. Walden (US) found that liver, heart, skeletal muscle, ash of liver, ash of kidney, and ash of pineapple promotes regeneration of hemoglobin following severe anemia (2266-2269, 2963, 2964). These results suggested that iron in the diet is important for hemoglobin formation.

Thomas Benton Cooley (US) and Pearl Lee (US) reported on two Italian children with symptoms of severe anemia, enlarged spleens and livers, discolored skin and bone alterations (532). Thalassaemia or thalassemia

George Hoyt Whipple (US) and William Leslie Bradford (US) coined the word thalassaemia deriving it from two Greek words - Thalassa meaning the sea and haima meaning blood, literally "sea water in the blood" (2962).

Gustav Riehl (DE) described a therapy for deep burn wounds (2245).

Arnold Rice Rich (US) concluded that hemoglobin, derived from destroyed erythrocytes, is the sole source of bile pigment; its normal site of origin being in reticuloendothelial cells alone, especially the Kupffer cells, and the epithelial liver cells having no role in the formation, but only in the excretion of the bile pigment (2223).

Percival Bailey (US) and Harvey Williams Cushing (US) postulated that medulloblastomas (Bailey coined this name) are derived from embryonic undifferentiated cells in the ependymal lining of the fourth ventricle. They described the characteristic gross and microscopic structure of this tumor, its reddish-gray color, extremely cellular nature, numerous mitotic figures, and the formation of pseudo rosettes. The tendency of this tumor to spread to the leptomeninges, which proved valuable in terms of treatment considerations, was noted. They recommended radiotherapy in the post-operative care of patients with medulloblastomas (100, 103).

Erich Urbach (AT-US) presented a diagnostic procedure for demonstrating antibodies in allergics. Allergen administered by either the percutaneous, cutaneous, or intracutaneous routes causes a local reaction, which will develop into a blister when a cantharidal dressing is placed on it (2762).

Walter Edward Dandy (US) reported a case in which he totally removed an acoustic neuroma (AN). He used a unilateral sub occipital approach during which, following gutting of the tumor, he gently drew the capsule away from the brainstem (604). Dandy's success was due in part to his innovation called ventriculography, which involved x-rays and injecting a gas into the brain's cerebral ventricles for visualizing the tumor. See, Dandy 1918.

Percy Sargent (GB) was the first to remove a suprarenal tumor thus reversing virilism in the patient. Gordon Morgan Holmes (GB) described the operation (1260).

Henry S. Soutter (GB) performed a "digital" mitral commissurotomy (closed mitral valvulotomy) (2572). 

Geoffrey Jefferson (GB) performed the first successful embolectomy in Britain (1359).

Konstantine Michaelovich Bykov (RU) was the first to demonstrate experimentally that the bilateral synergic activity of the hemispheres of the brain may be dependent on the corpus callosum, and indicated the part the corpus callosum plays in the development of symmetrical reproduction of function in the hemispheres. He severed the corpus callosum in dogs and then used Ivan Pavlov's classical conditioning methods to assess the effects of his surgeries. His experiments showed the importance of the corpus callosum for interhemispheric communication (381, 382).

Howard J. Curtis (US) and Archibald Philip Bard (US) used electrical stimulation to prove the point-to-point connection of one side of the cortex to the other by way of the corpus callosum (579).

Andreas Vesalius (Flemish) gave the corpus callosum its name (2805).

Howard Christian Naffziger (US) described the phenomenon of the pineal shift on skull x-rays, an important sign for brain tumor localization (1956). 

Egas Moniz (PT) developed cerebral angiography, the technique of using x-rays to visualize arteries and veins thus permitting the diagnosis of several kinds of neurological disorders, such as tumors and arteriovenous malformations (1906).

John Silas Lundy (US), in 1925, developed the concept of balanced anesthesia. He introduced the idea of combining more than one anesthetic technique—for example, using morphine preoperatively, a regional block to the surgical site, alongside an inhalational anesthetic of ethylene (1723).

Hermann Ludwig Blumgart (US) and Otto Christian Yens (US), in 1925, performed the most famous of all radiotracer experiments on humans, the well-known study of arm-to-arm circulation time (237). This ushered in the field of nuclear medicine.

Wolfgang Köhler (DE) showed that instead of learning simply by trial and error chimpanzees are able to solve problems by grasping the relations between means and ends, i.e., they displayed insight (1480).

Merritt Lyndon Fernald (US) proved that in the northeastern United States some species of plants and animals persisted in areas that escaped glaciation during the Pleistocene (889).

Fritz Berckhemer (DE) found a fossil skull of a young female in the Sigrist gravel pit north of Stuttgart, Germany and gave it to Karl Sigrist (183, 184). This, so called, Steinheim skull can be considered a Homo erectus/Homo sapiens transitional form from the Middle Pleistocene, ca. 4000,000 B.P.

Raymond Arthur Dart (AU-ZA) found in material from a limestone quarry at Taung (place of the lion), South Africa a fossil cast of the inside of a primate skull, which fitted into another lump of stone which possibly contained a face. It took Dart about a month to remove enough stone to reveal the face and jaw of a young fossil primate, which would be nicknamed the Taung baby. Dart considered the fossil “an extinct race of apes intermediate between living anthropoids and man.” He described it and named it Australopithecus africanus (Southern ape from Africa) and dated it to between 3 and 2.3 Ma (613). It was placed in early Pleistocene or late Pliocene.

Australopithecus africanus existed between 3 and 2 million years ago. It is similar to A. afarensis, and was also bipedal, but body size was slightly greater. Brain size may also have been slightly larger, ranging between 420 and 500 cc. This is a little larger than chimp brains (despite a similar body size), but still not advanced in the areas necessary for speech. The back teeth were a little bigger than in A. afarensis. Although the teeth and jaws of A. africanus are much larger than those of humans, they are far more similar to human teeth than to those of apes. The shape of the jaw is now fully parabolic, like that of humans, and the size of the canine teeth is further reduced compared to A. afarensis (489, 1362).

The American Type Culture Collection was founded. It is a repository and source of known strains of viruses, bacteria, fungi, algae, and eukaryotic cells. 

Archivos de Neurobiologia, Psichologia, Fisiologia, Histologia, Neurologia y Psiquiatria, now titled Archivos de Neurobiologia was founded.


“Men fear thought as they fear nothing else on earth—more than death. Thought is subversive, and revolutionary, destructive and terrible; thought is merciless to privilege, established institutions, and comfortable habits; thought is anarchic and lawless, indifferent to authority, careless to the well-tried wisdom of the ages. Thought looks into the pit of hell and is not afraid.…Thought is great and swift and free, the light of the world, and the chief glory of man.” Bertrand Russell (2329).

“Life is bottled sunshine” William Winwood Reade (2203).

“The striking similarity established by Meyerhof between the changes of carbohydrates in muscle and in the yeast cell is seen to be much closer than has been believed. The remarkable phenomena accompanying alcoholic fermentation are now duplicated in the case of lactic acid production, and it may reasonably be expected that most of the fermentative decompositions of sugars will be found to be initiated in a similar manner.” Arthur Harden (1155).

“The characters of the individual are referable to paired elements (genes) in the germinal matter that are held together in a definite number of linkage groups…. The members of each pair of genes separate when germ cells mature…. Each germ-cell comes to contain only one set…. These principles…enable us to handle problems of genetics in a strictly numerical basis, and allow us to predict…what will occur…. In these respects the theory [of the gene] fulfills the requirements of a scientific theory in the fullest sense.… It is difficult to resist the fascinating assumption that the gene is constant because it represents an organic chemical entity. This is the simplest assumption that one can make at present, and since this view is consistent with all that is known about the stability of the gene it seems, at least, a good working hypothesis.” Thomas Hunt Morgan (1915).

Theodor Svedberg (SE) was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work on disperse systems.

Johannes Andreas Grib Fibiger (DK) was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for research indicating that a nematode, Spiroptera carcinoma, caused gastric cancer in rats (895). The hypothesis was later rejected but, nonetheless, had an important role in the development of experimental research on cancer.

Gilbert Newton Lewis (US) coined the term photon for the smallest unit of radiant energy (1650).

The Commission on Units and Measurements defined the röntgen at the Second International Congress of Radiology in Stockholm, Sweden. It was based on ionization of air.

Walter Norman Haworth (GB), William Charlton (GB), Stanley Peat (GB), John Vaughan Loach (GB), John Herbert Geoffrey Plant (GB), and Charles William Long (GB) had, by 1928, evolved and confirmed, among others, the structures of maltose, cellobiose, lactose, gentiobiose, melibiose, gentianose, raffinose and the glucoside ring structure of normal sugars (443, 1187, 1188).

Leopold Stefan Ruzicka (HR-CH) analyzed civetone and muscone, two active compounds in natural musk perfumes and found that they consist of very large rings of atoms. He showed that civetone is composed of a 17 membered, and muscone a 15 membered carbon ring. At this time it was thought that rings with over 6 members were too unstable to exist for long (2332). This paper was submitted in 1924.

Karl Lohmann (DE) and Lorand Jendrassik (HU) developed a colorimetric determination of phosphoric acid in muscle extracts (1698).

Hans Karl August Simon von Euler-Chelpin (DE-SE), Christian Barthel (LU), and Karl Myrbäck (SE) found that dried yeast possess practically the same power of fermentation as fresh yeast although they retain only 1% of the reproductive power (129, 2829).

Julio Caesar Tello (PE) was inspired by the discovery in 1910 of the Paracas Textile (ca. 100 B.C.E.) at the site of Cabeza Larga on the Paracas Peninsula on the South coast of Peru. In his 1925 excavations Tello found coca leaves placed in an urn, which accompanied the burial of a Peruvian priest, noble, or king from the Nazca period. This is the earliest record of the use of cocoa leaves (2698).

Albert Jan Kluyver (NL) and Hendrick Jean Louis Donker (NL) wrote their treatise on the unity of biochemistry in which they stressed that biochemical mechanisms can be investigated using mutant strains of microorganisms and that hydrogen transfer is a basic feature of all metabolic processes (1466).

Juda Hirsch Quastel (GB-CA) and Barnet Woolf (GB) published the first reported measurement of the equilibrium constant of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction. It was on the aspartate ammonia-lyase reaction (2148).

James Batcheller Sumner (US) was the first to obtain an enzyme in pure crystalline form. This was the enzyme urease, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea to yield carbon dioxide and ammonia. Sumner had used a 32% solution of acetone in water to precipitate much of the organic material in a jack-bean extract rich in urease activity, while leaving most of the urease activity in solution. After filtering off this precipitate and letting the filtrate stand overnight in the cold, he found that crystals of protein had formed in the filtrate. Study of these protein crystals revealed that they are pure urease enzyme endowed with a specific enzymatic activity enormously greater than that of the original jack-bean extract. It was thus proven that the enzyme urease is a protein and that a polypeptide chain is capable of acting as a catalyst in the facilitation of a chemical reaction.

Sumner’s proof was an important milestone along the road to understanding the chemical basis of cell function (2665).

John Jacob Abel (US) crystallized insulin (4).

Anna L. Sommer (US) and Charles B. Lipman (US) experimentally demonstrated the essential nature of zinc, copper, and boron for plant growth (2555, 2556). 

Alfred Henry Sturtevant (US) found that inversion of a section of the third chromosome in Drosophila melanogaster reduces crossover frequency (2661).

Hugo W. Alberts (US) devised a method for calculating genetic linkage values (20).

Calvin Blackman Bridges (US) and T.M. Olbrycht () noted that in order to accurately construct genetic maps it is necessary to know the full number of crossovers (doubles counting as two, triples as three crossovers) that occur between the loci that are to be mapped. In constructing such maps it is first necessary to determine experimentally the amounts by which the various crossing over values exceed the directly observed recombination percents. The experimental determination of the amount by which crossing over exceeds recombination is made through use of loci lying between the two loci in question. Bridges created the sc ec ct v g f multiple recessive and called it "Xple" (X-chromosome multiple). This organism was used to test many aspects of linkage mapping (296).

Edgar Altenburg (US) and Hermann J. Muller (US) demonstrated the nature of the mechanism of inheritance of the truncate character in Drosophila. They showed that it conformed regularly to the principles of chromosome heredity, factor constancy, etc., and disclosed the causes of the inconstancy of the inbred stock, and of the indefiniteness and variability of the ratios thrown in crosses. The truncate character, when it was analyzed, was found to depend on so many factors. 1) Two successive mutations were practically necessary, in the first place, before truncate became visible at all. 2) Since truncate depended on a lethal, and was, in addition, inconstant in somatic expression, it was subjected to selection, which perpetuated any new factors (balancing lethals and intensifiers) that still further differentiated truncate from normal. 3) Since the truncate character depended on an unstable developmental reaction, the initial appearance of such intensifiers was made more likely (48).

Edgar Douglas Adrian (GB) and Yngve Zotterman (SE), using the afferent nerve of a stretch receptor in a frog muscle, showed that it is possible by amplification to record the impulses in single nerve cells to a natural stimulus (tension). They postulated the concept of adaptation of receptors to stimuli and predicted that other units of the nervous system would also exhibit adaptation (16).

Edgar Douglas Adrian (GB) and Yngve Zotterman (SE), established beyond doubt that the nerve impulse is invariant, that the intensity of sensation is conveyed by the frequency of impulses and the quality by the type of nerve fiber in action (16).

Eugene Markley Landis (US), Schack August Steenberg Krogh (DK), and Abbey H. Turner (US), in an elegant series of experiments, determined that the rate of net fluid movement across the capillary wall is proportional to the difference between capillary hydrostatic pressure and the osmotic pressure of the plasma proteins, thus providing the first experimental proof of Ernest Starling’s hypothesis of fluid exchange. Landis’s constant of proportionality was the first quantitative measurement of the hydrodynamic conductance of the capillary wall (cubic microns of fluid per second per centimeter water pressure difference per square micrometer of capillary wall). These papers included the first measurements of the pressure drops along the vascular tree and localization of the separate components of the peripheral resistance to blood flow, in mammals as well as frogs (1529, 1565-1577). See, Starling 1896.

John Belling (GB-US) perfected the aceto-carmine staining method by adding iron. This technique was especially important because it allowed a clear differentiation between chromosomes and cytoplasm (173).

Walter Bradford Cannon (US) coined the word homeostasis: the maintenance of balance in the body’s state via chemical feedback mechanisms (399, 400). Bernard (FR) had originated this concept as milieu intérieur. See, Claude Bernard 1865.

Gaston Ramon (FR) and Pierre A. Descombey (FR) described the flocculation reaction and observed that flocculation may occur in zones that do not correspond to the point at which the toxin and antitoxin neutralize each other (2161).

Kenjiró Fujii (JP) observed the coiled structure of the chromosome for the first time noting that in certain stages of the cell cycle, two filaments were seen to be coiled around each other (969).

Frantisek Vejdovsky (CZ) showed that nuclear fission in an ovule is preceded by the splitting of the centrosome (which he called the periplast); he was apparently the first to observe the centriole in 1866 (2796).

Félix Hubert d’Herelle (CA) described the three-step process for the life history of the bacteriophage virus: (1) attachment to the susceptible bacterium, (2) multiplication in the cell, and (3) disintegration of the cell to set free the progeny virus particles and attachment of the progeny to other susceptible bacteria, if such are present. These conclusions were based on the plaque-count, and dilution methods of assay that he had invented (586).

Louis Otto Kunkel (US) demonstrated that Cicadula sexnotata (a leafhopper) can act as a vector of aster yellows virus (1549).

Thomas Clifford Vanterpool (CA) was the first to discover that mixed infections, the simultaneous occurrence of two viruses within a host plant acting together, could produce a distinct severe disease. He showed that tomato mosaic virus and potato mosaic virus acting together caused the severe disease of tomatoes called streak or winter blight while either virus acting alone was shown to cause mild symptoms (2794).

Andre Paillot (FR) discovered granulosis virus (GV) infection in an insect, Pieris brassicae (cabbage butterfly). He was the first to describe a new group of diseases, the granuloses, which are characterized by the formation of virus inclusion bodies called granules within tissues of infected insects (2025). }. These are now considered Baculovirus.

Edson Sunderland Bastin (US) succeeded in culturing sulfate-reducing bacteria from groundwater samples extracted from an oil deposit that was hundreds of meters below the surface. Since this discovery over 9,000 strains of bacteria and fungi have been isolated from diverse subsurface environments (135, 946).

Heinrich Bernward Prell (DE) reported an amoebic infection of an insect, Apis mellifera Linn. (honeybee). The etiological agent he described and named Malpighamoeba mellificae attacks the Malpighian tubules causing a dysentery (2132, 2133).

Walter H. Burkholder (US) observed that halo blight of beans is caused by Pseudomonas phaseolicola (344).

Everitt George Dunne Murray (CA), Robert Alexander Webb (GB), and Meredith Blake Robson Swann (GB) isolated and characterized Listeria monocytogenes as the etiological agent of an epizootic among laboratory rabbits and guinea pigs, which was characterized in part by monocytosis (1950).

Walter F. Schlech III (US), Pierre M. Lavigne (US), Robert A. Bortolussi (US), Alexander C. Allen (US), E. Vanora Haldane (US), A. John Wort (US), Allen W. Hightower (US), Scott E. Johnson (US), Stanley H. King (US), Eric S. Nicholls (US), and Clare V. Broome (US) established that human consumption of Listeria-contaminated foodstuffs causes a disease called listeriosis (2381).

Louis Edmond den Dooren de Jong (NL) demonstrated that a strain of Pseudomonas putida can proliferate on a mineral medium to which any one of some eighty compounds was added as the sole organic substance available (627).

Maurice Lemoigne (FR) originally discovered poly-beta-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) as a major component of the cells of the bacterium Bacillus megaterium (1626).

Frederick P. Delafield (US), Michael Doudoroff (US), Norberto J. Palleroni (US), Carol Jean Lusty (US) and Rebecca Contopoulos (US) later honored Lemoigne by naming Pseudomonas lemoigne, an active oxidizer of extracellular PHB, for him (642).

Frank W. Tilley (US) and Jacob M. Schaffer (US) determined that the germicidal activity of the aliphatic alcohols increases regularly from methyl through octyl alcohol for each additional methyl group in the straight chain (2379, 2725).

Samuel Ottmar Mast (US) proposed the tail contraction model to explain sol-gel amoeboid movement (1798).

John Nathaniel Couch (US) described for the first time the existence of physiologically distinct and separate male and female strains in an oomycete (Dictyuchus) (556).

Friedrich Seidel (DE), using eggs of the dragonfly, Platycnemis pennipes, determined that embryonic development in insects is typified by the presence of a special kind of germ-band formation. Because of the distribution of cytoplasm and yolk in the egg the germ band is limited to a particular region. The ventral portion of the developing embryo is special because it is the carrier of the main system of organs. The ventral part of the embryo precedes the dorsal side in development (2431-2433).

Alden B. Dawson (US) carried out the first successful skeletal staining when he used alizarin red S (619).

Henry Allan Gleason (US) argued that every plant association is the unique product of the fluctuating environmental conditions of a particular time and place (1034).

Gavin Rylands de Beer (GB) observed that certain cartilage and bone cells are derived from the outer ectodermal layer of the embryo; calling into question the germ-layer theory (622).

Lloyd R. Watson (US) devised instrumental methods to artificially inseminate the honeybee (386, 2921, 2922). This instrument greatly improved genetics of the honeybee. 

Sergei S. Chetverikov (RU) concluded that populations in nature maintain within themselves the variants, which arise within them by mutation. This would provide them with a supply of potential but hidden variability out of which the adaptiveness of the population to a changing environment could arise (450, 451).

William Bloom (US) worked out the early stages of the embryogenesis of human bile capillaries (229).

William Bloom (US) described the transformation of small lymphocytes into myelocytes in germinal centers (230).

George Ellett Coghill (US), in his studies of the amphibian Amblystoma punctatum, established that innervation develops in a cephalo-caudal (head-tail) direction, and that limb movements emerge from a more general pattern of trunk movement. He then theorized that behavior develops as the expansion of a "total pattern," rather than simply as the combination or coordination of reflexes, and suggested strongly that this might well be true for higher vertebrates, including man (490-493).

Serge Metalnikov (RU-FR) and V. Chorine (FR) provided an important paper in psychoneuroimmunology when they adapted Pavlov’s procedures of stimulant conditioning to activate and enhance cellular and antibody immune responses to foreign substances, particularly to otherwise lethal doses of cholera and anthrax bacteria (1853).

Ralph Milton Waters (US) authored a landmark article on carbon dioxide (CO2) absorption in anesthesiology (2914).

Giovanni Di Guglielmo (IT) described a syndrome of unknown origin characterized by enormous numbers of nucleated erythrocytes appearing in the bone marrow and blood (acute erythroblastosis) (681).

Erik Adolf Willebrand (FI) described a previously unknown form of hemophilia with a prolonged bleeding time course as its most prominent sign. He named it pseudo-hemophilia (2998-3000). Willebrand’s disease I.

Nikolai Mikhailovich Itsenko (RU) described glucocorticoid excess syndrome in which the hypersecretion of glucocorticoids is secondary to hypersecretion of adrenocorticotrophic hormone from the pituitary. It may also be caused by a basophilic adenoma of the pituitary (1346).

Harvey Williams Cushing (US) described this syndrome six years later (582). It is often called Cushing’s syndrome I but should be called Itsenko-Cushing syndrome.

Felix Mandl (AT) was the first to undertake parathyroid surgery, successfully removing a parathyroid adenoma in a patient with osteitis fibrosa cystica (1758).

Henry Head (GB) presented his theory of aphasia as a condition with ”a disorder of symbolic formulation and expression” (1192).

César Roux (CH) performed the first surgical resection of a pheochromocytoma, in 1926 (1760). Later the same year, Charles Horace Mayo (US) performed the first surgical resection in the United States and described medical and surgical management of pheochromocytoma (1804).

Percival Bailey (US) and Harvey Williams Cushing (US) wrote a book, which formed the basis of modern day neurooncology. It completely revolutionized the understanding of neurooncology, and for first time the neurosurgical community was presented with an orderly classification of gliomas based on the tumor's natural history and clinical course. This work changed antiquated thinking by showing that the microscopic structure of a tumor is important for prognosis. It completely revamped the understanding of these tumors. In fact, the histopathological basis of brain tumors in relation to patient survival rate and outcome still influences present-day neurosurgical thought (104).

Percival Bailey (US) simplified, refined, and made the concepts presented in the 1926 book more practical (98, 99).

Harvey Williams Cushing (US) and William T. Bovie (US) conceived and introduced electrosurgery, which allowed the cutting of tissue with almost no bleeding. During 1927, Cushing removed a number of brain tumors previously considered inoperable (584, 2244).

Maximilian Carl-Friedrich Nitze (DE), in 1896, developed an operating cystoscope fitted with an electric cautery (1988).

Francis Bertody Sumner (US) made a thorough study of coat color among the mainland and Santa Rosa Island mice, and concluded that both isolation and natural selection probably operated in the origin of species, but that environmental mechanisms could not be ruled out. Though still not conclusive, Sumner’s reading of nature’s experiments on Santa Rosa came closer than any other study at the time — field or lab — to providing empirical evidence of the mechanism of evolution. Santa Rosa is an island off the Florida panhandle (2663).

Knud Haraldsen Krabbe (DK) founded the journal Acta Psychiatrica et Neurologica Scandinavica.


Heinrich Otto Wieland (DE) was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his investigations of the constitution of the bile acids and related substances.

Julius Wagner-Jauregg (AT) was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his discovery of fever therapy for paresis (dementia paralytica). He shared the honor with the pathologist Johannes Andreas Grib Fibiger (DK), who was awarded the prize "for his discovery of the Spiroptery carcinoma."


Alexander Logie du Toit (ZA) compared the geology of South America and South Africa and found them to be similar in many ways (737).

Hans Busch (DE) theorized that magnetic fields could act as lenses by focusing electron beams to a point (369). This was vital to the invention of the electron microscope.

Hermann Joseph Muller, Jr. (US) and Lewis John Stadler (US) discovered that x-rays induce mutations in animals and plants respectively. They found that the dose-frequency curve is linear (1936, 2597, 2598).

Albert Charles Chibnall (GB) and Harold John Channon (GB) discovered the exact structure of phosphatidic acid; described for the first time in living materials (453).

Rudolph John Anderson (SE-US) isolated the various lipoid and carbohydrate fractions from the tubercle bacillus. He was able to separate the lipoid constituents of tubercle bacilli into three groups consisting of wax, glycerides, and phosphatides (58).

Rudolph John Anderson (SE-US) described the constitution of phthiocol, a fat-soluble pigment he isolated from human tubercle bacillus. He determined that this previously unknown substance was in fact 2-methyl-3-hydroxy-1, 4-naphthaquinone (60).

Otto Fritz Meyerhof (DE-US) discovered that the first step in the fermentation of glucose (glucose to glucose-6-phosphate), catalyzed by an enzyme he called hexokinase, does not require inorganic phosphate but rather organic phosphate transferred from its terminal, or g position on adenosine triphosphate (ATP) (1859).

Otto Fritz Meyerhof (DE-US) and Fritz Albert Lipmann (DE-US) discovered that sodium fluoride strongly inhibits the fermentation and phosphorylation of hexoses (1685, 1859).

Hans Karl August Simon von Euler-Chelpin (DE-SE), Erich Adler (), Otto Fritz Meyerhof (DE-US), Sidney P. Colowick (US), and Herman Moritz Kalckar (DK-US) partially purified hexokinase then established the reaction which it catalyzes as: glucose + adenosine triphosphate (ATP) going to glucose 6-phosphate + adenosine diphosphate (ADP) (512, 1862, 2828)

Hans Karl August Simon von Euler-Chelpin (DE-SE) showed for the first time a combination between an enzyme and a substrate that was traced back to a certain atomic group (carbonyl group). He was experimenting with dipeptidases (2827).

Otto Paul Hermann Diels (DE), Willy Gädke (DE), and Anna Karstens (DE) used selenium to dehydrogenate cholesterol thus yielding Diels’ hydrocarbon, an aromatic hydrocarbon closely related to the skeletal structure of all steroids, of which cholesterol is one (689, 690).

Otto Paul Hermann Diels (DE) and Hermann Klare (DE), in 1934, put forth the correct structure of Diels’ hydrocarbon as 3'-methyl-1, 2-cyclopentaphenanthrene. This work represents a dramatic turning point in the understanding of the chemistry of cholesterol and other steroids.

Juda Hirsch Quastel (GB-CA) and Walter Reginald Wooldridge (GB) studied dehydrogenases from Escherichia coli and further developed the concept of the active center, or site of activation, a term earlier coined by Quastel (1926). This work stressed the importance of using in vitro results to understand in vivo activities of enzymes (2146). They also discovered that malonic acid is a powerful inhibitor of succinic dehydrogenase (2147).

Philip Eggleton (GB) and Marion Grace Palmer Eggleton (GB) found an organic acid-labile phosphate in muscle tissue. They named it phosphagen (creatine phosphate) and established the fact that muscular contraction is accompanied by removal of phosphagen, and subsequent recovery in oxygen is characterized by a rapid restitution of the phosphagen—a phase of recovery apparently independent of the relatively slow oxidative removal of lactic acid (795).

Cyrus Hartwell Fiske (US) and Yellapragada SubbaRow (US) discovered the chemical nature of the phosphagen (creatine phosphate) present in muscles. They announced that voluntary muscle contains an unstable compound of creatine and phosphoric acid, which is hydrolyzed by stimulation, and resynthesized when the muscle is permitted to recover. They proposed a structure and pointed out some of the physiological properties of phosphocreatine (later changed to creatine phosphate) (910, 911, 913). Note: Michel-Eugène Chevreul (FR), in 1832, determined that muscle contains creatine (452).

Bernhard Zondek (DE-IL) and Selmar Aschheim (DE) isolated estrogenic hormone from the urine of pregnant women in amounts averaging 12,000 mouse units per liter (3110). They found that the urine of pregnant women, when injected into female animals, causes hyperemia of the ovaries, growth of the follicles, and, in some species ovulation (76). This became the basis of the Ascheim-Zondek and Friedman-Lapham Tests for pregnancy.

Maurice H. Friedman (US) and Maxwell Lapham (US) developed the "Rabbit test" for early diagnosis of pregnancy. Two morning samples of urine were injected into the marginal ear vein of a virginal female rabbit that had been isolated from male rabbits. The result was available 48 hours after the first injection. Of all the biologic tests, Friedman's was the most accurate. This procedure tested for the presence of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG; a hormone released from the implantation site of a blastocyst that prevents menstruation) in the urine of women. If hCG were present in the urine, the rabbit's ovaries would form corpora lutea (ovarian endocrine structures formed following ovulation) within 48 hours (955, 956).

Julius Moses Rogoff (US) and George Neil Stewart (US) demonstrated that a chemical extract of the adrenal glands of dogs greatly prolongs the lifespan of adrenalectomized dogs. They found that the active ingredient was not epinephrine (adrenaline) (2273). They experienced some success in using adrenal extract to treat human patients suffering from Addison’s disease (2274). Charles-Édouard Brown-Séquard (FR) had proved that removal of both suprarenal (adrenal) glands invariably proved fatal. See, Brown-Séquard, 1856.

Walter Bradford Cannon (US), Andries Querido (NL), Sydney W. Britton (US), and Elizabeth M. Bright (US) demonstrated that the adrenal glands produce more adrenaline (epinephrine) in animals exposed to the cold. The adrenaline (epinephrine) causes an increase in heat production (401). 

Joseph Barcroft (GB) and J.G. Stephens (GB) demonstrated the spleen's role as a blood reservoir in the dog (120).

Thomas Milton Rivers (US) clearly distinguished between bacteria and viruses, thereby, giving rise to the field of virology (2251).

Nicolaas Louis Söhngen (NL) was probably the first to report bacteria that lyse other bacteria, in some cases with a high degree of parasite-host specificity. Bacterium bacteriovorus, which lyses Bacillus danicus, he found to grow only in the presence of its host (2551).

Ronald Aylmer Fisher (GB-AU) explained the evolution of Batesian mimicry by a series of small evolutionary steps. He proposed that the phenotypic expression of genes could be modified by the action of other genes. Rare imperfect mimetic forms when they appeared in a population would vary due to the action of modifier genes. Selection would favor those modifier genes that produced an increase in the accuracy of the mimicry (904).

Cyril Astley Clarke (GB), Philip Macdonald Sheppard (GB), and Lawrence M. Cook (GB) provided experimental evidence to support Fisher’s explanation (467-472, 2473). 

John Charles Walker (US) pioneered research on genetic resistance in yellows disease of cabbage. He showed the scientific community that disease control through genetic resistance could be an effective and relatively inexpensive approach to solving plant disease problems (2880, 2881).

Bernard Ogilvie Dodge (US) worked out the life cycle of the pink bread mold, Neorospora crassa, an ascomycete (707). Cornelius Lott Shear (US) and Bernard Ogilvie Dodge (US) named the fungal genus Neurospora (2461).

Emil Bozler (DE-US) demonstrated that the nerve net of cnidarians is made up of separate cells connected by synaptic junctions. He also studied electrical aspects of muscle contraction and the role of calcium and magnesium in contraction and relaxation (270).

Nadine Dobrovolskaia-Zavadskaia (FR) and Nicolas Kobozieff (BE) identified t-haplotypes in mice because they contain the gene tct (t-complex tail interaction factor) that interacts with a spontaneous dominant mutation Brachyury (T). Brachyury produces short tails in T/+ mice, but interacts with tct to produce a tailless phenotype in T/t mice (699, 700).

James R. Archer (GB), Steven J. Self (GB), and Bryan G. Winchester (GB) explained the t-complex in mice as a genetic entity which alters meiosis is such a way that its transmission into gametes is favored (69). The t-complex is located on the proximal third of chromosome 17 in the house mouse. Naturally occurring variant forms of the t-complex, known as complete t-haplotypes, are found in wild mouse populations. The t-haplotypes contain at least four nonoverlapping inversions that suppress recombination with the wild-type chromosome, and lock into strong linkage disequilibrium.

Barbara C. Turner (US) and David D. Perkins (US), working with Neurospora, discovered spore killer, a chromosomal factor that kills meiotic products in which it is not contained (2755).

Laurence Sandler (US) and Kent G. Golic (US) discovered segregation distorter (Sd), a meiotic drive system that operates in males of Drosophila melanogaster. Males heterozygous for Sd, a dominant neomorphic (gain-of-function) mutation on chromosome 2, can transmit their progeny in greater frequencies than expected on a Mendelian basis (2355).  

Evgenii Nikanorovich Pavlovsky (RU) outlined his theory of landscape epidemiology and initiated modern concepts of parasite epidemiology (2056).

Jesse Amos (GB), Ronald George Hatton (GB), R.C. Knight (GB), and Arthur Morel Massee (GB) suggested that eriophyid mites (gall mites) could have some connection with plant virus transmission (50).

Arthur M. Massee (GB) was the first to demonstrate this to be the case (1797).

Erwin Stresemann (DE) wrote an important volume on bird biology as part of Kükenthal and Krumback’s Handbuch der Zoologie. It contains thorough discussions of avian physiology, anatomy, and other phases of avian biology (2655).

Theophilus Shickel Painter (US) studied the Japanese Waltzer mouse and concluded that its phenotype results from a chromosomal deletion (2026) This was the first cytological identification of a deletion producing a specific genetic effect and the first case in mammals of locating a definite gene on a definite chromosome.

Thomas Lewis (GB) originally described the wheal and flare reaction. He described how he believed histamine to be crucially involved in the central area of the weal, where it then stimulates an axon reflex or antidromic reflex, which transmits the signal to more distant parts, i.e., the flare (1654).

Karl Landsteiner (AT-US) and Philip Levine (RU-US) characterized the M, N, P and Jay blood antigens (1578, 1581-1583).

Matthew Walzer (US) and Sampson J. Wilson (US) demonstrated that the ingestion of foods would allow food antigens to penetrate the gastrointestinal barrier, which are then transported in the circulation to IgE-bearing mast cells in the skin (2892, 3029). The IgE class of immunoglobulin was not discovered until 1967.

Willem Storm van Leeuwen (NL) and H. Dekker (DE) put forth the possible significance of mites in house dust allergy (641, 2780, 2781).

Reindert Voorhorst (NL), Frits Th.M. Spieksma (NL), Marise I.A. Spieksma-Boezeman (NL), Hendrik Varekamp (NL), Maarten J. Leupen (NL), and Ankie W. Lyklema (NL) reported that house dust contains mites of the genus Dermatophagoides and suggested that these were the major source of allergens in house dust (2580, 2581, 2844, 2845). 

David Marine (US) and Emil J. Baumann (US) found that administration of Ringer’s solution and isotonic solutions of sodium chloride and sodium acetate increased the life span of suprarenalectomized cats about three fold (1768).

Soma Weiss (HU-US) developed the first practical method of measuring circulation in time (2937).

Wallace Osgood Fenn (US) was the first to measure the quantity of oxygen required by a nerve to conduct an impulse (869).

Otto Heinrich Warburg (DE), Harry Goldblatt (US), Gladys Cameron (US), Fritz Kubowitz (DE), Karlfried Gawehn (DE), August-Wilhelm Geissler (DE), Detlev Kayser (DE) and Siegfried Lorenz (DE) provided the very unexpected and fundamental fact, that tissue culture is carcinogenic and that a too low oxygen pressure is the intrinsic cause. Anaerobiosis of cancer cells was an established fact by 1960 when methods were developed to measure the oxygen pressure inside of tumors in the living body (1037, 2896, 2909-2911).

Mark W. Woods (US), Katherine K. Sandford (US), Dean Burk (US), and Wilton R. Earle (US) found that cancer cells, descended in vitro from one single normal cell, were in vivo the more malignant, the higher their fermentation rate (3067).

Dean Burk (US), Mark W. Woods (US), and Jehu Hunter (US) found that when different carcinogens were used to induce in vivo hepatomas there was a direct correlation between malignancy and fermentation rate (343). 

Thomas Benton Cooley (US), E.R. Witwer (US), and O. Pearl Lee (US) described the disease, which later became known as Cooley erythroblastic anemia (533).

Guido Fanconi (CH) reported a family in which three brothers had died in childhood from a condition, which resembled pernicious anemia. He observed that these children had slight stature, hypogonadism and skin pigmentation. In subsequent reports defects of the thumb and radius were recognized as additional but variable syndromic components (859). This became known as Fanconi’s anemia.

Leo Loeb (US) and Sewall Wright (US) demonstrated genetics of transplant specificity in mammals (1692).

Philip Edward Smith (US) perfected the surgical production of hypophysectomized rats and described the symptoms resulting as inhibition of growth in the young animal, weight loss, atrophy of the genital system with loss of libido sexualis, cessation of the female sex cycle, atrophy of the thyroid, parathyroids and suprarenal (adrenal) cortex, lowered resistance to injury, loss of appetite, weakness, and flabbiness. Smith found that he could reverse the atrophied functions in these animals only by injection of fresh hypophyseal tissue from adults. These animals have been widely used in studies of the endocrine system (2539).

Manfred Joshua Sakel (PL-AT-US), in 1927, introduced hypoglycemic coma produced by muscular injections of insulin as a treatment for psychotic disorders (e.g. schizophrenia) and drug addiction (2343, 2344).

Ladislaus Joseph Meduna (HU) started seizure therapy by intravenous injection of cardiazol (in depressive states), a therapy that was abandoned in 1938 (1844, 1845).

Ugo Cerletti (IT) and Lucio Bini (IT) introduced electric convulsive therapy (E.C.T.) for severe mental states. This treatment was first used in schizophrenia, but severe depressive states very soon proved to be the main indication (423, 424). Note: people used electric eels and electric fish in ancient times to treat headaches and mental illness.

Jean Delay (FR) and Pierre Deniker (FR) demonstrated success with the first neuroleptic—coined by Delay— drug, the phenothiazine derivative chlorpromazine (Thorazine). Chlorpromazine has a remarkable effect on patients with schizophrenia, in particular highly agitated, anxious, and psychotic patients. It softens the effects of hallucinations and voices. Patients became quiet and much more manageable. It has effects on all types of patients (643).

Fritz Eichholtz (DE) and Otto Butzengeiger (DE) carried out the first experimental use of avertin (2,2,2-tribromoethanol) as an anesthetic in animals (799).

Otto Butzengeiger (DE) introduced avertin (2,2,2-tribromoethanol) as a rectal anesthetic in the clinic (379).

Major Greenwood (GB) and Janet Elizabeth Lane-Claypon (GB) developed a key type of epidemiological investigation, the so-called "case-control study". They tracked down 500 women with a history of breast cancer- the “cases” - and compared them with 500 women who were free of the disease but otherwise broadly similar, known as “controls”. The detailed survey that emerged constituted, as far as is know, the first published epidemiological questionnaire. This yielded results that enabled them to identify many of the risk factors for breast cancer that are still considered valid today. Their conclusions (or their data reworked by later researchers) agreed with those of modern reviewers: breast cancer was associated with age at menopause, artificial menopause, age at first pregnancy (age at marriage used as a proxy), number of children, and lactation.

They published what is now considered the first “end results” study. It followed a large sample of women with pathologically confirmed breast cancer for up to 10 years after their surgery. The study confirmed that women who were surgically treated at an early stage of the disease had a much better chance of surviving three, five, or 10 years longer than those operated on at any later stage. They showed that breast cancer risk increased for childless women, women who married later than average, and women who did not breast feed. The overall breast cancer risk decreased according to the number of children. For all cases, rapid treatment held the key to survival among women with breast cancer. In reviewing the family histories of their cases, they anticipated the role that genes might play in the development of breast cancer. “There appear to be some families,” they wrote, “in which for reasons not certain at present, cancer plays havoc with the members, and there is (some) slight evidence in some instances that it attacks the same organs” (1082). 

Charles Sutherland Elton (GB) redefined the species niche by emphasizing its functional role in the community: the niche is “the status of an animal in its community.” His concept idealized what the species does rather than where it lives—the functional niche concept (818).

Erik Anderson Stensiö (SE) reconstructed a fossil Cephalaspis (an ostracoderm) and suggested its status as a vertebrate prototype replacing amphioxus (2626). Note: it is generally believed that living Agnatha (hagfishes and lampreys) and the ostracoderms are descended from a common ancestor.

Arthur Keith (GB) discovered a human upper jaw in Southern England and initially diagnosed it as Upper Paleolithic modern human (1419).

Thomas F.G. Higham (GB), Tim Compton (GB), Chris Stringer (GB), Roger Jacobi (GB), Beth Shapiro (US), Erik Trinkaus (US), Barry Chandler (GB), Flora Gröning (GB), Chris Collins (GB), Simon Hillison (UK), Paul O'Higgins (GB), Charles FitzGerald (UK), and Michael Fagan (UK) tested the jaw Keith found by a Bayesian analysis of new ultra filtered bone collagen dates in an ordered stratigraphic sequence at the site dated to 44.2–41.5 kyr BP. This makes it older than any other equivalently dated modern human specimen and directly contemporary with the latest European Neanderthals (1227).

Arturo Palma di Cesnola (IT) and Borzatti von Löwenstern (IT), in 1964, found two deciduous molars in the so-called Uluzzian archaeological layers unearthed from the Grotta del Cavallo (Southern Italy). Classified as Neanderthal and dated to 45,000 years ago these fossils are the oldest known human remains on the continent (680).

Stefano Benazzi (AT), Katerina Douka (GB), Cinzia Fornai (AT), Catherine C. Bauer (DE), Ottmar Kullmer (DE), Jiří Svoboda (CZ), Ildikó Pap (HU), Francesco Mallegni (IT), Priscilla Bayle (FR), Michael Coquerelle (ES), Silvana Condemi (FR), Annamaria Ronchitelli (IT), Katerina Harvati (DE) and Gerhard W. Weber (AT) reanalyzed the deciduous molars from the Grotta del Cavallo (Southern Italy), associated with the Uluzzian and originally classified as Neanderthal. Their new chronometric data for the Uluzzian layers of Grotta del Cavallo obtained from associated shell beads and included within a Bayesian age model show that the teeth must date to ~45,000–43,000 calendar years before present. The Cavallo human remains are therefore the oldest known European anatomically modern humans, confirming a rapid dispersal of modern humans across the continent before the Aurignacian and the disappearance of Neanderthals (177).


“Error is modern while truth is ancient.” Ramón y Cajal (2163).

"Only when some important function... lends itself to ready observation or quantitative measurement are the conditions suitable for making progress..." Edwin B. Hart, et al., (1171).

“As I view my contribution to the writing of our time, it seems to me to consist of a double affirmative, saying first that an awareness and experience of Nature is necessary to Man if he is to have his humanity, and saying in the second place that that same awareness must have something of a religious quality, the Italian pieta, if you will.

Nature is a part of our humanity, and without some awareness and experience of that divine mystery man ceases to be man. When the Pleiades and the wind in the grass are no longer a part of the human spirit, a part of the very flesh and bone, man becomes, as it were, a kind of cosmic outlaw, having neither the completeness and the integrity of the animal nor the birthright of a true humanity.” Henry Beston (203).

Adolf Otto Rheinhold Windaus (DE) was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for research into the constitution of the sterols and their connection with the vitamins.

Charles Jules Henri Nicolle (FR) was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his work on typhus.

Kurt Heinrich Meyer (DE) and Herman Francis Mark (DE) proved the existence of polymeric chain molecules by examining the crystalline structure of polymers with x-rays (1769-1771).

Otto Fritz Meyerhof (DE-US) and Karl Lohmann (DE) isolated argininephosphoric acid from arthropod (crustacean) muscle. It was found to be the invertebrate analogue of the vertebrate phosphagen (creatine phosphate) (1860, 1875, 1876).

Karl Lohmann (DE) and Hermann Lehmann (DE) demonstrated that phosphagen (creatine phosphate) reacts with ADP in minced crustacean muscle (1619, 1696). This provided, for the first time, a mechanism for utilization of phosphate energy. This became known as the Lohmann reaction.

Marjory Stephenson (GB) obtained the first cell-free preparation of non-NAD dependent lactic dehydrogenase, which oxidized lactate to pyruvate in the presence of methylene blue (2628). 

Bengt Andersson (SE) provided evidence for identifying the coenzyme necessary for reducing pyruvate with NAD (61, 62). 

Donald Dexter van Slyke (US) and James A. Hawkins (US) presented a gasometric method for determination of reducing sugars, and its application to analysis of blood and urine (2788).

Robert Robison (GB) and Walter Thomas James Morgan (GB) isolated crystalline trehalose from trehalosemonophosphate (2264).

F. Gottwalt Fischer (DE) and Kurt Löwenberg (DE) determined the structure of phytol (the major esterifying alcohol of chlorophyll at position 7 of the macrocycle) (898).

F. Gottwalt Fischer (DE) and Kurt Löwenberg (DE) synthesized phytol from pseudoionone (899).

James Waddell (US), Conrad Arnold Elvehjem (US), Harry Steenbock (US), Edwin Bret Hart (US), Evelyn Van Donk (US), and Blanche M. Riising (US) discovered that inorganic iron salts are ineffective at increasing the hemoglobin levels of anemic rats, but that ashed residues from dried beef liver, dried lettuce, and yellow corn were very effective in curing anemia. From these results they inferred that the extracts contained some other inorganic substance that was necessary for the production of hemoglobin. They later discovered that this necessary substance was copper (2847).

James Waddell (US), Harry Steenbock (US), Conrad Arnold Elvehjem (US), Edwin Bret Hart (US), and Evelyn Van Donk (US) found that copper-containing liver extracts and a copper sulfate solution both served equally well in curing anemia in rats. This led them to the conclusion that, “the deficiency (in this anemia) is inorganic in nature and that this inorganic deficiency is copper only” (2848).

Hubert Bradford Vickery (CA-US) and Charles S. Leavenworth (US) carried out an analysis of the basic amino acids in horse hemoglobin and concluded that the protein contains 7.64% histidine, 3.32% arginine, and 8.10% lysine. These results were in agreement with the assumption that hemoglobin has 33 molecules of histidine, 13 molecules of arginine, and 37 molecules of lysine (2806).

Bertil Hanstöm (SE) discovered that the X-organ, located in the eyestalk of crustaceans, secretes neurohormones (1152-1154). Neurosecretory cells in the X-organ (part of the brain) produce a molt-inhibiting hormone that is stored in the sinus gland of the eyestalk, while a molting hormone is produced in the Y-organ. Interactions of these two hormones control the molting process.

Bernhard Zondek (DE-IL) and Selmar Aschheim (DE) isolated from the anterior pituitary gland a gonadotropic hormone they named prolan (it was luteinizing hormone-LH-and/or follicle stimulating hormone-FSH) (3111). Prolan is a term no longer in use.

Fritz Albert Lipmann (DE-US), Vladimir Aleksandrovich Engelhardt (RU), and A.P. Barkash (RU) presented evidence for the metabolic pathway from glucose-6-phosphate to triose phosphate by way of ribose-5-phosphate. They called it the hexose monophosphate shunt (841, 1685). 

Hans Sachs (DE) and Ernst Witebsky (DE-US) developed a precipitation reaction for serological diagnostics of syphilis (2341).

Oliver Kamm (US), Thomas B. Aldrich (US), Irvine W. Grote (US), Louis W. Rowe (US), and Edwin P. Bugbee (US) reported obtaining posterior lobe pituitary preparations with high oxytocic activity and low pressor activity and, conversely, preparations with high pressor activity and low oxytocic activity (1400). These would later be associated with oxytocin and vasopressin.

Frederick Griffith (GB) discovered the transforming factor while working with Diplococcus pneumoniae (Streptococcus pneumoniae). He demonstrated that this factor, which he isolated from smooth colonies, is a chemical that is present in the extract of dead smooth colonies, but missing from live rough colonies. When mixed with living rough colonies the transforming factor converted many of them to living smooth colonies (1084).

James Lionel Alloway (US), working in the laboratory of Oswald Theodore Avery (CA-US), broke open cells of the smooth form of pneumococcus and collected the cell contents, which were passed through a filter that would remove all wall material. When this extract was added to a culture of growing rough cells some of them were transformed into smooth cells. When the transforming extract was treated with alcohol a thick syrupy precipitate formed (40).

Oswald Theodore Avery (CA-US) would later show that the transforming factor is DNA. See, Sanfelice, 1893 and Avery, 1944.

Andrew C. Ivy (US) and Eric Oldberg (US) discovered and named the hormone cholecystokinin (CCK) which controls gall bladder function (1347).

Viktor Mutt (EE) and J. Erik Jorpes (SE) determined the structure of cholecystokinin (CCK) (1952).

Julian Walawski (PL) and Jerzy Kaulbersz (PL) discovered enterogastrons produced in the large intestine, which inhibit the stomach secretion (2859, 2860). 

Elisabeth von Euler-Chelpin (DE), Hans Karl August Simon von Euler-Chelpin (DE-SE), Harry Hellström (SE), and Thomas Moore (GB) offered proof that carotene is provitamin A (1911-1914, 2826).

Albert Imre Szent-Györgyi (HU-US) using the adrenal cortex, cabbage, and orange as raw material isolated and crystallized a factor which he knew was in some way involved in the mechanism of biological oxidation. He named this acidic carbohydrate hexuronic acid (2674).

Charles Glen King (US) and William A. Waugh (US) succeeded in obtaining Szent-Györgyi’s hexuronic acid in crystalline form then equated it with vitamin C (1448, 2924). Today it is known as ascorbic acid (ascorbic meaning, no scurvy) or vitamin C.

Szent-Györgyi (HU-US) and Walter Norman Haworth (GB) suggested that vitamin C be renamed ascorbic acid (2682). 

Walter Norman Haworth (GB), Luszló Vargha (HU), Ernest G. Cox (GB), Edmund Langley Hirst (GB), and Reginald John William Reynolds (GB) would contribute to the determination of its chemical structure (560, 1184, 2795).

Walter Norman Haworth (GB) and Edmund Langley Hirst (GB) synthesized ascorbic acid (1184).

Cornelis Bernardus Kees van Niel (NL-US), working with propionic acid bacteria, provided the first quantitative picture of the products derived by these bacteria from lactate, glycerol, glucose, and starch. His taxonomic treatment determined the veracity of the genus Propionibacterium. During these studies he identified diacetyl as the compound responsible for the characteristic aroma of high quality butter (2782).

Pierre Stricker (FR) and Fritz Grüeter (FR) induced mammary gland development and the secretion of milk by injecting anterior pituitary extract into castrated virgin rabbits (2656, 2657). This strongly suggested the presence of a lactation hormone (prolactin).

Herbert McLean Evans (US) and Miriam E. Simpson (US) found that extracts from the anterior pituitary cause hypertrophy of the mammary glands in virgin rats (852).

Oscar Riddle (US) and Pela Fay Braucher (US) showed that extracts of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland could cause the enlargement and functioning of the crop-glands in pigeons (2243).

Oscar Riddle (US), Robert Wesley Bates (US), and Simon William Dykshorn (US) reported their discovery of a hormone produced in the anterior pituitary gland, which stimulates the crop-gland in pigeons and is lactogenic in guinea pigs; they named it prolactin (2241, 2242).

Abraham White (US), Hubert Ralph Catchpole (GB-US), and Cyril Norman Hugh Long (GB-US) crystallized the lactogenic hormone prolactin (2966).

Choh Hao Li (CN-US), Jonathan S. Dixon (US), Tung-bin Lo (TW), Knud D. Schmidt (DK), and Yuri A. Pankov (RU) determined the primary amino acid sequence of the sheep lactogenic hormone prolactin (1656, 1657). 

Henry George Friesen (CA), Harvey J. Guyda (CA), and Jules Hardy (CA) discovered prolactin in humans (966, 967).

G. Michael Besser (US), Lynne Parke (GB), Christopher R.W. Edwards (GB), Isabel A. Forsyth (GB), and Alan S. McNeilly (US) found that they could successfully treat galactorrhoea by reducing plasma prolactin levels using brom-ergocryptine (200).

Eva Nagy (HU-CA) and Istvan Berczi (HU-CA) reported that regulation of the immune response by the neuroendocrine hormone prolactin (PRL) occurs via its interaction with the prolactin receptor. Interference with this ligand-receptor interaction inhibits both in vitro and in vivo immune responses (1962).

Charles V. Clevenger (US), Amy L. Sillman (US), Michael B. Prystowsky (US), Yi-Ping Rao (US), Donna J. Buckley (US), Mark D. Olson (US) and Arthur R. Buckley (US) showed that prolactin is able to physically enter the cell, travel straight to the cell’s DNA, and directly activate the process that turns on genes and triggers the growth of breast cancer cells. It does this by binding to a protein called cyclophilin B, or CYPB for short (485, 2165).

Charles V. Clevenger (US), Tracey L. Plank (US), Susan E. Hankinson (US), Walter C. Willett (US), Dominique S. Michaud (US), JoAnn E. Manson (US), Graham A. Colditz (US), Christopher Langcope (US), Bernard Rosner (US), Frank E. Speizer (US), Marcela V. Maus (US), and Sean C. Reilly (US) presented evidence that the somatolactogenic hormone prolactin, a naturally occurring peptide hormone needed for milk production following pregnancy, stimulates the movement, or motility of breast cancer cells causing the cells to essentially pick up and move, and actually trigger invasive potential of these cells (484, 1151, 1802).

Georg von Békésy (HU-US) elucidated all the physical events at every strategically important point in the transmission system of the ear by recording events in this fragile biological miniature system, micro dissection, advanced teletechniques for stimulation and recording, and high magnification stroboscopic microscopy. He elucidated the vibration patterns of the eardrum and the interplay of the ossicle movements, provided experimental and clinical data confirming Helmholtz’s assumption that the frequency of the sound waves determines the location along the basilar membrane at which stimulation occurs. He found that movements of the stirrup footplate evokes a wave complex in the basilar membrane, which travels from the stiffer basal part to the more flexible part in the apex of the cochlea. The crest of the largest wave first increases, thereafter quickly decreases. The position of the maximal amplitude was found to be dependent on the frequency of the stimulating sound waves in such a way that the highest crest of the travelling wave appears near the apex of the cochlea at low-frequency tones and near its base at high frequencies (2821-2824, 2839).

Donald Dexter van Slyke (US) and Julius Sendroy, Jr. (US) reported studies of gas and electrolyte equilibria in blood in which they present line charts for graphic calculations by the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation, and for calculating plasma carbon dioxide content from whole blood content (2791). Van Slyke continued to improve this method through eleven more papers.

Thomas Hunt Morgan (US) presented the theory of the gene when he said, “The theory states that the characters of the individual are referable to paired elements (genes) in the germinal material that are held together in a definite number of linkage groups; it states that the members of each pair of genes separate when the germ-cells mature in accordance with Johann Gregor Mendel’s first law, and in consequence each germ-cell comes to contain one set only; it states that the members belonging to different linkage groups assort independently in accordance with Johann Gregor Mendel’s second law; it states that an orderly interchange—crossing over— also takes place, at times, between elements in corresponding linkage groups; and it states that the frequency of crossing over furnishes evidence of the linear order of the elements in each linkage group and of the relative position of the elements with respect to each other” (1916).

Hermann Joseph Muller, Jr. (US) and Theophilus Shickel Painter (US) using Drosophila, carried out parallel investigations in which phenotypic variations brought about by x-rays were related to physical changes in the chromosomes, e.g., deletions and translocations (1937, 2028).

Johann Heinrich Emil Heitz (DE) coined the terms euchromatin and heterochromatin (1204).

Eggert Hugo Heiberg Møller (US), John F. McIntosh (US), and Donald Dexter van Slyke (US) determined that a constant volume of blood is being cleared of urea in each minute’s time course. This came to be referred to as standard blood urea clearances (1904).

Adrian Stokes (GB), Johannes H. Bauer (US), N. Paul Hudson (US), Constant Mathis (FR), Andrew Watson Sellards (US), and Jean Laigret (FR), working in West Africa, proved that yellow fever is caused by a virus and transferable to monkeys (1800, 2642, 2643). Stokes died of a yellow fever infection.

Renjiro Kaneko (JP) and Yoshio Aoki (JP) determined that the etiological agent of Japanese B encephalitis was probably a virus (1402).

M. Hayashi (JP) transmitted Japanese encephalitis— one of the leading causes of acute encephalopathy— from an infected human to monkeys by way of an intracerebral injection to prove the viral etiology of the disease (1190).

Itsuma Takaki (JP), Tenji Taniguchi (JP), M. Hosokawa (JP), and S. Kuga (JP) isolated the viral etiological agent of Japanese B encephalitis (2684, 2686).

Arthur T. Henrici (US) reported that the average size of bacterial cells might vary considerably from one growth phase to another during a growth cycle (1212).

Clifford Dobell (US) was the first to describe encystment of a parasitic amoebic form, Entamoeba histolytica (697). 

Kenneth L. Burdon (US) described Bacteroides melaninogenicus in the stools of patients suffering from chronic amebic dysentery, and in puerperal sepsis. This bacterium is often associated with the mouth, tonsils, infected abdominal wounds, and focal infections of the kidneys (341).

Henry E. Meleney (US) presented clear evidence of the development of six immunologically distinct strains of Borrelia recurrentis  (1847).

Karl Johannes (Hans) Kniep (DE) and Arthur Henry Reginald Buller (CA) had previously presented the broad picture of the genetic control system and the developmental sequence from spore to spore in the basidiomycetes (337, 1469). Buller was also a poet. One of his most recognized works is this limerick, first published in the Dec. 19, 1923 issue of Punch:

There was a young lady named Bright

Whose speed was far faster than light;

She set out one day,

In a relative way

And returned on the previous night.

John Robert Raper (US), Carlene Allen Raper (US), Chiu-Sheng Wang (US), John H. Perkins (US), Thomas J. Leonard (US), Yigal Koltin (IL), Giora Simchen (IL), Philip J. Snider (US), Dana H. Boyd (US), Albert H. Ellingboe (US), Stanley Dick (US), Yair Parag (IL), Margery G. Baxter (US), Gladys S. Krongelb (US), James P. San Antonio (US), Philip G. Miles (US), and Richard B. Middleton (US) thoroughly elucidated the genetic mechanisms underlying the sexuality of the small wood-rotting basidiomycete, Schizophyllum commune (684, 808, 809, 1487, 1628, 2072, 2166-2168, 2177-2180, 2182-2193, 2547, 2548).

Émile Eugène Aldric Topsent (FR), spongiologist, described the Atlantic and Mediterranean collections of Prince Albert of Monaco in three monumental volumes and erected many genera and families. His work is the basis for the current classification system of the Porifera (2744). Topsent is commemorated by Acheliderma topsenti Burton, 1932, Axinyssa topsenti Lendenfeld, 1897; Chondropsis topsenti Dendy, 1895; Corticium topsenti Pouliquen, 1972; Cryptotethya topsenti Thiele, 1900, Desmacella topsenti Burton, 1930; Desmanthus topsenti Hentschel, 1912; Dragmatyle topsenti Burton, 1954; Dysideopsis topsenti Hentschel, 1912; Echinodictyum topsenti De Laubenfels, 1936; Erylus topsenti Lendenfeld, 1903; Eurypon topsenti Pulitzer-Finali, 1983; Grayella topsenti Babic, 1922; Haddonella topsenti I. Sollas, 1903; Halichondria topsenti De Laubenfels, 1936; Hymenotrocha topsenti Burton, 1930; Hymerhabdia topsenti Lévi, 1952; Jaspis topsenti Thiele, 1900; Leucandra topsenti Breitfuss, 1929; Raspailia topsenti Dendy, 1924; Reniera topsenti Thiele, 1905; Rhabderemia topsenti Van Soest & Hooper, 1993; Rhabdoploca topsenti Hentschel, 1912; Spongosorites topsenti Dendy, 1905; Stelletta topsenti Thiele,1903; Suberella topsenti Burton, 1929; Tedania topsenti De Laubenfels, 1930; Topsentia Berg, 1899; and Tylaspis topsenti Lévi & Lévi, 1983.

Remington Kellogg (US) wrote The History of Whales—Their Adaptation to Life in the Water, still one of the best summaries of the subject (1425).

John Walton (GB) presented evidence of mosses and liverworts from the Carboniferous deposits in England (2891).

Thomas M. Harris (GB) presented excellent evidence of mosses in the Triassic of England (1167, 1168).

Royal N. Chapman (US) used flour beetles (Tribolium confusum Duval) to devise an experimental single-species model for studying the growth and regulation of closed, single-species systems (440).

Jerzy Neyman (US), Thomas Park (US), and Elizabeth L. Scott (US) later christened it the Tribolium model (1983).

Herbert Friedmann (US) described social parasitism among birds and wrote, The Cowbirds: A Study in the Biology of Social Parasitism, a definitive treatment of brood parasitism (957, 958). This type of behavior is seen among the cuckoos, cowbirds, honey guides, and weaverbirds.

Archibald Philip Bard (US) discovered that the emotion we call rage depends on neurons in the caudal half of the hypothalamus (121-124).

Edgar Allen (US), Jean Paul Pratt (US), Q.U. Newell (US), and Leland J. Bland (US) used dogs to develop surgical methods of recovering embryos for application in humans (33).

John F. Fulton (US) reported on a patient presenting with an arteriovenous malformation of the occipital cortex. Surgical removal of the malformation was attempted but was unsuccessful, leaving the patient with a bony defect over the primary visual cortex. Fulton elicited a history of a cranial sound audible to the patient whenever he engaged in a visual task. Based on this history Fulton pursued a detailed investigation of the behavior of the sound that he could auscultate and record over the occipital cortex. Remarkably consistent changes in the character of the sound could be appreciated depending upon the visual activities of the patient. Although opening the eyes produced only modest increases in the intensity of the sound, reading produced striking increases (977). Cortical blood flow is thus related to the complexity of the visual task and the attention of the subject to that task.

Niels A. Lassen (DK), Kai Hoedt-Rasmussen (DK), S.C. Sorensen (SE), Erik Skinhøj (SE), Sten Cronquist (SE), Bengt Bodforss (SE), David H. Ingvar (SE) and Jarl Risberg (SE) were the first to directly demonstrate in normal human subjects that cerebral blood flow changes regionally during changes in brain functional activity  (1339, 1600, 1601).

Hans Zinsser (US) and H. Yu (US) were among the first to suggest that diseases such as rheumatic fever and glomerulonephritis result from hypersensitivity to toxins produced by certain strains of streptococci (3103, 3105).

George Nicholas Papanicolaou (Greek-US) and Herbert Frederick Traut (US) developed the Cervical Smear (Pap smear for Papanicolaou) Test for the detection of uterine cancer. It is based on the cytological examination of cells exfoliated from the uterus (2031-2033).

Selmar Aschheim (DE) and Bernhard Zondek (DE-IL) reported their pregnancy test (Aschheim-Zondek Pregnancy Test) for humans, “Our test is carried out with morning urine…. The urine is injected subcutaneously into the infantile [female mice]…. Only the ovarian findings are of significance for the pregnancy reaction [enlargement with follicular maturation]…. We have examined 78 cases of pregnancy. In 76 cases the reaction was definitely positive…. In [the] 198 control cases the reaction was positive twice…. The reaction thus has a precision that one cannot hope to surpass with a biologic method” (74, 75).

Owen Harding Wangensteen (US) and George W. Waldron (US) did studies in intestinal obstruction, which led to the development of the Wangensteen suction technique to relieve increased internal viscus pressure in the stomach and intestine resulting from excess gastric and intestinal secretions in an atonic intestine (2893).

Walter Edward Dandy (US) devised an operation to relieve Ménière’s disease (inflammation and congestion of the semicircular canals) (605, 609).

Harvey Williams Cushing (US) and Percival Bailey (US) provided the first extensive classification and description of angiomatous malformations and hemangioblastomas (583).

Percival Bailey (US) and Harvey Williams Cushing (US) were the first to describe the condition known as fugitive acromegaly, in which patients may exhibit physical stigmata of acromegaly without biochemical evidence of the disease (105).

Howard Christian Naffziger (US) devised an operation to relieve severe malignant exophthalmos using orbital decompression (1957).

Jörgen H. Vogt (NO) and Arne Torkildsen (NO) named this Naffziger’s operation (2817).

Andrew Ellicott Douglass (US) discovered that annual growth of tree rings could be used to construct a window on the weather of the past. Trees add a layer of wood to their trunks every year - a wide ring during wet years and a thin one during dry years. By matching ring patterns in living trees to the patterns in old timbers, the record could be extended further back into history, i.e., dendrochronology (728). This method is most accurate from the present to 12,000 years ago.

Adolf Remane (DE), working in the Kiel Bight (Baltic Sea) in 1928, discovered the new phylum Gnathostomulida (jaw worms), a small (0.5 mm long) marine worm-like form with worldwide distribution (2219).

Peter Ax (DE) originally described Gnathostomulida as an order of the Platyhelminthes (91, 92).

John Burdon Sanderson Haldane (GB-IN), in 1928, wrote the essay, On Being the Right Size, which Jane Jacobs and others have since referred to as Haldane's principle. This is that sheer size very often defines what bodily equipment an animal must have: “Insects, being so small, do not have oxygen-carrying bloodstreams. What little oxygen their cells require can be absorbed by simple diffusion of air through their bodies. But being larger means an animal must take on complicated oxygen pumping and distributing systems to reach all the cells” (1132).


“Everything is determined… by forces over which we have no control. It is determined for the insect as well as for the star. Human beings, vegetables, or cosmic dust—we all dance to a mysterious tune, intoned in the distance by an invisible piper.” Albert Einstein (466, 801).

Arthur Harden (GB) and Hans Karl August Simon von Euler-Chelpin (DE-SE) were awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for their investigations on the fermentation of sugar and fermentative enzymes.

Christiaan Eijkman (NL) for his discovery of the antineuritic vitamin (thiamine, vitamin B1) and Frederick Gowland Hopkins (GB) for his discovery of the growth-stimulating vitamins shared the Nobel Prize in physiology and medicine.

Dame Kathleen Yardley Lonsdale (GB) was the first to use x-ray diffraction to solve the structure of an organic molecule, she showed that hexamethylbenzene is planar and hexagonal - and gave its precise dimensions (1707).

Sergei Yakovievich Sokolov (RU) suggested the concept of the pulse-echo ultrasonic metal flaw detector (2552). This instrument was the precursor of subsequent pulse-echo medical ultrasonic (ultrasound) devices operating in the uni-directional A-mode and used as early as 1949 by Lars Leksell (SE) and J.C. Turner (GB) for examining brain lesions (1622, 1623).

George Döring Ludwig (US), Francis W. Struthers (US), Richard H. Bolt (US), Theodor F. Hueter (US), and Henry Thomas Ballantine, Jr. (US) made significant progress toward understanding the usefulness and limitations of ultrasound for clinical examination (116, 117, 1717-1720). 

George Andrew Douglas Gordon (GB), J.C. Turner (GB), William Valentine Mayneord (GB), Stigg Jeppson (SE), Brita Lithander (SE), Marinus de Vlieger (NL), Kenji Tanaka (JP) and Toshio Wagai (JP) were among the first practitioners to use ultrasound in clinical settings.

Walter Norman Haworth (GB) determined that a number of stereo isomeric structures are possible for the pyranose ring of each sugar and showed that glucose in the six-member (pyranose) form is more stable than when it is in the five-member (furanose) form or in the Fischer form, i.e., Haworth structures for sugars (1183).

Karl Lohmann (DE), Cyrus Hartwell Fiske (US), and Yellapragada SubbaRow (US), found a new organic phosphate related to muscle adenylic acid and named it adenylpyrophosphate (912, 1693).

Karl Lohmann (DE) determined its structure and recognized it to be adenosine-5’-triphosphate (ATP). Lohmann (DE) also characterized adenosine-5’-diphosphate (ADP) (1697).

John Howard Northrop (US) isolated swine pepsin in pure crystalline form by techniques, which were later used by him and other workers to crystallize trypsin, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase, and pepsinogen (1994).

Marjorie Martland (GB) and Robert Robison (GB) observed that during the hydrolysis of fructosediphosphate (fructose-1,6-diphosphate) by preparations of bone phosphatase, a part of the sugars liberated, following the removal of the phosphoric acid groups, suffered an intramolecular change and gave rise to a mixture of aldolase and ketose sugars (1790).

Ernst Waldschmidt-Leitz (CZ) and Arnulf Purr (CZ-US) identified the enzyme carboxypolypeptidase (carboxypeptidase) in bovine pancreatic extracts. They found that it cleaves C-terminal amino acids from acetylated peptides (2879).

Phoebus Aaron Theodor Levene (RU-US) and Efim Semenovich London (RU) isolated and described 2-deoxyribose (they called it thyminose because it came from thymus nucleic acid, i.e., DNA, as belonging to a group of pentoses lacking an oxygen atom, and hence named desoxypentoses then later named deoxypentoses (1638, 1639).

George Oswald Burr (US), Mildred M. Burr (US), and Elmer S. Miller (US) demonstrated the existence and necessity of the so-called essential fatty acids. At that time, essentiality meant promotion of growth and prevention of the dermatitis observed when a fat-free diet was fed to rats (365-367).

Osmo Turpeinen (US) later proved that arachidonic acid is an essential fatty acid (2757).

Adolf Friedrich Johann Butenandt (DE) isolated the hormone estrone (3-hydroxy 17-keto delta 1,3,5-estratriene) from the urine of pregnant women (370).

Clement D. Veler (US), Sidney Allen Thayer (US), and Edward Adelbert Doisy (US) independently isolated estrone (3-hydroxy 17-keto delta 1,3,5-estratriene) from the urine of pregnant women. They called it Theelin (2797).

Sidney Allen Thayer (US), Louis Levin (US), and Edward Adelbert Doisy (US) characterized estrone (Theelin) (2702).

Michel Macheboeuf (FR) isolated the first plasma lipoprotein to exhibit a constant composition (1743). This fraction was later characterized as an alpha-1-globulin that we now recognize as high-density lipoprotein (HDL).

Charles Robert Harington (GB) and Sydney Stewart Randall (GB) isolated 3,5, di-iodotyrosine from thyroglobulin of the thyroid gland (1161).

Karl Paul Gerhard Link (US), Herbert Raleigh Angell (GB-AU), Allan D. Dickson (US), and John Charles Walker (US) established for the first time a specific chemical difference between a resistant host (pigmented onion) and a non-resistant host (the white onion). They determined that the brown-pigmented onion produces the antifungal agent protocatechuic acid, which the white onion lacks (1682-1684).

Leo Loeb (US) and R.B. Bassett (US) isolated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) from the anterior pituitary gland of cattle and demonstrated its effect on guinea pigs (1691).

Max Aron (DE) independently isolated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) from the anterior pituitary (73).

Carl Richard Moore (US) Thomas F. Gallagher (US) and Fred C. Koch (US) obtained male sex hormone in relatively pure form. Moore and his colleagues introduced the term testosterone (1909, 1910). 

George Washington Corner (US) and Willard Myron Allen (US) found,.…” that alcoholic extracts of the corpus luteum, freed of phospholipids, contains a substance which when injected into castrated adult female rabbits induces a characteristic alteration of the endometrium identical with the progestational proliferation previously shown to be due to the presence of corpora lutea in the ovaries.” They called this substance progestin (progesterone) (553).

Barnet Woolf (GB) was the first to site an example of an enzyme forming a complex with two substrates; later called ternary complexes (3070). He proposed a theory of enzymatic action in which the binding of substrate or substrates leads to chemical transformation of the substrate at the specific binding site of the enzyme (3071).

Carl Ferdinand Cori (CZ -US) and Gerty Theresa Cori, née Radnitz (CZ -US) concluded from work begun in 1925 that, “Formation of liver glycogen from lactic acid is thus seen to establish an important connection between the metabolism of muscle and that of the liver. Muscle glycogen becomes available as blood sugar through the intervention of the liver, and blood sugar in turn is converted into muscle glycogen. There exists therefore a complete cycle of the glucose molecule in the body, which is illustrated by the diagram: blood glucose — muscle glycogen — blood lactic acid — liver glycogen — blood glucose.

Epinephrine (adrenaline) was found to accelerate this cycle in the direction of muscle glycogen to liver glycogen and to inhibit it in the direction of blood glucose to muscle glycogen; the result is an accumulation of sugar in the blood. Insulin, on the other hand, was found to accelerate the cycle in the direction of blood glucose to muscle glycogen, which leads to hypoglycemia and secondarily to a depletion of the glycogen stores of the liver … There is also a possibility that other hormones besides epinephrine [adrenaline] and insulin influence this cycle” (543).

Carl Peter Henrik Dam (DK) discovered vitamin K while working with chickens on synthetic diets. It seemed to be necessary for normal blood clotting so he named it vitamin K, for koagulation (the German spelling). Dam, Fritz Schönheyder (DK), and Erik Tage-Hansen (DK) discovered that the blood of chickens became depleted of prothrombin when they were placed on a vitamin K deficient diet (596-599, 601, 602).

Sidney Allen Thayer (US), Donald W. MacCorquodale (US), Stephen B. Binkley (US), and Edward Adelbert Doisy (US) crystallized vitamin K (2703).

Donald W. MacCorquodale (US), Lee C. Cheney (US), Stephen B. Binkley (US), Walter F. Holcomb (US), Ralph W. McKee (US), Sidney Allen Thayer (US), and Edward Adelbert Doisy (US) determined the constitution of vitamin K and synthesized it (1740, 1741, 2701, 2704, 2705).

Ernst Franz Moro (AT-DE) introduced the use of raw apples as well as a carrot soup in the treatment of diarrheic conditions in infants (1921). This was based on an old custom among German peasants.

Tobias L. Birnberg (US) reported the successful treatment of diarrhea, dysentery, colitis, and celiac disease in children by restricting their diet to raw apple (210).

Michael Heidelberger (US) and Forrest E. Kendall (US) established the principle of quantitative immunochemistry when they perfected the quantitative precipitin reaction (1198).

William Hay Taliaferro (US) wrote The Immunology of Parasitic Infections, a pioneering book in this branch of immunology (2685).

Theodosius Grigorievich Dobzhansky (UA-US), Theophilus Shickel Painter (US), and Hermann Joseph Muller, Jr. (US) showed that while the linear sequence of genes is the same for genetic and cytological maps, physical distances and crossover map distances did not coincide (701, 702, 1940, 2027).

Frank Macfarlane Burnet (AU) and Margot McKie (AU) attributed the permanency of the lysogenic character in bacteria to the presence of an entity they called anlage which is capable of liberating bacteriophage. Anlage was conceived as a normal hereditary constituent of lysogenic bacteria and, unless activated, no liberation of bacteriophage resulted (355). 

C. Eugene Woodruff (US) and Ernest William Goodpasture (US) supplied the first direct evidence of the relation of viral inclusion bodies and elementary bodies to virus (1044, 3062).

Francis O. Holmes (US) arrived at the first practical and accurate method for the quantification of plant virus infectivity by counting the local lesions developing in the leaves of tobacco (Nicotiana species) (1259).

Howard Bancroft Andervont (US) showed that the herpes virus of man could be transmitted to mice by intracerebral inoculation, and thereby provided the means of studying this human virus in an animal (63).

Aage Nyfeldt (DK) reported that Listeria monocytogenes is capable of causing an infection in man (listeriosis) although it had been known to be infectious for domestic and feral animals since 1911. The organism derives its name from the striking monocytic blood reaction it causes in the infected host (2001).

Clifford Dobell (GB) and Ann Bishop (GB) described the life cycle of Entamoeba histolytica (698).

Warren Harmon Lewis (US) and Margaret Reed Lewis (US) were the first to develop time-lapse microscopic motion pictures to record observations on living cells in culture. Their films became important teaching resources in cytology, and led them to develop mechanical theories of cell motion. In one of their first films they were able to see the early development of rabbit embryos, from the first ovum cleavage to the blastocyst stage.

Max Hartmann (DE) and Bjorn Føyn (NO) discovered alternation of isomorphic generations in the green algae (934, 1177).

E. Juller () discovered alternation of heteromorphic generations in the green algae (1381). 

Alfred Henry Sturtevant (US) was the first to use genetic mosaics (Drosophila simulans) for developmental studies (2662).

Eli Kennedy Marshall, Jr. (US) described the aglomerular kidney of the toadfish (Opsanus tau) (1777).

Homer William Smith (US) became the first researcher to report that the gills are the major sites of nitrogen excretion in freshwater fish. His experimental subjects were the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and goldfish (Carassius auratus) (2528).

Sybil Cooper (GB), Charles Scott Sherrington (GB), and Derek Ernest Denny-Brown (NZ-GB-US) observed and defined the distinctive properties of red and white muscles (540, 650).

Derek Ernest Denny-Brown (NZ-GB-US) developed the technique of antidromic stimulation for the analysis of motor neuron responses (651).

Edgar Douglas Adrian (GB-US) and Detlev Wulf Bronk (US) developed an electromyograph. Bronk’s invention of the coaxial needle electrode greatly enhanced electromyography (14).

Derek Ernest Denny-Brown (NZ-GB-US) introduced electromyography (EMG) as a clinical tool and initiated the procedure of muscle biopsy as a means of seeking a direct tissue diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases (658).

Hans Piper (DE) authored the first extensive clinical EMG study (2103).

George Bernays Wislocki (US) and James Peter Hill (GB) determined that all the primates, except the lemurs, have discoidal or doubly discoidal placentas of hemochorial type. In Old World forms, the shape of the placenta in the Ceropithecidae (macaques, langurs, etc.) is usually doubly discoidal; the baboons, in which it is singly discoidal, are the exception. In the Hylobatidae, Pongidae, and Hominidae (anthropoid apes and man) it is always singly discoidal. A completely villous discoidal placenta is seen only in the gorilla, orangutan, and man (1229, 3040). At this point in history the placenta of the chimpanzee had not received a thorough microscopic study.

Moriz Oppenheim (AT) and Erich Urbach (AT-US) described a new metabolic skin condition: necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum (2011, 2012, 2763). 

Heinrich Pette (DE) proposed that inflammatory diseases of the nervous system be divided into two groups: (1) acute inflammatory diseases predominantly of the gray matter, and (2) acute inflammatory diseases predominantly of the white matter (2087).

Fuller Albright (US), Walter Bauer (US), Marian Ropes (US), and Joseph C. Aub (US) found that an increased phosphorus excretion is the primary effect of parathormone (22).

Maxwell Myer Wintrobe (CA-US) invented what became known as the Wintrobe hematocrit (3033).

Donald Macomber (US) and Morris B. Sanders (US) reported their results of analyzing the spermatozoa count to determine its value in the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of sterility. They reported the normal sperm density to be 100 million sperm/mL. Their number was based on the sperm counts of 294 individuals without regard to fertility status. In addition, they reported that men with sperm densities less than 60 million/mL rarely were capable of initiating a pregnancy (1752).

Philip Duryeé McMaster (US) and Douglas R. Drury (US) revealed that the liver is the source of blood fibrinogen (735, 1826).

Edgar Otto Conrad von Gierke (DE) described a common member of a group of hereditary glycogen-storage diseases. This progressive disease is an inborn error of glycogen metabolism due to glucose-6-phosphatase (G6P) deficiency, involving chiefly the liver and kidneys (2838). The liver may become huge and contain as much as 15 percent of glycogen. It is sometimes called Gierke's disease.

Otto Hermann Krayer (DE-US) mastered the heart-lung-preparation (HLP) originally developed by Starling in England. He used the HLP to show that an oxidation product of Neosalvarsan is toxic to vascular beds in a number of organs (1506, 1507). This is one of the reasons that this anti-syphilitic arsenical drug ceased to be used.

Otto Hermann Krayer (DE-US) perfected the management of the heart-lung-preparation (HLP) to the point that he could make quantitative measurements of the activity of cardioactive drugs. He also developed a standard HLP procedure to study drug effects on the failing heart (1508-1514).

Wilhelm Sigmund Feldberg (DE-GB) and Otto Hermann Krayer (DE-US) used both intact dogs and cats, as well as, dog and cat HLPs to show that an “acetylcholine-like substance” is released into the coronary circulation of mammals upon electrical stimulus of the vagus nerve (866). 

Albert Wollenberger (DE) and Otto Hermann Krayer (DE-US) demonstrated a method for quantitatively determining the limits of cardiac sufficiency in response to specific measured changes in right arterial pressure. They developed a specific “competence index” to express the heart’s response numerically. This method allows a clear distinction to be made between drugs that primarily affect heart rate and those (like digitalis) that truly improve the work capacity of the impaired muscle (3050). 

Sergei S. Brukhonenko (RU) demonstrated successful total body perfusion after removal of animal hearts (325).

Philip Drinker (US) and Charles F. McKhann (US) invented a new apparatus (the iron lung) for the administration of artificial respiration over prolonged periods of time (733).

Walter Edward Dandy (US) introduced the practice of removing an intervertebral disk to alleviate lower back pain, sciatica, and other symptoms caused by a ruptured disk (606).

Harold Brunn (US) reported six lobectomies (removals of lung lobes) for bronchiectasis with only one death. In bronchiectasis one or more bronchi or bronchioles are chronically dilated and inflamed, with copious discharge of mucus mixed with pus. The secret of Brunn's success was the use of intermittent suction after surgery to keep the cavity free of secretions until the remaining lobes of the lung could expand to fill the space (327).

Jacques Forestier (FR) introduced gold therapy for rheumatoid arthritis (927).

Frederic Edward Clements (US), John Ernst Weaver (US), and Herbert C. Hanson (US) stated that one of the important processes directing plant succession is competition between similar plants leading ultimately to a climax community (481).

Percival Bailey (US) and Paul Clancy Bucy (US) were the first to confirm the existence of tumors that were, in fact, composed of oligodendroglia and to establish this type of glioma as a definite entity (102).

Karl S. Lashley (US) promulgated the theory of cortical specialization for sensory and motor functions. He challenged the ongoing concept of cortical localization. Lashley brought the controversy between localization and holistic emphasis of brain function into focus. He is remembered as a great psychologist who approached learning and memory by assessing the effects of brain damage in laboratory animals (1598, 1599).

Wolfgang Köhler (DE) and Kurt Koffka (DE) promoted a pattern theory of memory. Diffuse neural groupings mediated memory. They hypothesized that multiple memory traces were formed in the cortex. Visual memories involved successive and simultaneous stimuli in different parts of the visual field. They postulated that new records might be inscribed on top of old patterns these could affect one another leading to a newly organized group-unit (1476, 1481).

Johanna Gabrielle Ottilie Edinger (DE-US) demonstrated that the evolution of the brain could be studied directly from fossil cranial casts (782). She later showed that the progression of brain structure does not proceed at a constant rate in a given family but varies over time; also that the enlarged forebrain evolved several times independently among advanced groups of mammals and there was no single evolutionary scale (783).


“The most beautiful thing we can experience is the mysterious. It is the source of all art and science,” Albert Einstein (802, 1794).

“The scientific attitude of mind involves a sweeping away of all other desires in the interest of the desire to know—it involves suppression of hopes and fears, loves and hates, and the whole subjective emotional life, until we become subdued to the material, without bias, without any wish except to see it as it is, and without any belief that what it is must be determined by some relation, positive or negative, to what we should like it to be or to what we can easily imagine it to be.” Bertrand Russell (2330).

“No myth of miraculous creation is so marvelous as the fact of man’s evolution.” Robert Briffault (298).

Hans Fischer (DE) was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for research into the constitution of hemin and chlorophyll and especially for the synthesis of hemin.

Karl Landsteiner (AT-US) was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his discovery of human blood groups.

A.A. Lebedeff (RU) designed and built the first interference microscope (1611).

Sterling Brown Hendricks (US) and William H. Fry (US) presented what is arguably the most important elucidation of the nature and properties of soils. They conclusively proved the crystalline nature of colloidal clay with the prevalence of negative charges that will absorb and release cations. These findings led to an understanding of the chemistry necessary to maintain high potential in soil productivity, and in providing a valid chemical basis for the reclamation of the alkali soils of arid regions (1209).

William Thomas Astbury (GB), Henry J. Woods (GB), and A. Street (GB), using x-ray diffraction, demonstrated for the first time a measurable change in protein structure at the most intimate molecular level—interatomic shifts of a few ångströms. This change was found to be reversible. They called the two forms alpha-keratin and beta-keratin (81-83).

Hermann Bortels (DE) reported that nitrogen fixation by Azotobacter has a requirement for molybdenum (258).

Rudolph J. Anderson (US) reported myoinositol as a lipid constituent in the phospholipids of mycobacteria (59).

Edward Adelbert Doisy (US), Sidney Allen Thayer (US) and Clement D. Veler (US) crystallized the ovarian hormone, estrogen, which induces estrus from the urine of pregnant women (713). Note: probably 17-beta estradiol.

Hans Karl August Simon von Euler-Chelpin (DE-SE), Karl Zeile (SE), and Harry Hellström (SE) showed that catalase contains a hemin residue (2830).

John Tileston Edsall (US) and Alexander L. von Muralt (US) isolated myosin from muscle (784, 2840, 2841).

Wilbur Willis Swingle (US), Joseph J. Pfiffner (US), Frank A. Hartman (US), and Katherine A. Brownell (US) were the first to prepare extracts from the adrenal cortex, which successfully controlled the symptoms of adrenal insufficiency both in adrenalectomized animals and in patients who had Addison’s disease (1176, 2670, 2671).

Leonard George Rowntree (CA-US), Carl H. Greene (US), Wilbur Willis Swingle (US), and Joseph J. Pfiffner (US) proved the medical efficacy of the Swingle-Pfiffner extract (2311).

C.L. Ruiz (AR), L.L. Silva (AR), and L. Libenson (AR) were the first to report the hypoglycemic effect of some sulphonamide-like compounds (2323).

William Smith Tillett (US), Walther Frederick (US), and Oswald Theodore Avery (US) discovered C-polysaccharide (the C-fraction), a non-capsular antigenic component of pneumococci (2721).

William Smith Tillett (US) and Thomas Francis, Jr. (US) discovered that the C-fraction carbohydrate from pneumococci stimulates the production of a non-antibody globulin, which they dubbed C-reactive protein (CRP) (2719).

Subsequently it was found that C-reactive protein appears in the blood of patients in response to many infections. During recovery from infection the C-reactive protein (CRP) diminishes in amount and within a few days disappears entirely. The serum of an animal immunized to CRP is used in a Precipitation Test to detect CRP in sera of persons suspected of having one of the diseases in which the protein appears, e.g. staphylococcal infection. 

Vladimir Aleksandrovich Engelhardt (RU) recognized that nucleated erythrocytes catalyze an aerobic process linked to phosphorylation, i.e., oxidative phosphorylation. This experiment initiated the history of oxidative phosphorylation (839, 840).

Ejnar Lundsgaard (DK) discovered that frog muscle poisoned with iodoacetic acid—which inhibits glycolysis—could contract without the formation of lactic acid, but with the disappearance of creatine phosphate. Once the creatine phosphate was exhausted the muscles went into a rigor mortis like condition. He wrote, “… phosphagen (creatine phosphate) is the substance directly supplying the energy for contraction, while lactic acid formation in the normal muscle continually provides the energy for its resynthesis” (1722). Lundsgaard had discovered that the muscle machine could be driven by phosphate-bond energy.

Ragnar S. Nilsson (SE) isolated phosphoglyceric acid from natural sources. Based on the action of dried yeast on a mixture of glucose, hexosephosphate, and acetylaldehyde he suggested that glyceraldehyde-phosphate might play a role in the glycolytic breakdown of carbohydrate (1986).

Fritz Breinl (CZ) and Felix Haurowitz (CZ-US) published their template theory of antibody formation (288). Although incorrect, this theory and others stimulated research.

Gustav Joseph Victor Nossal (AU), Gordon Leslie Ada (AU), Caroline M. Austin (AU), John Pye (AU), and Gail M. Williams (AU) demonstrated that antibody making cells do not contain any antigen around which to shape an antibody (1995-1998).

H. Lyndhurst Duke (GB) and James Montague Wallace (GB) gave the first description of a complement receptor activity on erythrocytes (749).

James Montague Wallace (GB) and Arthur Wormall (GB) proposed that complement is required for this adherence reaction (2888).

Haldan Keffer Hartline (US) and Clarence H. Graham (US) used tiny electrodes to determine how single retinal nerve cells in horseshoe crabs and frogs receive information and transfer it to the brain (1173).

Haldan Keffer Hartline (US) mapped the activity of the visual receptive field to reveal a system of many convergent pathways from many photoreceptors (1172). This work laid the foundation for modern concepts of parallel processing by specialized channels.

Yandell Henderson (US), Howard W. Haggard (US), Pol N. Coryllos (GR-US) and George L. Birnbaum (US) found that in dogs with experimentally induced pneumonia the lungs may be cleared and the pneumonia cured by placing the animals in an atmosphere of about 8% carbon dioxide for 12 to 24 hours. In support of the claim that these are real cures is the fact that pneumococci are inhibited in growth or even killed by a lowering of pH no greater than carbon dioxide may induce. A lowering of the pH by carbon dioxide contributes also to the autolysis and liquefaction of the exudate responsible for the consolidation of the lungs in pneumonia. Many cases of pneumonia have now been treated by inhalation of a carbon dioxide-oxygen mixture in a special tent introduced by Henderson and Haggard. This treatment is decidedly superior to treatment with oxygen alone (1207).

Ernest Glen Wever (US) and Charles W. Bray (US) discovered the cochlear microphonic potential, i.e., the bioelectric signals generated in the inner ear in response to sound stimuli (2954-2957). 

Benjamin Freeman Kingsbury (US) in his studies of neuroembryonic development provided the first detailed discussion of the possible functions of the floor plate in neural development (1451).

Ronald Aylmer Fisher (GB-AU) wrote The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection. This book contained his fundamental theorum of natural selection: “The rate of increase in fitness of any organism at any time is equal to its genetic variance in fitness at that time.” Natural selection is viewed as always tending to increase fitness, in the sense of reproductive fitness, and the course of evolution being determined by the momentary advantage of one allele over the other. This work formalized the relation of particulate genes to the evolutionary process. It overturned the old theory of heredity as blending, on which Charles Robert Darwin (GB) had based his views of the operation of natural selection (905).

Lewis John Stadler (US) devised and perfected methods for determining rate of spontaneous mutation in maize, finding that different genes mutate at widely different rates (2599-2601).

Norman H. Giles, Jr. (US) found that in Neurospora crassa quantitative mutability of different loci varies in spontaneous mutation (1028).

Milislav L. Demerec (Yugoslavian -US), Zlata Hartman (US), Philip Emile Hartman (US), Takashi Yura (JP), Joseph S. Gots (US), Haruo Ozeki (JP), and Stuart W. Glover (GB) found that in bacteria, quantitative mutability of different loci varies in spontaneous mutation (647). 

Herbert Friedmann (US) studied the honey-guides—family Indicaroridae—of Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) and South Africa. He confirmed, first hand, that these birds do indeed lead a symbiont, often man, who opens the hive and removes some of the honey, the bird, then feeds on the wax comb (959-963).

Herbert Friedmann (US) and Jerome Kern (US) determined that honey-guides possess a digestive enzyme and a microbial symbiont both of which attack the beeswax, thus making it available for further digestion (964, 965). Wax eating is called cerophagy.

Charles Benedict Davenport (US) published a short pedigree, which demonstrates linkage between hemophilia and red-green color-blindness in man (615).

J. Marchal (GB) discovered the mousepox (Poxvirus muris) virus and called it infectious ectromelia (1766). Marchal bodies are cell inclusion bodies observed in infectious ectromelia.

Wilbur A. Sawyer (US), Stuart F. Kitchen (US), Martin M. Frobisher, Jr. (US), and Wray Lloyd (US) determined the relationship of yellow fever of the Western hemisphere to that of Africa and leptospiral jaundice (2371). 

Charles Cyril Okell (GB) and Adelaide V. Blake (GB) determined that the Shiga exotoxin is released following autolysis or disruption of the bacterial cells; suggesting that it is an endotoxin (2008).

Bert Cyril James Gabriel Knight (GB) and Paul Gordon Fildes (GB) initiated studies, which led to the understanding that some heterotrophic bacteria can grow on a simple medium containing inorganic ions, ammonium as nitrogen source and glucose as source of carbon and energy. Other species are unable to grow on such a medium unless it is supplemented by an amino acid or one of the B group of vitamins. Still others, particularly those found in chemically complex habitats, require several amino acids and several vitamins before they could grow. Fildes and his colleagues postulated that the nutritional requirements are a reflection of the synthetic disabilities of the organisms concerned: that an organism that requires a specific amino acid for growth has, in the course of its evolution, lost the ability to synthesize that amino acid which is nevertheless an essential part of its cellular material. This postulate meant that nutritional studies could be used to study stages in biosynthesis (1471).

Max Theiler (ZA-US) and Hugh H. Smith (US) grew the yellow fever virus in rhesus monkeys (Macacus rhesus), and then passed it to mice. In mice, it developed as encephalitis. They passed it from mouse to mouse, and then eventually back to monkeys. By this time it had attenuated, producing a very mild attack in the monkeys, but producing a full immunity to the most virulent form of the virus. This attenuated strain could also be used to vaccinate man (2706, 2707).

Gail Monroe Dack (US), William E. Cary (US), Oram C. Woolpert (US), and Hazel Wiggers (US) ingested filtered supernatant fractions of Staphylococcus aureus cultures to demonstrate that it is capable of producing an extracellular enterotoxin, which causes gastroenteritis (587).

Samuel Phillips Bedson (GB), George T. Western (GB), Samuel Levy Simpson (GB), and John O.W. Bland (GB) were outstanding early students of the Bedsonia —later called Chlamydiae. They discovered that Chlamydia psittaci/Chlamydophila psittaci is the etiological agent of parrot fever (psittacosis) (158, 159).

Walter Levinthal (DE), Ralph Dougall Lillie (US), and Alfred C. Coles (GB) independently discovered the etiological agent of psittacosis (506, 1646, 1647, 1674).

M. Ruiz Castañeda (MX) developed an excellent method for staining rickettsia (419).

Attilio Macchiavello (CL) developed an excellent differential stain for observation of rickettsia and chlamydia (3104). Note: Macchiavello did not independently publish his staining procedure.

Bernard Schlesinger (GB) showed that hemolytic streoptococcal infection could cause acute rheumatism in children (2383).

Homer William Smith (US) determined that in order for marine teleosts to maintain their blood salinity below that of the surrounding waters they rely upon a relatively impermeable skin, drink sea water to replace water lost through the gill membranes, and secret salt using a special transport mechanism located in the gills. Elasmobranch fishes solve this problem by making their tissues isosmotic or slightly hyperosmotic to seawater using a build-up of urea. He found that the elasmobranch kidney conserves urea by tubular reabsorption (2529, 2531, 2532).

Malcolm S. Gordon (US), Knut Schmidt-Nielsen (DK-US), and Hamilton M. Kelly (US) found that the crab-eating frog (Rana cancrivora) is the only known amphibian, which can tolerate seawater. It does so by raising its blood osmolarity using urea (1055).

Homer William Smith (US) found that in order to prevent desiccation, lungfishes burrow deep into the mud and form a cocoon with a breathing channel to the surface. They may remain dormant for up to two years during which time course their body proteins are gradually utilized and their tissue urea levels may reach 3 percent (2530).

Charles Haskell Danforth (US) established the basic conditions for understanding the mechanisms for production of sex plumage in birds. He found in Ring-necked pheasants the sex characteristics of the plumage are dependent upon simultaneous action of both genic and hormonal factors. A single gene difference leads to divergent reactions to hormone in two races, Campines and Brown leghorns (610).

Hayes E. Martin (US) and Edward B. Ellis (US) introduced the technique of fine needle biopsy (1786).

Ernest Laurence Kennaway (GB) and Izrael Hieger (GB) showed for the first time that single polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), such as dibenz[a,h]anthracene, are tumorigenic in mouse skin (1433).

James W. Cook (GB), Colin L. Hewett (GB), and Izrael Hieger (GB) discovered that pure benzo[a]pyrene induces skin cancer in mice (529).

Grover A. Kempf (US) and Frederick S. McKay (US) determined that high levels of water-borne fluoride causes the discoloration of tooth enamel now called fluorosis (1428).

Margaret Cammack Smith (US), Edith M. Lantz (US), and Howard V. Smith (US) performed experiments, which strongly supported the idea that excessive fluoride ingestion causes the hypoplasia characteristic of mottled teeth (2538).

Henry Trendley Dean (US) recalled that mottled tooth enamel is unusually resistant to decay from reading studies by Frederick S. McKay and Green Vardiman Black on fluorosis in Colorado. Dean wondered whether adding fluoride to drinking water at physically and cosmetically safe levels would help fight tooth decay.

Henry Trendley Dean (US), Frederick S. McKay (US), and Elias Elvove (US) made a critical discovery. Namely, fluoride levels of up to 1.0 ppm in drinking water did not cause enamel fluorosis in most people and only mild enamel fluorosis in a small percentage of people (634).

Henry Trendley Dean (US), Francis A. Arnold, Jr. (US), and Elias Elvove (US) performed a statistical survey, which confirmed that the incidence of dental caries is significantly lower in communities where the water contains fluorine above certain concentrations (633).

In 1945, Grand Rapids, MI became the first city in the world to intentionally fluoridate its drinking water. During the 15-year project, researchers monitored the rate of tooth decay among Grand Rapids' almost 30,000 schoolchildren.  After just 11 years, Francis A. Arnold, Jr. (US), Henry Trendley Dean (US), Philip Jay (US), and John W. Knutson (US) announced an amazing finding. The caries rate among Grand Rapids children born after fluoride was added to the water supply dropped more than 60 percent (71, 632).

Bernardo Alberto Houssay (AR) and Alfredo Biasotti (AR) removed the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and pancreas from animals. They showed that the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland affects the course of sugar metabolism in the human. The anterior lobe seemed to produce one hormone that had the opposite effect of insulin (1292-1295). Their work explained spontaneous remission of diabetes mellitus – vanishing diabetes – by a destructive lesion in, or surgical removal of, the anterior pituitary gland.

József Baló (AT-HU) was the first to describe this phenomenon (vanishing diabetes) in humans (118).

Ludvig Hektoen (US) determined the infectious nature of acute endocarditis (1206).

Frederick E. Becker (US) first recognized Colorado tick fever as a separate clinical entity and gave it its name. He gave the first clear description of the disease (157). Colorado tick fever (CTF) (also called Mountain tick fever, American tick fever, and "American mountain tick fever") is a viral infection (Coltivirus) transmitted from the bite of an infected Rocky Mountain wood tick (Dermacentor andersoni). It should not be confused with the bacterial tick-borne infection, Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Colorado tick fever virus (CTFV) infects haemopoietic cells, particularly erythrocytes.

Donald Dexter van Slyke (US), Edgar Stillman (US), Eggert Hugo Heiberg Møller (US), William E. Ehrich (US), John F. McIntosh (US), Louis Leiter (US), Eaton M. MacKay (US), R. Roger Hannon (US), Norman S. Moore (US), and Christopher D. Johnson (US) related the changes occurring at different stages of renal deterioration to the quantitative changes taking place in kidney function (2792).

John Carew Eccles (AU) and Charles Scott Sherrington (GB) showed central inhibition of flexor reflexes (773-779).

Arnold Rice Rich (US) separated jaundice into two types on the basis of pathogenesis. The first, retention jaundice, results from the overproduction of the bile pigment in conditions that are associated with a decrease in excretory power of the liver, such as fever, anoxemia, and immaturity. The second type—regurgitation jaundice—is caused by reflux of bile from the liver canaliculi into the blood stream in the presence of duct obstruction or liver cell necrosis (2224).

Arnold Rice Rich (US) demonstrated that acquired resistance in the host is independent of the hypersensitive inflammatory reaction, and the latter, injurious to the host, may be eliminated by desensitization without impairment of immunity (2225, 2227).

James Wenceslas Papez (US) and Grant L. Rasmussen (US) determined that the superior olivary complex (SOC) exhibits a descending projection directed to the cochlea. Axons of SOC neurons build the so-called olivo-cochlear bundle (Bundle of Rasmussen) (2034, 2199).

Alexander A. Maximow (RU-US) posthumously authored A Textbook of Histology, which was one of the most influential histology texts of the twentieth century (1803). After Maximow’s death his book was completed and edited by William Bloom (US).

Anton Elschnig (AT) developed the method of corneal grafting introduced by Eugen von Hippel (DE) and produced good results on the human eye (817).

Magnus Hirschfield (DE) was the first true sex change pioneer. He coined the word transsexualism and founded, in Berlin, the first sexology institute. It was here that the first complete male-to-female sex change operation was performed in 1930. The patient was a Danish painter, Einer Wegener-Andreas Sparre, who had his genital organs removed, ovaries transplanted into him, and attempts made to furnish him with an artificial vagina. He died as a result of the series of operations, but before his death his marriage was annulled by the Danish authorities, who issued him a new birth certificate as a female, with the name Lili Elbe (804).

Harold Delf Gillies (NZ-GB) and Ralph Millard (GB), in 1945, performed the first woman-to-man sex change operation (1030).

Louis Wolff (US), John Parkinson (GB), and Paul Dudley White (US) discovered what became known as the WPW (Wolff-Parkinson-White) Syndrome. This is a bundle-branch block with short P-R interval in healthy young people prone to paroxysmal tachycardia (3049).

Agustin Castellanos, Jr. (CU), Eduardo Chapunoff (CU), Cesar Castillo (CU), Orlando Maytin (CU), and Louis Lemberg (CU) made major contributions to understanding the WPW-Syndrome (421).

Owen S. Gibbs (CA) demonstrated an artificial heart consisting of two bellows within a round brass container (1023, 1024).

Tetsuzo Akutsu (JP) and Willem Johan Kolff (NL-US) reported the development of a totally artificial heart in an animal model. They implanted a totally artificial heart into a living dog that subsequently survived for 90 minutes (18).

Lyle D. Joyce (US), Willem C. DeVries (US), W. Larry Hastings (US), Don B. Olsen (US), Robert K. Jarvik (US), and Willem Johan Kolff (NL-US) reported on the response of the human body to the first permanent implant of the Jarvik-7 Total Artificial Heart. In 1982, the heart was implanted into Barney Clark who lived 112 days following the implantation (1377). 

The United States Congress passed the Plant Protection Act (PPA), which provided for the patenting of asexually reproducing varieties. In 1970, the Plant Variety Protection Act (PVPA) was extended to include breeder’s rights to sexually reproducing varieties.

Sydney Savory Buckman (GB), published dozens of papers on ammonites, named hundreds of them, and invented a new way of dating rocks by time zones called hemera, each with their characteristic ammonites. His hemeral scheme for the Jurassic Period contained 370 hemera and 47 ages, the latter roughly corresponding to Oppel's sediment Zones (334).


“Concern for man himself and his fate must always be the chief interest of all technical endeavors … in order that the creations of the mind shall be a blessing and not a curse to mankind. Never forget this, in the midst of your diagrams and equations.” Albert Einstein (803).

Otto Heinrich Warburg (DE) was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his discovery of the nature and mode of action of the respiratory enzyme (Atmungsferment); a system of cytochromes and their oxidases that participate in the respiratory process; often, specifically, cytochrome oxidase.

William Joseph Elford (GB) and Christopher H. Andrewes (GB) developed the first filters (graded collodion membranes) in which pore size could be precisely determined. They used these to determine that viruses range in size from large protein molecules to tiny bacteria (806, 807).

Linus Carl Pauling published his first essays on The Nature of the Chemical Bond, detailing the rules of covalent bonding (2049).

Sterling Brown Hendricks (US), William L. Hill (US), K.D. Jacob (US), and Merrill E. Jefferson (US) showed the structural characteristics of apatite-like substances and composition of phosphate rock and bone as determined from microscopic and x-ray diffraction examinations (1210).

Paul Karrer (RU-CH) and Alois Helfenstein (CH) determined the chemical formula for squalene (1408).

Hans Fischer (DE) and Richard Hess (DE) determined that the structure of bilirubin and strongly implied that it is derived from hemin (900).

Hans Fischer (DE) and Hans Plieninger (DE) accomplished the complete synthesis of bilirubin (901).

Ulf Svante Hansson von Euler-Chelpin (SE) and John H. Gaddum (GB) isolated Substance P as a tissue extract that caused intestinal contraction in vitro  (2834).

Michael M. Chang (US), Susan E. Leeman (US), and Hugh D. Niall (US) determined the eleven-amino-acid structure of the Substance P peptide  (439).

Norma P. Gerard (US), Levi Alexander Garraway (US), Roger L. Eddy, Jr. (US), Thomas B. Shows (US), Hideya Iijima (JP), Jean Luc Paquet (FR), and Craig Gerard (US) identified the endogenous receptor for substance P as neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1-receptor, NK1R)  (1009).

Jane Yip (US) and Loris A. Chahl (GB) found that Substance P and the NK1 receptor are widely distributed in the brain and are found in brain regions that are specific to regulating emotion (hypothalamus, amygdala, and the periaqueductal gray)  (3088).

Otto Heinrich Warburg (DE) and Walter Christian (DE), and Alfred Griese (DE) found that adenine, nicotinamide, pentose, and phosphate were present in the ratio 1:1:2:3 in what was being called co-ferment or cozymase. They began referring to it as hydrogen-transporting co-ferment and stated, “The pyridine component of the co-ferment is its active group, because the catalytic action of the co-ferment depends on the alteration of the oxidation state of the pyridine part” (2897, 2900, 2901, 2907, 2908). It was called Wasserstoffübertragendes Co-ferment or hydrogen transport coenzyme then later referred to as triphosphopyridine nucleotide (TPN) then finally nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) or coenzyme II. The location of the third phosphate was established after 1950 in the laboratory of Arthur J. Kornberg (US).

Adolf Friedrich Johann Butenandt (DE) and Kurt Tscherning (DE) isolated, crystallized, and identified androsterone (andro = male, ster = sterol, one = ketone) from male urine. They presented this discovery at a Hamburg chemical meeting on October 23, 1931. Using microanalysis techniques they were able to learn enough about it to predict its structure and draw up the full constitutional formula (373). Androsterone is now called testosterone.

Karoly Gyula David (NL), Elizabeth Dingemanse (NL), Janos Freud (NL) and Ernst Laqueur (NL) crystallized male hormone from testicles, coining the name testosterone for their newly identified hormone (testo = testes, ster via sterol, one = ketone) (616).

Adolf Friedrich Johann Butenandt (DE), Günter Hanish (DE), Leopold Stefan Ruzicka (HR-CH), and Albert Wettstein (CH) partly synthesized the sex hormone testosterone from cholesterol (371, 372, 2334-2336). This was the first synthesis of a sex hormone and the first proof of the relationship between cholesterol and sex hormones.

Joseph L. Svirbely (US), Frederick L. Smith (US) and Charles Glen King (US) isolated vitamin C and reported its anti-scorbutic activity just two weeks ahead of Albert Imre Szent-Györgyi (HU-US) (2526, 2667).

Gertrude Maud Robinson (GB) and Robert Robinson (GB) were among the first to isolate, separate, and identify the anthocyanin and anthoxanthin plant pigments (2258-2260).

Phoebus Aaron Theodor Levene (US) and Lawrence Bass (US) introduced the chemical components and the basic structure of DNA (1637).

Ernst Friedheim (CH-US) and Leonor Michaelis (DE-US) found that at acidic pH values, the oxidation-reduction of the natural pigment pyocyanine involves the step-wise transfer of one electron, with the intermediate formation of a free radical, which Michaelis termed a semiquinone (954).

Bene Elema (NL) discovered that the green coloring matter from Bacillus chloraphis represents a natural two-stage oxidation-reduction system (805).

James Gordon Horsfall (US) found that dusting tomato seed with copper sulfate monohydrate combated damping-off (1285).

Edgar Douglas Adrian (GB) and Frederik Buytendijk (NL) may be the first to present direct evidence that the brainstem contains all the neural elements necessary to generate breathing. Their experimental subject was the goldfish. They found that the rhythmic activity of the respiratory center in the goldfish could occur in the entire absence of sensory impulses (15).

Harry Leonard Fevold (US), Frederick Lee Hisaw (US), and Samuel Leeson Leonard (US) discovered that the anterior lobe of the hypophysis (pituitary gland) produces follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and interstitial cell-stimulating hormone (ICSH). The interstitial cell-stimulating hormone (ICSH) is also known as luteinizing hormone (LH) (893).

Elsa R. Orent (US), Elmer Verner McCollum (US), Arthur R. Kemmerer (US), Conrad Arnold Elvehjem (US), and Edwin Bret Hart (US) demonstrated that mammals require manganese as a nutrient (1427, 2013).

Lucy Wills (GB) described treatment of pernicious anemia of pregnancy and tropical macrocytic anemia, with special reference to yeast extract (folic acid) as a curative agent (3022).

Tom Douglas Spies (US), Carl F. Vitter (US), Mary B. Koch (US), Margaret H. Caldwell (US) experimentally proved that folic acid from yeast extract is the curative agent for macrocytic anemia (2582).

Otto Fritz Meyerhof (DE-US) and Karl Lohmann (DE) stated that the role of adenylpyrophosphate (ATP), “ … appears to consist in the fact that the esterification of phosphate, which precedes the cleavage of carbohydrate to lactic acid, occurs with the simultaneous cleavage of adenylpyrophosphate, which is resynthesized during the further cleavage [of carbohydrate]. In this manner, the adenylpyrophosphate cycle maintains the lactic acid formation. The synthesis of phosphagen (creatine phosphate) is therefore made possible … by the cleavage energy of the adenylpyrophosphate, while the energy of lactic acid formation (from phosphate esters) serves to resynthesize the cleaved pyrophosphate” (1877).

Cornelis Bernardus Kees van Niel (NL), after elucidating the nature of bacterial photosynthesis, proposed that bacterial and plant photosynthesis are special cases of a general process in which light energy is used to photodecompose a hydrogen donor, H2A, with the released hydrogen in turn reducing carbon dioxide by dark, enzymatic reactions. The hypothesis envisaged that in plant photosynthesis H2A is water, whereas in green sulfur bacteria, e.g., H2A is H2S, with the results that oxygen becomes the by-product of plant photosynthesis and elemental sulfur the by-product of bacterial photosynthesis (2783-2785).

Keita Shibata (JP), in 1931, independently proposed the photo dissociation of water during oxygenic photosynthesis and a metabolism of anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria very similar to the scheme proposed by van Niel (2477).

Heinz Ohle (DE) postulated that the anaerobic breakdown of glucose begins with its phosphorylation to glucose-6-phosphate, which is converted into fructose-1, 6-diphosphate (via fructose-6-phosphate); the hexose diphosphate was considered to undergo a series of oxidations and reductions leading to the formation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate (2006).

Otto Fritz Meyerhof (DE-US) would establish the formation of phosphoglyceraldehyde in hexosediphosphate cleavage (1864).

Harold S. Olcott (US) and Henry A. Mattill (US) fractionated the oil of lettuce and found that one fraction had high antioxidant power and high potency as a source of vitamin E (2009).

Herbert McLean Evans (US), Oliver H. Emerson (US), and Gladys A. Emerson (US) isolated alpha-tocopherol from wheat germ oil and discovered that it is synonymous with vitamin E (851).

Elsa R. Orent (US) and Elmer Verner McCollum (US) performed experiments with rats, which demonstrated that magnesium is essential to that animal’s diet. Deficiency symptoms included, dilatation of cutaneous blood vessels, extreme hyperirritability, and tetanic seizures initiated by sound (2013).

Bishop C. Hsien Wu (CN) proposed that in addition to peptide covalent linkages between amino acids the native organization of proteins was due mainly to polar groups (3086).

Alfred Ezra Mirsky (US) and Linus Carl Pauling (US) stated, “Our conception of a native protein molecule (showing specific properties) is the following: The molecule consists of one polypeptide chain which continues without interruption throughout the molecule (or in certain cases, of two or more such chains); this chain is folded into a uniquely defined configuration, in which it is held by hydrogen bonds between the peptide nitrogen and oxygen atoms and also between the free amino and carboxyl groups of the diamino and dicarboxyl amino acid residues…. The characteristic specific properties of native proteins we attribute to their uniquely defined configuration. The denatured protein molecule we consider to be characterized by the absence of a uniquely defined configuration” (1897).

Walter J. Kauzmann (US) concluded that the most important energetic driving force behind the three-dimensional structure of proteins is a hydrophobic bond (1414). 

Albert Jan Kluyver (NL) in his treatise, The Chemical Activities of Microorganisms, recognized the potential significance of the ideas that Neuberg, Wieland, Warburg, Harden, and a few others had advanced to account for more or less specific biochemical events. Soon it became evident to him that these concepts could be welded together into a very few general principles, applicable to all biochemical phenomena. The most basic of these generalizations is the extension of the ideas of Neuberg and of Wieland to their ultimate limits. Thus, any biochemical process, whether oxidation, fermentation, or synthetic reaction, was considered as a chain of step reactions, each one of which represented a simple mechanism in which hydrogen is transferred from one molecule, the H-donor, to another, the H-acceptor. The apparent exception to this principle was exhibited in the metabolism of complex molecules, composed of a number of simple entities, for example the polysaccharides (complexes of simple sugars), proteins (complexes of amino acids), and fats (complexes of fatty acids and glycerol). Such complexes would first be converted to their constituent units by hydrolytic cleavages, with the products subsequently undergoing the various hydrogen-transfer reactions. In this manner the existence of the many hydrolytic enzymes—glucosidases, proteinases, lipases, etc.—could be fitted into the general picture.

He advocated the use of microorganisms for comparative biochemical studies because of the ease of handling them under controlled and reproducible conditions, and because of the enormous biochemical versatility encountered within this group. It is often possible to select a specific microorganism as singularly appropriate for a given problem because it carries out a certain type of reaction to the exclusion of almost any other. But it is equally important to realize that one may find among these creatures the best examples of seemingly quite different biochemical properties with respect to the conversion of a particular substrate. 

The recognition of this unity at the molecular level is Kluyver’s great contribution; it is also the starting point of comparative biochemistry (1465).

Warren Harmon Lewis (US) characterized the process of pinocytosis (1655).

Johann Heinrich Emil Heitz (DE) and Barbara McClintock (US) demonstrated that the nucleolus in somatic cells is regularly associated with a particular locus on one or more chromosomes. McClintock defined this region as the nucleolar organizer (1205, 1818).

Edgar Douglas Adrian (GB) reported that isolated ventral nerve cords of a water beetle Dytiscus marginalis produced rhythmic output (12).

Donald M. Wilson (GB) explored the control of rhythmic locomotion of flight mechanics in the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria. He provided evidence to reject the proprioceptive chain reflex model by rigorously demonstrating that the full motor pattern of locust flight could be generated by fully deafferented thoracic ganglia, which could not receive the inputs required by the proprioceptive chain model. He proposed that ‘the basic co-ordination of flight is an inherent function of the central nervous system but that peripheral feedback loops influence the frequency of operation and details of pattern' (3025).

Keir G. Pearson (CA) and John F. Iles (CA) focused on the hind legs of the cockroach Periplaneta americana and, in particular, on a subset of the muscles that raise (levate) and lower (depress) the limbs during the swing and stance movements of a step cycle, respectively. They demonstrated for the first time that alternating patterns of levator and depressor motor activity similar to those seen in walking were generated centrally in the absence of leg sensory feedback. Put simply, the basic motor pattern was generated within the central nervous system (2058).

Keir G. Pearson (CA) confirmed the work in the 1970 paper then went on to provide strong evidence that sensory feedback acted to modify the centrally generated pattern of activity (2057).

Donald M. Wilson (GB) emphasized the corrective role of sensory feedback: ‘the importance of sensory feedback in behavior patterns appears not to lie in the cueing of sequences but rather in the correction of errors inherent in genetically determined motor programs’ (3026).

John Charles Walker (US) developed and released peas resistant to Fusarium wilt and near-wilt disease (2882).

Karl Friedrich Meyer (US), Clarence M. Haring (US), and Beatrice Howitt (US) isolated the virus of Western equine encephalomyelitis from the brains of infected horses during an outbreak in California (1857, 1858).

Wilbur A. Sawyer (US) and Wray Lloyd (US) developed a Serum Neutralization Test for the presence of yellow fever (2373).

Fred L. Soper (US), Elmer R. Rickard (US), and Peter J. Crawford (US) perfected the postmortem diagnosis of yellow fever by viscerotomy (histological examination of the liver) (2569). This greatly aided in field surveys of yellow fever.

Wilber A. Sawyer (US), Stuart F. Kitchen (US), and Wray Lloyd (US) developed a vaccine to yellow fever using the attenuated virus. The vaccine had two parts: a ten-percent suspension of mouse-brain tissue with yellow fever virus in fresh sterile human serum, and human immune serum from people recently recovered from yellow fever (2372).

Alice Miles Woodruff (US) and Ernest William Goodpasture (US) developed the first practical method for cultivating large quantities of a virus in the laboratory—by growing it on the exposed membrane of a chick embryo (3061).

Charles E. Clifton (US), Edwin William Schultz (US), and Louis P. Gebhardt (US) used ultrafiltration collodion membranes to estimate that poliomyelitis virus is less than 50 nanometers in diameter (486). Subsequent work by them placed its size at close to 25 nanometers.

Richard E. Shope (US) and Paul A. Lewis (US) found that two infectious agents are necessary to induce the most severe form of swine influenza, the influenza virus and a bacterium he called Haemophilus influenzae suis. The virus alone produced a mild form of the disease (1653, 2480, 2481). He later speculated that survival of the virus during inter-epidemic periods involves virus persisting in a latent form in the parasitic pulmonary nematode (lung worm) of the pig. The virus is incorporated in the ova of the nematode, which is later eaten by an earthworm that serves as its intermediate host. After the lung worm reaches a certain stage of development the earthworm is eaten by the pig and influenza virus inside the nematode returns to the lungs of the same or another pig (2484, 2488, 2491-2493).  

Robert Daubney (GB), J.R. Hudson (GB), and Percy Cyril Claude Garnham (GB) were the first to isolate the Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), a type of bunyavirus (Phlebovirus). They found it in East African sheep (614).

Sara E. Branham (US), Clara Enola Taft (US), and Sadie A. Carlin (US) identified a new organism, Neisseria flavescens, as a rare cause of meningitis and septicemia in humans, but one requiring careful differentiation from meningococcus (279, 280). In 1970 Branham was honored posthumously by the name of a new genus, Branhamella.

Ernst Lowenstein (DE) and Kai Adolf Jensen (DK) developed a culture medium for the isolation and cultivation of mycobacteria and as bases for selective, differential, and enriched media for mycobacteria. Malachite green is used to inhibit non-mycobacterial organisms (1361, 1713).

J.S. Anderson (GB), Frank C. Happold (GB), James Walter McLeod (GB), and J.G. Thomson (GB) discovered that severe cases of diphtheria were nearly always caused by a genetic variety of Corynebacterium diphtheriae referred to as gravis. The mild cases were usually associated with the variety called mitis. The two varieties were easily distinguishable from one another because of their characteristic colonies formed on solid media (54).

Margaret Pittman (US) determined that pathogenicity in Haemophilus influenzae is influenced by variation in encapsulation types (2106).

René Jules Dubos (US) and Oswald Theodore Avery (CA-US) discovered Bacillus brevis, an organism that breaks down the capsular polysaccharide of Type 3 Streptococcus pneumoniae and protects mice against pneumonia (745).

A.S. Michailoff (DE) was the first to report on a mutation in the honeybee, Apis mellifera Linn. It was the ivory eye color which he referred to as white (1886).

Harriet B. Creighton (US) and Barbara McClintock (US), working with corn (Zea mays), obtained cytological proof that the inheritance of novel gene combinations during crossing over is due to the physical exchange of specific chromosome segments (567).

Curt Stern (DE-US), using cytologically abnormal X-chromosomes of Drosophila, one with the X-Y translocation, and one with an X-IV translocation, demonstrated that the genetic phenomenon of crossing over is accompanied by a physical exchange between the chromosomes (2629). See, Janssens, 1909. 

G.K. Chrustschoff (RU), A.H. Andres (RU), W.I. Iljina-Kakujewa (RU), E.A. Berlin (RU), and P. Zhivago (RU) were the first to use cultures of peripheral blood cells for the study of chromosomes (64, 459, 460).

P. Zhivago (RU), B. Morosov (RU), and A. Ivanickaya (RU) discovered that a much better spread of chromosomes occurs if water is used instead of isotonic solutions during the preparation of a chromosome squash (3098).

Tao-Chiuh Hsu (US), Sajiro Makino (JP), Isao Nishimmura (JP), and Arthur Hughes (GB) rediscovered the use of water instead of isotonic solutions in 1952 (1304, 1321, 1757).

Sewall Wright (US) presented the first unified picture of evolution in terms of Mendelism by illustrating the relations between selection pressure, mutation rates, inbreeding, and isolation (3084).

Leonard H. Snyder (US) and Albert Francis Blakeslee (US), based on experiments using phenyl thiocarbamide (PTC), concluded that tasting is inherited as a Mendelian recessive trait, with "taste" being dominant to "non-taste." In addition Blakeslee showed that there is a threshold concentration below which "tasters" cannot detect PTC (218, 2550).

John Punnett Peters (US) and Donald Dexter van Slyke (US) wrote the two volume Quantitative Clinical Chemistry, for many years the world authority (2082, 2083). 

Leopold Heine (DE) performed work, which made the manufacture of modern contact glasses possible (1203).

Philip Duryeé McMaster (US) and Stephen S. Hudack (US) proved that lymphatics instead of being passive drainage canals are very active in the process of fluid exchange. Their walls respond rapidly to various influences such as sunlight, warmth, or a state of shock that does not break the skin (1309-1313, 1827-1829).

Maxwell Myer Wintrobe (CA-US) developed the methodology for direct calculation of the average erythrocyte size, mean corpuscular volume (MCV) in cubic microns, mean hemoglobin content (MCH) in picograms, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) in percent—quantifications that are standard clinical procedure today (3034).

Vincent Brian Wigglesworth (GB) was the first to report on Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera, Reduviidae) Malpighian tubule physiology (2988-2990). 

Samuel S. Shouse (US), Stafford L. Warren, II (US), and George Hoyt Whipple (US) provided descriptions of the anatomic and functional effects of radiation injury (2497).

António Caetano Abreau Freire De Egas Moniz (PT) conceived visualization of cerebral blood vessels by röntgenography. The medium he developed with comparative safety used sodium iodide. When colloidal thorium dioxide was developed he followed up this lead with cerebral angiography to visualize intracranial tumor, vascular abnormalities, and aneurysms (791, 792).

Harvey Williams Cushing (US) removed a pituitary tumor from a patient on April 15, 1931. This was the 2000th verified brain tumor removed by Cushing in his remarkable career during which he reduced the mortality rate in brain surgery from more than 90 percent to a little over 8 percent. Cushing operated for an additional fifteen months before retiring (2244). In a supreme irony he died in 1939 of a brain tumor.

Harvey Williams Cushing (US) reported on the surgical-mortality percentages pertaining to the two thousand operations he had performed for the removal of intracranial tumors (581).

Christian Georg Schmorl (DE) established the modern basis for understanding the intervertebral disc, by providing very clear discussions of herniations as well as degenerations (2394).

James Rognvald Learmonth (IR) observed that if the hypogastric nerve is stimulated the result is contraction of the ipsilateral ureteral orifice; tightening of the trigone; contraction of the internal sphincter; and contraction of the musculature of the prostate, seminal vesicles and ejaculatory ducts. Sectioning the hypogastric nerve produces relaxation of the ureteral orifice, trigone and internal sphincter, with no appreciable effect on the dome or lateral walls of the bladder (1610).

Derek Ernest Denny-Brown (NZ-GB-US), E. Graeme Robertson (AU), and Alex E. Roche (GB) studied the events of voiding and the volumetric changes of the bladder in relation to sphincter activity. They found spontaneous waves of pressure in the bladder during filling. As these increased in amplitude, subjective sensations of fullness or urinary urgency developed in the subjects. The subjects, when asked, could voluntarily suppress the summation of these pressure waves (670-672). 

Michael S. Burman (US) carried out the first extensive academic research in arthroscope usage in the United States. Arthroscopy being the direct visualization of joints (346).

Rudolf Nissen (DE) successfully removed an entire bronchiectatic (irreversible dilatation of part of the bronchial tree) lung (1987).

Paul Dudley White (US) virtually created the specialty of cardiology in the United States when he published his book, Heart Disease (2968).

Another outbreak of polio swept the U.S. during the summer of 1931, killing more than 4,000 people, about 12 percent of the reported cases (1482).

George Gaylord Simpson (US) united the two families of anthropoid apes, Pongidae (Simiidae), and men, Hominidae, into a Superfamily, which he called Hominoidea, and distinguished from the two other superfamilies of the sub-order Anthropoidea, which he called the Cercopithecoidea and the Ceboidea. The superfamily Hominoidea includes the hominoids (gibbons, great apes, and humans). The term hominid refers only to humans (2506).

Marius Pièry (FR), Julien Roshem (FR), and Vilhelm Moller-Christensen (DK) gave accounts of Stone Age homonoid skeletons diagnosed as exhibiting signs of tubercular damage. Evidence of pulmonary tuberculosis remains but, in the nature of the case, it is meager (1905, 2099).

Erik Andersson Stensiö (SE) and Gunnar Säve-Söderbergh (SE), of the 1929-1930 Danish scientific expeditions, found ichthyostegid fossils in the upper Devonian sediments in eastern Greenland. They appear to be intermediate between lobe-finned rhipidistians (Osteolepis) and early amphibians. These are the oldest known fossils that can be classified as amphibians (2369, 2627).

Arthur Tindell Hopwood (GB), in 1931, discovered the fossils of three hominids near Lake Victoria, he would name them Proconsul in 1933 (1273, 1274). This was the oldest known ape found up to this time.

Wilfred E. Le Gros Clark (GB) and Louis Seymour Bazett Leakey (GB-KE), reported on a hominid skull and jaw found by Mary Douglas Nicol Leakey (GB-KE), in 1948, in Miocene deposits on Rusinga Island in Lake Victoria, Western Kenya. It was an excellent sample of Proconsul africanus (sometimes called Dryopithicus africanus or "woodland ape"). The specimen is approximately 16 million years old. Proconsul is a candidate for the distant ancestor from which all modern species of apes and all hominids—human beings included—evolved.

Henry Bryant Bigelow (US), cnidariologist, founded Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) in 1931 and became its first director until 1940. He is commemorated by Haliscera bigelowi Kramp, 1947, Bathyplotes bigelowi Deichmann, 1940, Braarudosphaera bigelowii Gran et Braarud Deflandre, 1947, Casco bigelowi Blake, 1929, Lucaya bigelowi Chace, 1939, Euphysora bigelowi Maas, 1905, Neoturris bigelowi Kramp, 1959, Calycopsis bigelowi Vanhöffen, 1911, and Octophialucium bigelowi Kramp, 1955.


“If a patient is poor he is committed to a public hospital as psychotic; if he can afford the luxury of a private sanatorium, he is put there with the diagnosis of neurasthenia; if he is wealthy enough to be isolated in his own home under constant watch of nurses and physicians he is simply an indisposed eccentric.” Pierre Marie Félix Janet (1356).

Charles Scott Sherrington (GB) and Edgar Douglas Adrian (GB) were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their discoveries regarding the functions of neurons.

Max Knoll (DE) and Ernst August Friedrich Ruska (DE) originated the concept of a transmission electron microscope (TEM) (1473).

Ernst August Friedrich Ruska (DE) and Max Knoll (DE) built the first transmission electron microscope (TEM) at the Technische Hochschule of Berlin-Charlottenburg. 

Albert F. Prebus (CA) and James Hillier (CA-US) made the TEM a practical instrument (2131). See, M.M. Freundlich. 1963. Origin of the electron microscope. Science 142 (3589): 185-188.

Harold Clayton Urey (US), Ferdinand G. Brickwedde (US), and George M. Murphy (US) were the first to prove that hydrogen gas contains a few atoms in which the nuclear proton is accompanied by a neutron. This so called heavy hydrogen was given the name deuterium (2766, 2767).

Martin Gerhard Behrens (DE) used differential centrifugation to separate chloroplasts, nuclei, and cytoplasm (167, 168).

S. Furukawa (JP) isolated four terpenes in his quest to determine the active constituents of the Ginkgo extracts used in folk medicine (982-984).

Koji Nakanishi (JP) determined the structures of the ginkgolides (1966).

Elias James Corey (US), Myung-Chol Kang (US), Manoj C. Desai (US), Arun K. Ghosh (US), and Ioannis N. Houpis (US) carried out the complete synthesis of ginkgolide B (541).

Wendell Meredith Stanley (US), Gerald H. Coleman (US), C.M. Greer (US), J. Sacks (US), and Roger Adams (US) elucidated and synthesized chaulmoogric and hydnocarpic acids, the active ingredients of chaulmoogra oil, a folk remedy for leprosy (2610).

Werner Schulemann (DE), Fritz Schönhöfer (DE), and August Wingler (DE) announced the synthesis of plasmoquine (pamaquine, plasmochin) for the treatment of malaria (2423).

Leonor Michaelis (DE-US) presented the first example of a reversible two-stage oxidation-reduction system (1885).

Heinrich Otto Wieland (DE) and Elisabeth Dane (DE) described the correct structure for cholesterol (2979).

Sigmund Otto Rosenheim (GB) and Harold King (GB) worked out the correct structure for the rings found in bile acids and sterols (including cholesterol) (2299-2302). 

Cecil James Watson (US) crystallized stercobilin from human feces and proved that it is different from urobilinogen and mesobilirubinogen. In the process he discovered mesobiliviolin in nature for the first time (2916).

Manayath Damodaran (GB), Gunnar Jaaback (GB), and Albert Charles Chibnal (GB) isolated glutamic acid from the hydrolysate of a protein (603).

Joseph K. Tillmans (DE), Paul Hirsch (DE), and Johannes Jackisch (DE) were the first to introduce a quantitative chemical test for the presence of vitamin C. If was based on the relationship between the vitamin C content of a food and its reducing power (2726).

Robert Emerson (US) and William A. Arnold (US) articulated the concept of a photosynthetic unit (photosystem), which includes the two components, antenna and reaction center (825, 826).

Robert F. Parker (US) and Ralph S. Muckenfuss (US) adapted the Complement Fixation Test for the detection of smallpox antigen in lesion fluid. This represents the first immunological test for viral antigens (2038).

Max Schlesinger (DE-GB) used the adsorption capacity of the bacterial cell for bacteriophages and the sedimentation velocity of bacteriophages to determine that the bacteriophage particle has a maximum linear dimension of about 0.1 micrometer and a mass of about 4 x 10-16 g. His studies of the kinetics of bacteriophage attachment imply that Brownian movement brings bacteriophage particles into random collisions with the bacterial surface. He purified a weighable amount of T-even bacteriophage by differential centrifugation and graded filtration; then by direct chemical analysis found that they consisted mainly of protein and DNA, in roughly equal proportions (2384-2386).

Max Bergmann (DE-US) and Leonidas Zervas (DE-US) developed a method for synthesis of polypeptides, which was superior to the Fischer synthesis because it allowed the inclusion of complex amino acids in the polymer (187).

Otto Heinrich Warburg (DE) and Walter Christian (DE) isolated, from yeast, a yellow-red protein which they called oxygen-transporting-ferment and concluded that, “The yellow ferment is therefore not only an oxygen-transporting ferment but also a ferment of oxygen-less respiration. … It is probable that in life, the yellow ferment does not transfer molecular, but bound oxygen. Probably, in life, it is not an oxygen-transporting ferment but an oxidation-reduction ferment.” They went on to show that the pigment is a small molecule, which is released when the protein portion of the complex is denatured. The pigment was found to belong to the class of substances that Richard Johann Kuhn (AT-DE) had named flavins (2898, 2899).

Kurt Guenter Stern (GB-US) and Ensor Roslyn Holiday (GB) determined the chemical structure of the flavins (2636).

Richard Johann Kuhn (AT-DE), Karl Reinemund (DE), Friedrich Weigand (DE), Rudolf Ströbele (DE) and Paul Karrer (RU-CH) synthesized many flavins including this one, which was designated vitamin B2 or riboflavin (1406, 1409, 1537, 1539). Riboflavin alone was found to be inactive.

Axel Hugo Theodor Theorell (SE) showed that the coenzyme associated with Warburg’s yellow enzyme had a structure like riboflavin (vitamin B2), to which a phosphate group was attached (2709).

Richard Johann Kuhn (AT-DE), Hermann Rudy (DE), and Friedrich Weygand (DE) found that the active form had a phosphate group at the five prime position (vitamin B2 is riboflavin phosphate or flavin mononucleotide) and behaves as a prosthetic group carrying out its catalytic function while complexed with protein as a flavoprotein (1540).

Joachim Hämmerling (DE) performed a series of classic experiments using the alga Acetabularia spp. as his material. He concluded that there must be intermediate stages between the genetic information of the cell nucleus and expression of the genetic information in the cytoplasm. Furthermore these intermediate stages must be represented by chemically defined substances (m-RNA), which were called morphogenetic substances, and even in darkness the nucleus continues to supply the cytoplasm with morphogenetic substances. In the 1934 reference Hämmerling found that chloroplasts divide in anucleate cells (1140-1146). Note: This work is remarkable as a harbinger of molecular biology.

Hans Adolf Krebs (DE-GB) and Kurt Henseleit (DE) worked out the way in which the body eliminates waste nitrogen, usually from deamination reactions, by breakdown and regeneration of a portion of the amino acid arginine. This urea cycle (or ornithine cycle), as it is called, ultimately leads to the excretion of waste nitrogen as urea. In their own words, “The primary reaction of urea synthesis in the liver is the addition of one molecule of ammonia and one molecule of carbonic acid to the d-amino group of ornithine, with the elimination of one molecule of water and the formation of a d-ureido acid, citrulline … The second reaction of urea synthesis is the combination of one molecule of citrulline with an additional molecule of ammonia, with the loss of a second molecule of water and the formation of a guanidino acid, arginine … The third reaction is the hydrolytic cleavage of arginine to ornithine and urea” (1519-1521).

Rudolph Albert Peters (GB), Nicolai Gavrilescu (HU), Arnold Peter Meiklejohn (GB), and Reginald Passmore (GB) were the first to demonstrate in vitro that a vitamin (thiamine) has a specific enzymatic aiding action (1007, 2085).

V. Albrecht Bethe (DE) introduced the concept of ectohormones, now known as pheromones (204). See Karlson, 1959. One member of a species to affect the physiology or behavior of another member of the same species excretes these chemicals.

Hermann Otto Laurenz Fischer (DE) and Erich Baer (DE) synthesized DL-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate to be tested as an intermediate in alcoholic fermentation (902).

Carl Vincent Smythe (DE) and Waltraut Gerischer (DE), in 1933, showed that yeast could ferment DL-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate, consuming only one of the isomers (2545). Later work showed that it was the D isomer being metabolized.

Edwin Martin Case (GB) discovered that muscle extract produced pyruvic acid from hexosediphosphate or glycogen (408).

Marcus Morton Rhoades (US) demonstrated in maize that crossing over among chromosomes occurs at the four-strand stage (2220).

Franz Schrader (DE-US) concluded that spindles in living cells do indeed have a fibrous structure, albeit an invisible one. In bipolar spindles he described these fibrous arrays as consisting of: 1) those running from a spindle pole to each chromosome or chromatid, namely, chromosomal fibers or half-spindle components; 2) continuous fiber systems from pole to pole; and, in some organisms 3) interzonal fibers of quite different nature connecting the ends of separating chromatids at anaphase (2420, 2421).

William Henry Chandler (US), Dennis Robert Hoagland (US), and Paul Llewellyn Hibbard (US) discovered that zinc deficiency causes a number of physiological disorders in plants, including little leaf in peaches, mottle leaf in citrus, and rosette in apples (435).

Howard S. Reed (US) and Jean Dufrenoy (US) described the signs and symptoms of zinc deficiency in plants (2206).

Richard Edwin Shope (US) showed that mad itch, a violent, distressing, and fatal disease of cattle in the American Midwest is caused by a virus transmissible to rabbits, and endemic among pigs. He identified mad itch as being identical to pseudorabies in Europe (2483).

Richard Edwin Shope (US) discovered the viral etiology of rabbit fibroma disease found in wild cotton tail rabbits (Sylvilagus) in the United States (2482, 2485-2487, 2490). This is often called Shope fibroma.

Francis Peyton Rous (US), and Joseph W. Beard (US) successfully induced a tumor in mammals using a virus. The virus causes a papilloma in rabbits. Today it is called the Shope papilloma virus (2305, 2306).

Chester Hamlin Werkman (US) and George Francis Gillen (US) proposed the bacterial generic term Citrobacter for the citrate-positive, coli-aerogenes intermediates, with Citrobacter freundii Braak as the type species (2946).

Henry Pinkerton (US) and George M. Hass (US) grew rickettsia in tissue culture (2102).

Carl Clarence Lindegren (US) worked out much of the basic genetics of the fungus, Neurospora (1676).

Margaret Newton (CA-US) and Thorvaldur Johnson (CA) developed techniques to allow them to hybridize the rust fungus while it grew on barberry. They discovered that pathogenic characters segregated in a Mendelian fashion while some other characters appeared to be inherited in a maternal pattern (1367, 1368, 1981, 1982).

Frans Verdoorn (NL) edited an excellent manual on the bryophytes (liverworts and mosses) which, among other things, discussed their classification, ecology, distribution, morphology, physiology, cytology, and genetics (2801).

Helmuth Weese (DE) and Walther Scharpff (DE) reported on their first experiences with hexobarbital (the first short-acting barbiturate) for intravenous induction of general anesthesia. It is also called evipan and evipal (2929). 

William F. Hamilton (US), Jack Walker Moore (US), James M. Kinsman (US), and Roy G. Spurling (US) performed experiments, which exposed hemodynamics under physiological and pathological conditions (1138).

Eliot R. Clark (US) and Eleanor Linton Clark (US) placed glass-windowed chambers in the rabbit ear and made exquisite drawings of the branching patterns of the blood vessels that entered the wound. Their work established the field of vascular biology (464).

Philip Duryeé McMaster (US), Stephen S. Hudack (US), and Francis Peyton Rous (US) found that there is a relation of hydrostatic pressure to the gradient of capillary permeability (1832). 

James Augustine Shannon (US), Norman Jolliffee (US), Homer W. Smith (US), and Saul Fisher (US), in their studies of the kidney, developed a way to precisely measure the rate of formation of glomerular filtrate (i.e., the volume per unit time of plasma ultrafiltrate that, under the hydrostatic pressure in the arterial circulation, enters the kidney tubules and flows toward the urinary bladder) in a variety of species—amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals, including Homo sapiens. They went on to illuminate passive reabsorption from tubular lumen back across the tubular epithelium to the peritubular blood, simple diffusion along a chemical concentration gradient of urea created by the reabsorption of water, active reabsorption, and active secretion (1374, 2445-2452, 2454-2456). See, Eli Kennerly Marshall, Jr., 1923, and Joseph Treloar Wearn, 1924.

James Augustine Shannon (US), Saul J. Farber (US), and Leonard Troast (US) determined the transport maximum (Tm) for glucose in the normal dog kidney tubule. The value was found to be stable over months and not influenced by blood levels of glucose or insulin. They proposed that it be used as a marker of reabsorption capacity (2453).

Allen Dudley Keller (US) and William Kendrick Hare (US) gave the heat regulating function of the brain a more precise location in the hypothalamus (1423).

James Gray (GB) produced three papers, which represent the cornerstone of our understanding of aquatic locomotion by animals (1072-1074).

Burrill Bernard Crohn (US), Leon Ginzburg (US), and Gordon D. Oppenheimer (US) described Crohn’s disease, a disease of the terminal ileum, affecting mainly young adults, characterized by a subcutate or chronic necrotizing and cicatrizing inflammation (569).

Antoni Lesniowski (PL), among others, had previously reported this condition (1632).

Marius von Senden (DE) reported that if congenital cataracts in children were removed then replaced by glass lenses the return to vision was long and arduous even though the retina seemed perfectly normal. Return to normal vision was exceptional (2842, 2843). 

Walther Kikuth (DE) introduced atebrin (mepacrine) for the treatment of malaria (1444).

Jan Friedrich Tönnies (DE) developed the multichannel ink-writing EEG machine (2742, 2743). 

Alfred Bielschowsky (DE-US) wrote Die Lähmungen der Augenmuskeln, a standard work on motility disturbances of the muscles of the eye (205).

Edgar Alphonso Hines, Jr. (US) and George Elgie Brown (US) introduced a test designed to detect latent states of hypertension (1238). It became known as the Hines-Brown Test.

Albert S. Hyman (US) is credited with originating the concept of the artificial heart pacemaker. He stimulated the heart in animal experiments by inserting a transthoracic needle into the right ventricle, the other end of which was attached to a mechano-electrical pacemaker. He later employed the same technique in a human patient (1327).

John Alexander Hopps (CA) devised a cardiac pacemaker. Hopps was trained as an electrical engineer at the University of Manitoba and joined the National Research Council in 1941, where he conducted research on hypothermia. While experimenting with radio frequency heating to restore body temperature, Hopps made an unexpected discovery: if a heart stopped beating due to cooling, it could be started again by artificial stimulation using mechanical or electric means.

Wilfred Gordon Bigelow (CA), John C. Callaghan (CA), and John Alexander Hopps (CA) developed and tested the first artificial cardiac pacemaker for human use (206, 387). This device was far too large to be implanted inside of the human body. It was an external pacemaker.

Paul Maurice Zoll (US) used the application of electric stimuli from an artificial external cardiac pacemaker by way of subcutaneous needle electrodes to produce effective ventricular beats in 2 patients with ventricular standstill after complete heart block (3107). Some consider this the invention of the cardiac pacemaker. Dr. Zoll's later studies showed that externally applied, alternating current counter shocks are similarly effective in stopping ventricular fibrillation, and also in correcting a number of other serious, potentially lethal, abnormalities of rhythm. He developed the theory and technique of continuous cardiac monitoring of heart rhythm, and was the first to apply this method clinically.

Earl E. Bakken (US), in 1957, at the suggestion of Clarence Walton Lillehei (US) developed the world's first transistorized, battery-powered, external, wearable cardiac pacemaker. Very shortly thereafter Clarence Walton Lillehei (US), Vincent L. Gott (US), Paul Chesley Hodges (US), and David M. Long (US) installed this pacemaker on a patient to treat complete atrioventricular dissociation (1673). This gave patients mobility and eliminated concerns about a power failure.  Bakken later formed the Medtronics Corporation which developed the first fully implantable, self-contained, transistorized, wearable, battery operated pacemaker in 1960.

Rune Elmquist (SE) developed the first fully implantable pacemaker. Ake Senning (SE), on 10/8/1958, implanted this devise into Arne H.W. Larsson (SE) who suffered from up to twenty fainting attacks per day (816). Mr. Larsson died on 12/38/2001.

William Chardack (US), Andrew Gage (US), and Wilson Greatbatch (US), devised a workable transistorized, implantable, pacemaker using primary cells as a power source. It was known as the Chardack-Greatbatch implantable pacemaker. It was the first to be implanted in a patient with AV block (1077).

Yves Bouvrain (FR) and Fred I. Zacouto (FR) described a combination of devices they called a “resuscitation device”. This consisted of a heart monitor, a defibrillator, and a pacemaker (264).

Orestes Fiandra (UY) and Roberto Rubio (UY), in February 1960, inserted a totally implantable pacemaker into a 34-year-old patient with AV block. Its battery life was approximately 12-18 months (894).

David A. Nathan (US), Sol Center (US), Chang-You Wu (US), and Walter Keller (US) reported the first implantable atrial-synchronous ventricular pacemaker (VAT), which sensed atrial activity and paced the ventricle accordingly (1968).

Heinz-Joachim Sykosch (DE), Sven Effert (DE), K.G. Pulver (DE), and Fred I. Zacouto (FR) introduced the ventricular demand pacemaker (VVI) (2672).

Philippe Coumel (FR), Christian Cabrol (FR), Alexandre Fabiato (US), René Gourgon (FR), and Robert D. Slama (US) used programmed atrial and ventricular stimulation to unravel the mechanism and diagnosis of permanent junctional reciprocating tachycardia in a drug-refractory patient. They showed that tachycardia was sustained by a reentrant or reciprocal rhythm, then postulated that the process involved dual AV nodal pathways with a slow conducting retrograde pathway. They installed a permanent bipolar pacemaker in such a way as to relieve the tachycardia (558). 

Barouh V. Berkovits (US), Agustin Castellanos, Jr. (US), Louis Lemberg (US), George Callard (US), and James R. Jude (US) introduced the bifocal pacemaker (192).

Mieczyslaw Mirowski (PL-IL-US), Morton M. Mower (US), Alois A. Langer (US), and Marlin Stephen Heilman (US) designed the first automatic implantable defibrillator (1587, 1895).

Mieczyslaw Mirowski (PL-IL-US), Philip R. Reid (US), Morton M. Mower (US), Levi Watkins, Jr. (US), Vincent L. Gott (US), James F. Schauble (US), Alois A. Langer (US), Marlin Stephen Heilman (US), Steven A. Kolenik (US), Robert E. Fischell (US), and Myron L. Weisfeldt (US) implanted the first automatic implantable cardioverter/defibrillator into a human. This was done to terminate a malignant ventricular arrhythmia (1896).

Hermann D. Funke (DE) introduced the first DDD pacemaker, a device that senses intrinsic activity in the atrium as well as the ventricle, and can likewise pace both chambers (980).

Benjamin Befeler (US), Barouh V. Berkovits (US), Juan M. Aranda, Jr. (US), Ruey J. Sung (US), Federico Moleiro (VE), and Agustin Castellanos, Jr. (US) performed a biventricular stimulation in humans by using a QRS triggered pacemaker connected by way of the great or middle cardiac veins (166).

Alexander Wirtzfeld (DE), Thomas Bock (DE), Anthony Francis Rickards (GB), Fawaz Akhras (GB), and David W. Barron (GB) were among the first to introduce a pacemaker capable of responding to a changing biological variable (2239, 3035).  

Eric F.D. Wever (NL), Richard N.W. Hauer (NL), Frans J.L. Capelle (NL), Jan G.P. Tijssen (NL), Harry J.G.M. Crijns (NL), Ale Algra (NL), Ans C.P. Wiesfeld (NL), Patricia F.A. Bakker (NL) and Etienne O. Robles de Medina (NL) demonstrated the clinical benefit of biventricular pacing in patients who have survived heart failure (2953).

Werner Jung (DE) and Berndt Lüderitz (DE) successfully installed an implantable atrial defibrillator in a 64-year old female patient with symptomatic, drug-refractory atrial fibrillation (1382).

Werner Jung (DE) and Berndt Lüderitz (DE) successfully installed an implantable atrioventricular defibrillator in a 61-year-old female patient. This device automatically detects atrial and ventricular signals and delivers electrical therapy in the appropriate chamber to terminate the arrhythmia (1383).

John Burdon Sanderson Haldane (GB) points out the importance of knowledge about the age/stage of gene expression - gametophytes and gametes to zygotes, embryos and immature and mature organisms in evolutionary studies (1126).


“If all the arts aspire to the condition of music, all the sciences aspire to the condition of mathematics.” George Santayana (2364).

“It is common sense to take a method and try it. If it fails, admit it frankly, and try another. But by all means, try something.” Franklin D. Roosevelt, Fireside Chat, March 12, 1933.

Thomas Hunt Morgan (US) was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his discoveries concerning the role played by the chromosome in heredity.

Georges Edouard Lemaitre (BE) proposed the Big Bang theory of the origin of the universe. He visualized a primal atom, an incredibly dense egg containing all the material for the universe within a sphere about 30 times larger than the Sun. This primal atom exploded some 20-60 Ga scattering matter and energy in all directions (1625).

Niels Henrik David Bohr (DK) introduced the idea of complementarity to biology. All properties of physical entities exist only in pairs, which Bohr described as complementary or conjugate pairs (which are also Fourier transform pairs). Physical reality is determined and defined by manifestations of properties, which are limited by trade-offs between these complementary pairs (242).

John Desmond Bernal (GB) and Ralph Fowler (GB) created their model of the structure of liquid water (195).

John Desmond Bernal (GB) and Helen Dick Megaw (IE) introduced the notion that hydrogen atoms in bulk liquid water can jump in concerted fashion between the two oxygen atoms that they link together (197). 

Dinitrophenol compound was introduced in France as a herbicide for the control of annual broadleaf weeds in cereals. ref

Roger J. Williams (US), Carl Morris Lyman (US), George H. Goodyear (US), John H. Truesdail (US), and Duncan Holaday (US) discovered and partially synthesized pantothenic acid (vitamin B5) (3017).

Reginald William Herbert (GB), Edmund Langley Hirst (GB), Edmund George Vincent Percival (GB), Reginald John William Reynolds (GB), and Fred Smith (GB) determined the structure of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) (1220).

Tadeus Reichstein (PL-CH), Andreas Grüssner (CH), Rupert Oppenauer (CH), R.G. Ault (GB), D.K. Baird (GB), H.C. Carrington (GB), Walter Norman Haworth (GB), Reginald William Herbert (GB), Edmund Langley Hirst (GB), Edmund George Vincent Percival (GB), Fred Smith (GB) and Maurice Stacey (GB) synthesized ascorbic acid (vitamin C) (88, 2211-2213).

André Félix Boivin (FR) Ion Mesrobeanu (RO), and Lydia Mesrobeanu (RO) developed a method for isolating endotoxin (245).

André Félix Boivin (FR) discovered that the somatic antigen (endotoxin) is present in all Enterobacteriaceae regardless of their pathogenicity (243).

Rudolf Schoenheimer (DE-US) and Fritz Breusch (DE-US) concluded that cholesterol is continually destroyed as well as formed in the animal body (2399).

Karl Lohmann (DE) discovered glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, one of the phosphoglucose enzymes, which were subsequently found to catalyze the breakdown of sugar phosphates according to the glycolytic scheme (1694).

Morna MacLeod (GB) and Robert Robison (GB) isolated fructose-1-phosphate from the partial hydrolysis of fructose diphosphate by bone phosphatase (1751).

Jakov Borissovich Goldman (RU) developed a method for staining lipids in histologic slides and peripheral blood films using Sudan III (1042).

William Smith Tillett (US) and Raymond L. Garner (US) found that certain strains of hemolytic streptococci produce a substance capable of inciting the rapid fibrinolysis of human plasma clots. They named the lytic agent fibrinolysin (996, 997, 2720). This represents the beginning of investigations of streptokinase.

Haskell Milstone (US) suggested that a plasma factor, which he called plasma lysing factor, is responsible for streptococcal mediated fibrinolysis (1894).

L. Royal Christensen (US) and Colin Munro MacLeod (US) were able to describe the entire mechanism of streptococcal fibrinolysis. They showed that human plasma contains the precursor of an enzyme system, which they called plasminogen, and that the streptococcal fibrinolysin, which they named streptokinase, is an activator which can convert plasminogen to the proteolytic and fibrinolytic enzyme plasmin (455-457). 

Stuart D. Elliott (US) was the first to extract streptokinase and its proenzyme (zymogene) in the crystallized form (813).

William Smith Tillett (US), Alan J. Johnson (US), and W. Ross McCarty (US) achieved an intravascular lytic state in man following streptokinase administration (2722).

Sol Sherry (US) started using streptokinase in patients with acute myocardial infarction and changed the focus of treatment from palliation to “cure” (2476).

Streptokinase (SK) has been used in medicine as fibrinolytic enzyme system - plasminogenous activator. SK is used for myocardial infarctions, vein thrombosis, lung artery emboly, occlusions of extremity arteries, retinal blood-vessel thrombosis and priapism.

Maurice W. Goldblatt (GB) and Ulf Svante Hansson von Euler-Chelpin (SE) independently discovered that extracts of human semen, monkey, sheep and goat seminal vesicular glands respectively cause contraction of smooth muscle in vitro and sharp decreases in the blood pressure in experimental animals (1038, 1039, 2831-2833). Von Euler-Chelpin called these substances prostaglandins because they were mistakenly believed to be made in the prostate gland.

Lárus Einarson (DK) suggested that the chromatic material of the Nissl Granules or Bodies in neurons is formed around the nucleolus and then diffuses out into the cytoplasm (800).

Paul Runar Collander (FI) and Hugo Bärlund (FI) made quantitative measurements of cell membrane permeability to non-electrolytes of varying molecular size and lipid solubility. Their results contributed enormously to our understanding of membrane structure (507).

George Wald (US) found vitamin A (retinol) in the retina (2861, 2864).

George Wald (US) discovered retinene (retinal), an intermediate in the bleaching of rhodopsin, on the way to vitamin A (retinol). He concluded that rhodopsin in the retina, under the influence of light, engages in a cycle of reactions with retinene and vitamin A (2862, 2863).

George Wald (US) and Anna-Betty Clark (US) presented evidence that visual purple is a conjugated protein in which vitamin A (retinol) is a prosthetic group (2864, 2874).

George Wald (US) discovered that visual pigment from freshwater fish differs from that of mammals, birds, amphibia, and marine fish. He named it porphyropsin (2865, 2867).

George Wald (US), Paul K. Brown (US), and Patricia H. Smith (US) determined that all known visual pigments are built upon a common plan. Retinal is bound as chromatophore to a type of protein, called an opsin, found in the outer segments of vertebrate rods and cones and the analogous rhabdomeres of invertebrates. There are four major pigments known in vertebrate vision: 1) retinal 1 + rod opsin = rhodopsin, 2) retinal 1 + cone opsin = iodopsin, 3) retinal 2 + rod opsin = porphyropsin, and 4) retinal 2 + cone opsin = cyanopsin (2866, 2872, 2873).

Sadie Brenner (US), Lydia J. Roberts (US), John Elliott Dowling (US), and George Wald (US) demonstrated that night blindness is the earliest manifestation of vitamin A (retinol) deficiency (289, 730). 

S. Ball (GB), Trevor Walworth Goodwin (GB), and Richard Alan Morton (GB) showed that retinine 1 is vitamin A aldehyde (115). Retinene was later renamed retinal and vitamin A renamed retinol.

George Wald (US) and Ruth Hubbard (US) demonstrated that the visible pigment (rhodopsin) from the cones of the eye contains a protein (opsin) in combination with retinene (retinal). Retinene is very similar in structure to vitamin A (retinol) and is formed from vitamin A in the body. When light strikes rhodopsin, the protein and the retinene separate; they recombine in the dark (1307, 2875).

Ruth Hubbard (US) and George Wald (US) identified the initial molecular event in vision by showing that when 11-cis retinal absorbs a photon, it is converted to the all-trans form (1308).

Paul K. Brown (US) and George Wald (US) demonstrated that two different proteins, two opsins, are needed to form the red- and green-sensitive pigments suggesting that two genes are involved in red- and green-blindness (315).

William B. Marks (US), William H. Dobelle (US), Edward F. MacNichol (US), Paul K. Brown (US), and George Wald (US) found that primate retinas possess, in addition to rod cells with their rhodopsin, three kinds of cone cells, blue-, green- and red sensitive, each containing predominantly or exclusively one of three color pigments with maximum absorption at 435, 540, and 565 micrometers respectively (316, 1774).

George Wald (US) predicted that light activated rhodopsin might trigger a cascade of reactions much like the blood clot cascade (2868).

George Wald (US) discovered the primary event in vision to be when light triggers visual excitation by isomerizing the 11-cis retinal chromophore of visual pigments to the all-trans form (2869-2871).

Moses Kunitz (RU-US) and John Howard Northrop (US) were the first to crystallize the enzyme chymotrypsin and its precursor chymotrypsinogen. They isolated and crystallized a new protein from the pancreas. It separated as elongated prisms and had no proteolytic action. However, when acted upon by a trace of active trypsin it was converted into a second protein, crystallizing in plates, which had a proteolytic activity about a third as great as crystalline trypsin-1. The new enzyme had less hydrolytic action on gelatin than trypsin-1, but had a powerful action on coagulating milk. They called the inactive form chymotrypsinogen and the trypsin activated form chymotrypsin (1546, 1547). They also isolated and crystallized trypsinogen, a trypsin inhibitor, and an inhibitor-trypsin compound (1548).

Roger John Williams (US), Carl M. Lyman (US), George H. Goodyear (US), John H. Truesdail (US), Duncan Holaday (US), Donald Herbert Saunders (US), Harry H. Weinstock, Jr. (US), Ewald Rohrmann (US), Hershel K. Mitchell (US), and Curtis B. Meyer (US) separated and named pantothenic acid (Greek pantos or pan meaning ubiquitous), vitamin B5, from other components of extracts of natural foods, secured a concentrated preparation of the acid, validated it as a vitamin using a yeast strain, found its approximate molecular weight and ionization constant, and further characterized its chemical properties. They isolated it as a pure calcium salt of the acid (3016, 3017, 3019, 3020).

Richard Johann Kuhn (AT-DE), Paul György (HU-DE-GB-US), and Theodor Wagner-Jauregg (DE) discovered riboflavin (vitamin B2 or vitamin G) (1535, 1536).

Franklin E. Allison (US), Sam R. Hoover (US), and Dean Burk (US) isolated a vitamin, which is an indispensable nutrient for Rhizobium spp. They named the vitamin coenzyme R (biotin) (38).

Fritz Kögl (NL) and Benno Tönnis (NL) isolated and crystallized a vitamin from the boiled yolks of duck eggs. They named it biotin (1479).

Paul György (HU-DE-GB-US) and Thomas William Birch (US) isolated a vitamin in pure form, which would cure raw egg white injury (harm done when raw egg whites are the sole protein source in a diet). They named it vitamin H (biotin) (209, 1116).

Paul György (HU-DE-GB-US), Donald B. Melville (US), Dean Burk (US) and Vincent du Vigneaud (US) proved that vitamin H, biotin, and coenzyme R are one and the same substance (1117).

Carl Alexander Neuberg (DE) and Maria Kobel (DE) demonstrated that phosphoglyceric acid is converted to pyruvic acid and phosphoric acid by Lactobacillus delbruckii (1975). 

Dietrich Hans Franz Alexander Bodenstein (DE-US), working with caterpillars of the butterfly Vanessa urticae, concluded that the time course of molting is not determined by autonomous changes in the hypodermis, but rather that factors situated elsewhere within the caterpillar, most likely blood borne hormones, determine the time course of molting (239).

Evelyn Mary Anderson (CA) and James Bertram Collip (CA) were the first to successfully isolate a tropic substance. It was thyrotropic hormone (TSH) from the anterior pituitary gland (53).

James Bertram Collip (CA), Evelyn Mary Anderson (CA), and David Landsborough Thomson (GB-CA) prepared and tested extracts from the anterior pituitary gland and found that they contained a potent adrenotropic hormone (ACTH) (510).

James Bertram Collip (CA), Hans Hugo Bruno Selye (AT-HU-CA), and David Landsborough Thomson (GB-CA) purified a highly potent extract of growth hormone (somatotropic hormone/STH) from the anterior pituitary lobe (511).

Gustav Georg Embden (DE), Hans-Joachim Deuticke (DE), and Gert Kraft (DE) proposed that in muscle cell glycolysis, fructose-1, 6-diphosphate is cleaved directly to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate. These products were considered to undergo a Cannizzaro (mutase) reaction to yield 3-phosphoglycerol and 3-phosphoglyceric acid, and the latter was thought to be converted into pyruvic acid and phosphate. A second mutase reaction between pyruvic acid (which is reduced to lactic acid) and phosphoglycerol (which is oxidized to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate) completed the balance of equations, and provided for the conversion of all the hexose into lactic acid (823).

Gustav Georg Embden (DE), Hans-Joachim Deuticke (DE), and Gert Kraft (DE) proposed a anaerobic glycolytic scheme within muscle cells which begins with the conversion of hexosediphosphate into triosephosphate which, by the oxidation reduction process, yields alpha-phosphoglycerol plus 3-phosphoglyceric acid; phosphoglyceric acid breaks down to pyruvic and phosphoric acids. In muscle extract, pyruvic acid is reduced to lactic acid at the expense of the phosphoglycerol, which is oxidized to triosephosphate. In yeast juice, pyruvic acid is converted by carboxylase into carbon dioxide plus acetylaldehyde. The latter was then believed to take part with glucose and inorganic phosphate in a rapid reaction in which hexosediphosphate plays the part of a catalyst and phosphorylation is coupled with an oxidation-reduction; the primary esterification product is oxidized to phosphoglyceric acid while the acetylaldehyde is reduced to alcohol (823). This evidence suggested that it is pyruvic rather than lactic acid which represents the true end product of anaerobic glycolysis.

Otto Fritz Meyerhof (DE-US) offered proof that, in isolated but otherwise intact frog muscle, the lactic acid formed is reconverted to carbohydrate in the presence of oxygen. He also prepared a KCl extract of muscle, which could carry out all the steps of glycolysis with added glycogen and hexose-diphosphate in the presence of hexokinase derived from yeast. In this system glucose was also glycolysed and this was the foundation of the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas theory of glycolysis (glyco, sugar; glykis, sweet). The specific sequence of reactions from glucose to pyruvate is often called the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway (1871-1874). In the 1935c article give the first description of phosphoglyceric acid mutase (phosphoglycerate mutase).

Otto Fritz Meyerhof (DE-US) and Wilhelm Kiessling (DE) isolated alpha-glycerophosphoric acid from a reaction mixture of animal muscle and either glycogen or hexose-phosphate (1861, 1868-1870).

Otto Fritz Meyerhof (DE-US) and Wilhelm Kiessling (DE) published a detailed study of the intermediary phases of fermentation in yeast juice (1869).

Otto Fritz Meyerhof (DE-US) worked out the chemical scheme of the cellular breakdown of sugar into alcohol (1861).

Ernst Wolfgang Caspari (DE-US), working with the flour moth Ephestia kuhniella Zeller, provided an example of how a gene can control hormone action during development (409, 410).

John Belling (GB-US) states that “ crossing over” exists apparently in all those flowering plants, which have been sufficiently investigated with regard to it. Billing’s modification of Janssens' hypothesis explains crossing over, and also explains gene rearrangements, such as reversed crossing over, reciprocal translocation, inversion, deletion, and deficiency. The chromonemas were proved to be unsplit at leptotene in certain plants. Living (and also fixed) chromonemas of resting “final” nuclei showed no split, in the plants examined. The secondary split was first seen at mid-pachytene. Both direct and oblique chiasmas were seen at pachytene in Lilium. After the chromomeres have split, the old longitudinal fibers are either alone visible; or are seen to be thicker than the new ones. In Lilium the opening-out at diplotene seems to be only at the primary split. In plants such as Datura, with no chiasmas at diaphase, it is probable that the diplotene opening-out alternates at the chiasmas. Since chiasmas arise at pachytene in certain liliaceous plants, they cannot arise from alternate opening-out at diplotene. Chiasmas seem to be due to overlaps, not twists. Overlaps may be sometimes mistaken for twists, under the microscope. There are 8 main kinds of double chiasmas, equally numerous by chance. Double chiasmas give, by chance, one non-crossover chromosome, two single-crossover chromosomes, and one double-crossover chromosome. If crossovers arise from chiasmas, then the distal recombinations from the end to the fusal chromomere should be 50 percent. If crossovers arise from chiasmas, then the chart crossovers divided by 50 should give the average number of chiasmas. The ascertained numbers of crossover X chromosomes of Drosophila melanogaster appear to lack about 7 percent of single crossovers, and about 2 percent of double crossovers, if they arose from chiasmas (neglecting triple crossovers). Flies with heterozygous attached X’s in Drosophila, should (on the Billing’s theory) give distal recessive homozygotes in a percentage equal to half the chart length minus one and a half times the percentage of double crossovers. This would be 17.5. In Belling's theory, the percentages of complementary and identical non-crossovers, of crossovers plus non-crossovers, and of complementary crossovers, in attached X’s, have been calculated from the chromosome chart. It is possible to explain reversed crossing over, heterologous interchange, terminal translocation, inversion, deletion, and deficiency, by the overlapping of two chromonemas when their chromomeres are dividing. The result is equivalent to the formation of a chiasma between synapsed homologues; but is less regular, so that genes may be lost at the junctions (174).

Bryan H.C. Matthews (GB) showed that there exist in the mammal two distinct nerve-muscle systems in the skeletal musculature. The large motor nerve fibers set up the familiar motor unit twitch responses and the small motor nerve fibers increase the sensory discharges from muscle spindles, which consist of a number of so-called intrafusal muscle fibers (1801).

Ichiji Tasaki (JP) and K. Mizutani (JP) found that extrafusal muscle fibers in amphibia are innervated by two distinct motor systems. Motor neurons with large axons cause the familiar large fast twitches with single stimuli, known as the twitch system, while motor neurons with small axons require repetitive stimulation to cause slow and relatively weak contractions, known as the tonic system (2690).

Bernard Katz (GB), in his studies of the frog, observed that stimulation of large, low-threshold, motor axons not only caused extrafusal contraction but also a short burst of afferent impulses. The afferent firing persisted when extrafusal contraction was blocked by critical dosage with the muscle relaxant curare, thus showing that the large motor axons branched to innervate intrafusal muscle fibres. When muscle shortening was allowed, the tendency of extrafusal contraction to silence the spindle was offset by the intrafusal contraction. Katz discussed the significance of this clearly, with the proposal that when an extended muscle is contracted actively in life, the inevitable simultaneous intrafusal contraction would ensure that afferent activity continues, which would support the contraction against loading by means of the stretch reflex (1411).

Richard Benedikt Goldschmidt (DE-US) interbred various geographical races of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar. The moths that resulted from this cross showed that characters distinguishing local varieties are transmitted to the offspring and, therefore, can be explained in terms of Mendelian laws as being determined by genes. This was the first genetic explanation of geographic variety (1043).

Teikichi Fukushi (JP) was the first to provide experimental evidence of plant virus multiplication in insects. He was also the first to demonstrate transmission of a plant virus through the eggs of the vector (transovarial passage) (974-976).

Richard E. Shope (US) and E. Weston Hurst (US) discovered the cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV) (2494).

Ralph S. Muckenfuss (US), Charles Armstrong (US), and Howard A. McCordock (US) proved that the etiological agent of St. Louis encephalitis is a virus. They successfully infected monkeys with the virus of St. Louis encephalitis by intracerebral inoculation with human brain tissue from a patient who had succumbed to the disease (1927).

F.M. Muller (NL) reported on the anaerobic use of organic sources of reducing power by the purple sulfur photosynthetic bacteria. Growth was accompanied by the production or utilization of CO2 depending on the ‘redox level’ of the organic substrate (1934).

Ernest Witebsky (DE-US) and Werner Henle (DE) discovered that bacteria indistinguishable morphologically and in culture could be subdivided by immunological tests (3041).

Arthur T. Hendrici (US) noted the tendency of aquatic bacteria to colonize submerged surfaces  (1208).

Robert E. Foster (US) and Carlton Earl Burnside (US) described a new disease found within broods of the honeybee, Apis mellifera Linn., which they named parafoulbrood (930). In 1935, they named and identified the etiological agent Bacillus para-alvei.

Roger-Jean Gautheret (FR) reported a 50 to 150 fold increase in initial length of 0.5 to 1.0 mm excised tips of corn roots cultured 3 months in a dilute Knop's solution containing, 2% glucose and cysteine hydrochloride (1002).

Philip Rodney White (US) obtained potentially unlimited growth of excised tomato root tips in a liquid medium (2969).

Fritz Kögl (NL), Arie Jan Haagen-Smit (NL), Hanni Erxleben (NL), Désiré George Florent Rudolphe Kostermans (NL), Kenneth Vivian Thimann (GB-US), and Joseph B. Koepfli (US) identified the first known plant hormone—indoleacetic acid (IAA) (1477, 1478, 2712).

James Frederick Bonner (US) discovered that the most important growth constituent of the yeast extract is thiamine (vitamin B1) and subsequently White found that the effect of the yeast extract could be obtained by substituting the B-group—thiamine, pyridoxine and niacin—instead (250). 

Roger-Jean Gautheret (FR) successfully cultured wound tissue or callus from the excised cambial tissue of Salix capraea and Populas alba. He used nutrient media solidified with agar but found that after 6 months the activity of the cultures ceased (1003). By including indoleacetic acid (IAA) and the vitamins B in his media Gautheret extended the culture period of the Salix callus to 18 months and was able to subculture. However after 18 months once again growth ceased.

George Robert Sabine Snow (GB) demonstrated that indoleacetic acid stimulates cell division within the cambium layer (2549).

Roger-Jean Gautheret (FR), Philip Rodney White (US), and Pierre Nobécourt (FR), had by 1939, independently established long-lived cultures of carrot root, carrot (Daucus carotus), and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) respectively (1004, 1005, 1989, 2970).

Frederick Campion Steward (GB-US), Marion O. Mapes (US), Jakob Reinert (DE), Kath Mears (US), and Lawrence M. Blakely (US) showed that in vitro plant culture can, starting with one carrot cell, produce a callus and from it a new carrot plant (Daucus carotus) (217, 2217, 2637).

Hiroyuki Kato (JP) and Masayuki Takeuchi (JP) obtained a complete carrot plant (Daucus carotus) from a single carrot root cell in tissue culture (1410).

Toshiyuki Nagata (JP) and Itaru Takebe (JP) showed that protoplasts isolated enzymatically from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) leaves regenerated cell walls and divided to form cell clusters under suitable conditions. Plants were developed from the cell clusters (1959, 1960).

H.J. Gambow (), K.N. Kao (CA), Raymond A. Miller (CA), and Oluf L. Gamborg (DK-CA) developed whole carrot plants (Daucus carotus) from carrot protoplasts (991).

H.J. Wilson (US), Herbert W. Israel (US), and Frederick Campion Steward (GB-US) developed methods to grow whole carrots (Daucus carotus) from single carrot cells rather than from the seed (3028).

Alexander Ivanovitch Petrunkevitch (RU-US) wrote, An Inquiry Into the Natural Classification of Spiders, Based on a Study of Their Internal Anatomy, which is the first comparative anatomy for any group of arthropods that can be used in classification (2086).

Johannes Friedrich Karl Holtfreter (DE-US)) performed experiments where gastrula tissue from young embryos was transplanted into ectoderm of older embryos. He found that the reacting tissue developed according to its surroundings. The conclusion is that the whole is controlling the events in its parts (1263, 1264, 1266).

Johannes Friedrich Karl Holtfreter (DE-US) performed exogastrulation studies wherein the dorsal mesoderm failed to make contact with the overlying ectoderm. In these instances, the ectoderm did not acquire a neural character, again suggesting that the inducing signal appeared to be transmitted vertically from the mesoderm to the ectoderm (1265).

Conrad Hal Waddington (GB), Noel Joseph Terence Montgomery Needham (GB), Dorothy Moyle Needham (GB), Wiktor W. Nowinski (US), and Max Rudolf Lemberg (DE) showed that the ether extracts of adult newts could act as an organizer. Since this activity could turn presumptive epidermis into non-specific neural tissue. Waddington referred to this substance as evocator (2849, 2851).

Conrad Hal Waddington (GB), Noel Joseph Terence Montgomery Needham (GB), and Jean Louis Auguste Brachet (BE) hypothesized that the evocator substance was produced throughout the embryo, but it was just released or activated in one particular region (2850).

Jean Louis Auguste Brachet (BE), Taina Kuusi (FI), and Simone Gothie (BE) suggested that movements of microsomes/ribosomes (which contain ribonucleic acid) from the archenteron roof to the overlying ectoderm are involved in neural induction (273).

Lauri Saxén (FI) demonstrated that neural induction could occur through a 150-micron thick, 0.8 micron pore size filter, strongly suggesting that the inducer was diffusible (2374).

Scott F. Gilbert (US) reports that follistatin, chordin, noggin, Xenopus nodal-related-3, and cerberus all have organizer function (1027).

Aaron Bodansky (RU-US), Lois F. Hallman (US), and Kissel Bonoff (US) described the factors, which influence accuracy during the determination of serum phosphatase (238). Elevated levels of these enzymes can be a useful index of abnormal conditions in certain tissues. 

Rudolpho Margaria (IT), Harold T. Edwards (US), and David Bruce Dill (US) defined the components of the oxygen debt and described what become known as the anaerobic threshold, i.e., the rate of appearance of lactic acid in the blood and its influence on ventilation during exercise (1767).

Karl Landsteiner (AT-US) and James van der Scheer (US), discovered that antibodies can be formed to and subsequently bind with exquisite specificity to completely synthetic compounds (1579, 1584).

Lionel Sharples Penrose (GB) was the first to show the significance of the mother’s age in Down’s syndrome. He determined that birth order, parity, and length of interval between pregnancies are not significant etiological factors (2068).

Lemuel W. Diggs (US), Chester Frederick Ahmann (US), and Juanita Bibb (US) demonstrated that there is a distinct difference between people with sickle-cell anemia and those who carry a slight sickling "trait" but have none of the other symptoms. They documented the diminished sickling of red blood cells from erythrocytes in newborns, and defined the ratio of patients with sickle cell anemia to carriers of sickle cell trait (692).

John Burdon Sanderson Haldane (GB-IN) suggested that the immune response of mice allowing them to reject tumors which arose in a different strain would be directed against normal cellular antigens unique to that strain rather than against tumor-specific antigens unique to the tumor (1127).

Louis Barkhouse Flexner (US) proved that cerebro-spinal fluid is produced by a secretory process in the choroid plexuses (915, 916).

Cicely D. Williams (GB) described a nutritional disease among the children of the Gold Coast of Africa, which the natives called Kwashiorkor, meaning the red or brown boy. The symptoms of the disease are: (1) edema of the hands and feet, (2) profound wasting, (3) dry, scaly skin with patches devoid of pigmentation, (4) hair which is dry, sparse, and often a dull reddish, muddy color, (5) diarrhea and irritability, (6) fatty degeneration of the liver at necropsy. The disease was common to children between one and four years of age who typically had been weaned following a long period of breast-feeding. The diet of these children was mostly cereal, maize, with no milk (3001, 3002).

Joseph Clarence Hinsey (US) and Joseph E. Markee (US) proposed that “pathways from the hypothalamus must activate the posterior lobe of the hypophysis which in turn may exert an influence on the anterior lobe by hormonal transmission" (1239).

Joseph E. Markee (US), Charles Henry Sawyer (US), W. Henry Hollingshead (US), Geoffrey Wingfield Harris (GB), Barry Albert Cross (GB), John D. Green (GB), Bernard Dufy (FR), Luce Dufy-Barbe (FR), and Dominique Poulain (FR) later proved this experimentally (571, 747, 1163, 1772).

Norman McOmish Dott (GB) performed the first planned intracranial operation for aneurysm (720).

Andrei Vasilevich Martynov (RU) discovered the oldest undoubted fossils of Coleoptera (beetles) in Upper Permian deposits in North Russia (1793).

Jesse D. Figgins (US) found large, heavy fluted stone points near Clovis, New Mexico. Mammoth bones in a deposit beneath a layer containing Folsom points and bison skeletons accompanied them. The robust points, now named Clovis, were recognized as even older than the Folsom points. Characteristic of both points is a flute, a flake struck off the base along the length of the point, presumably to facilitate hafting (896).

In 1964, C. Vance Haynes, Jr. (US) used radiocarbon dating to place the Clovis points at about 9,500-9,000 B.C.E., and none before 10,000 B.C.E. (1191).

Rene Neville (FR), in 1933, was the first to excavate fossil remains of Homo sapiens sapiens. The source was a cave site near Nazareth, Israel, on the southwest flank of Mount Qafzeh (1978). Subsequently more human fossil remains have been discovered at this site, all dated ca. 100,000 B.P.


"No single feature of man's past equals in importance his attempt to understand the forces of Nature and himself. It is a safe prediction that the historian of the future will be concerned increasingly with the chronicle of the intellectual acquisitions of man, for this deeper story includes not merely improvement in material comforts but mental enlargement which transcends every other feature of human evolution." Herbert McLean Evans (850).

"Long ago I learned from my father to put old people to bed only for as short a time as was absolutely necessary, for they were like a foundered horse, if they got down it was difficult for them to get up, and their strength ebbed away very rapidly while in bed." Charles Horace Mayo (1805). 

Harold Clayton Urey (US) was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his proof that hydrogen gas contains a few atoms in which the nuclear proton is accompanied by a neutron. This so called “heavy hydrogen” was given the name deuterium.

George Hoyt Whipple (US), George Richards Minot (US) and William Parry Murphy (US) were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their discoveries concerning liver therapy in cases of anemia.

Irène Joliot-Curie (FR), Hans von Halban (AT), Peter Preiswerk (CH) and Frédéric Joliot (FR) discovered that radioactivity could be induced artificially using alpha ray bombardment from radium. This methodology rapidly made available such valuable isotopes as 32P and 35S (1371-1373).

Marcus Laurence Oliphant (AU), Paul Harteck (GB), and Ernest Rutherford (NZ-GB) bombarded deuterium with the nuclei of deuterium atoms and produced tritium (hydrogen-3), the only radioactive form of hydrogen known. Tritium is much used in biochemical research (2010).

The first organic fungicide dithiocaramae was introduced. It proved valuable in foliar sprays for the control of a range of pathogenic fungi such as the scabs and rots of fruit and potato blight. ref

John Desmond Bernal (GB), and Dorothy Mary Crowfoot-Hodgkin (GB) were the first to take an x-ray diffraction photograph of a crystalline protein. It was of the enzyme pepsin (196).

Dorothy Mary Crowfoot Hodgkin (GB) used x-rays crystallography to illuminate the structure of the protein, insulin (1251).

Alfred Clarence Redfield (US) discovered that the atomic ratios between the chemical components of marine plankton, specifically nitrogen, phosphorus, and carbon are identical with their relative proportions in the open ocean. For every atom of phosphorus there are fifteen atoms of nitrogen and 105 atoms of carbon (carbonate and bicarbonate carbon are not considered organic) (2205).

Karl Meyer (US) and John W. Palmer (US) isolated hyaluronic acid in pure form from vitreous humor, and determined its correct composition (1856).

Robert Robinson (GB) hypothesized that cholesterol is formed by the cyclization of squalene, a polyisoprenoid hydrocarbon (2261). See, E.A. Rudolph, 1925.

A.P. Kiesel (RU) and Andrei Nikolaevitch Belozersky (RU) were the first to isolate thymine and then DNA (thymonucleic acid) from higher plants (176, 1438).

Andrei Nikolaevitch Belozersky (RU) and I.I. Dubrovskaya (RU) isolated DNA in the pure state for the first time (176).

Leopold Stefan Ruzicka (HR-CH), Moses Wolf Goldberg (EE), Jules Meyer (), Heinrich Brüngger (CH), and E. Eichenberger () synthesized the sex hormone androsterone from epidihydrocholesterol. This was not only the first synthesis of a sex hormone, but also the first complete structural elucidation of such a compound, and the first exact proof of the relationship between a sex hormone and a sterol (2333).

Hans Andersag (DE) discovered chloroquine, long the drug of choice in treating malaria (51).

Hans Lineweaver (US) and Dean Burk (US) determined that if the reciprocal of the velocity of an enzyme catalyzed reaction is plotted against the reciprocal of the substrate concentration a straight line is obtained, and that this cuts the two axes at the reciprocal of V (velocity) and the reciprocal of Km respectively. This is commonly referred to as a Lineweaver-Burk plot (1681). Curiously enough this type of plot was first published in Kurt Guenter Stern’s German translation of John Burdon Sanderson Haldane’s book Enzymes (1932) where it was credited to Barnet Woolf (GB). Woolf likely failed to publish due to illness.

John R. Marrack (GB) proposed the lattice theory of antigen-antibody coupling with its fundamental requirement that antibody must have at least two antigen-combining sites (1775).

Adolf Friedrich Johann Butenandt (DE) and Ulrich Westphal (DE), Willard Myron Allen (US), Oskar Wintersteiner (US), Max Hartmann (CH), Albert Wettstein (CH), Karl Heinrich Slotta (DE), Heinrich Ruschig (DE), and Erich Fels (DE) isolated and characterized progesterone in pure form (34, 35, 376, 1178, 2523).

Russell Earl Marker (US) and John Krueger (US), in 1939, developed a method for synthesizing progesterone in large quantities from fats and oils of plants. They developed the process, initially for Parke Davis and Co., for degrading sapogenins to C21 steroids (1773). Marker, applied this process in 1941, to convert diosgenin from the wild Mexican yam into progesterone.

Vincent Brian Wigglesworth (GB) proved by experiment that during larval stages the corpus allatum (corpora allata) secretes a metamorphosis hormone, commonly called the juvenile hormone or neotenin, or youth substance. Under the influence of this hormone the larval characters are retained. When the larva is fully-grown, the corpus allatum (corpora allata) no longer secretes the hormone, the adult characters are developed, and metamorphosis occurs. His experimental animal was the large South American blood-sucking hemipteran Rhodnius prolixus.

In the 1940a paper he also argues that patterns derive from the diverse behavior of single cells — “the tiny fragment of cuticle laid down by a single cell may possess morphological characters controlled by the activity of that cell alone” (2991, 2994-2996). This physiological behavior has now been shown in almost all groups of insects.

Vincent Brian Wigglesworth (GB) found that the metamorphosis hormone is not genus specific and that egg formation in Rhodnius is dependent on the secretory function of the adult corpus allatum (corpora allata) (2992).

Jean-Jacques Bounhiol (FR) discovered that removal of the corpus allatum (corpora allata) results in precocious metamorphosis of the immature larval insect (261). By removing the corpus allatum (corpora allata) a conservative factor or status quo hormone is removed. Its function is to stabilize the larval tissues as larval tissues and the imaginal discs as imaginal discs. This status quo hormone became known as the juvenile hormone.

Vincent Brian Wigglesworth (GB) used implantation experiments to show that protocerebral neurosecretory cells are the source of the insect hormone that initiates the molting cycle (2993). This was the first experimental demonstration of an endocrine role for neural cells in any animal.

Edward Calvin Kendall (US), Harold L. Mason (US), Bernard F. McKenzie (US), Charles S. Myers (US), and Giles A. Koelsche (US) isolated and crystallized the adrenal cortical hormone, cortisone (1431).

Harold L. Mason (US), Charles S. Myers (US), and Edward Calvin Kendall (US) were the first to separate cortisone as a new compound (1796).

Tadeus Reichstein (PL-CH), Oscar Paul Wintersteiner (US), Joseph J. Pfiffner (US), Harold L. Mason (US), Willard M. Hoehn (US), and Edward Calvin Kendall (US) determined the chemical structure of cortisone (1795, 2209, 3032).

Note: During the period 1934-1936, the Kendall group, the Reichstein group, and the Pfiffner-Swingle-Wintersteiner group were all purifying steroid hormones from the adrenal cortex. They were designating them with letters of the alphabet which created confusion because A in one group was not necessarily A in another group. The Kendall group isolated and crystallized five would be hormones. As the structure of these compounds was worked out, it became possible to name them. In the Kendall series Compound A is 11-dehydrocorticosterone, Compound B is corticosterone, Compound E is 17-hydroxy-11-dehydrocorticosterone (cortisone), and Compound F is 17-hydroxy-corticosterone (cortisol or hydrocortisone). In 1949, Edward Calvin Kendall (US), and Phillip Showalter Hench (US) gave the name cortisone to17-hydroxy-11-dehydrocorticosterone (1429).

Marguerite Steiger (CH) and Tadeus Reichstein (PL-CH) synthesized desoxycorticosterone (2617).

H. Reich () and Tadeus Reichstein (PL-CH) synthesized 11-dehydrocorticosterone (2208).

Lewis Hastings Sarett (US), working in the laboratory of Merck & Co., developed a method for synthesizing cortisone in quantities sufficient for clinical testing (2367).

Hans Hugo Bruno Selye (AT-CA) coined the group names glucocorticoids for the 11-oxy steroid hormones of the adrenal cortex and mineralocorticoids for the hormone(s) of the adrenal cortex affecting the metabolism of electrolytes and water. ref

Robert Russell Bensley (US) and Normand Louis Hoerr (US) used centrifugation to fractionate cell contents and isolate mitochondria (181).

Jakub (Jacob) Karol Parnas (PL), Pawel Ostern (PL), and Thaddeus Robert Rudolph Mann (PL-GB) resolved that, “… the resynthesis of phosphocreatine and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is not linked to glycolysis as a whole, but to definite partial processes: and this leads further to the conclusion that this resynthesis does not involve a relationship that might be termed energetic coupling, but more probably involves a transfer of phosphate residues from molecule to molecule.” In this article they describe for the first time the presence of pyruvate kinase (phosphoenol transphorylase) and the fact that it catalyzes the magnesium- and potassium-dependent transphorylation between phosphoenolpyruvate and ADP (2041).

Otto Fritz Meyerhof (DE-US) and Karl Lohmann (DE) isolated the enzyme from muscle extracts that cleaves fructose-1, 6-diphosphate into two triose phosphates. They initially called it zymohexase but later Meyerhof, Lohmann, and Philipp Schuster (DE) changed it to fructose-biphosphate aldolase. They also recount their discovery of triose-phosphate isomerase (1874, 1878, 1879).

Paul K. Stumpf (US) purified and characterized plant aldolase (2660).

Karl Lohmann (DE) and Otto Fritz Meyerhof (DE-US) showed that the formation of pyruvic acid involves the enzyme catalyzed migration of the phosphoryl group from the 3-position to the 2-position of glyceric acid, followed by the dehydration of 2-phosphoglyceric acid to 2-phosphoenolpyruvic acid (PEPA) by the enzyme enolase (phosphopyruvate hydratase). This enzyme was found to be strongly inhibited by fluoride, thus explaining the effect of fluoride on alcoholic fermentation and glycolysis (1699). 

Otto Heinrich Warburg (DE) and Walter Christian (DE) isolated and crystallized the enzyme enolase (phosphopyruvate hydratase) (2905).

Wilhelm Kiessling (DE) found that a ketotriose identical to synthetic dihydroxyacetone phosphate is a reaction product when hexosediphosphate is split into two trioses (1439).

Harland Goff Wood (US) and Chester Hamlin Werkman (US) were the first to isolate and identify pyruvic acid as an intermediate in the propionic acid fermentation (3053).

Karl Lohmann (DE) used dialyzed muscle extracts and found that the hydrolysis of creatine phosphate to creatine and phosphate is promoted by the addition of ATP, which is cleaved to adenylic acid (adenosine monophosphate) and two equivalents of inorganic phosphate. He concluded that the ATP acts as a coenzyme in the hydrolysis of creatine phosphate. He identified ATP as the coferment (coenzyme) of lactic acid formation in muscle and determined that it required the presence of the magnesium ion (1695).

Isaac McKinney Lewis (US) measured the frequency of lactose-negative tolactose-positive mutations in Escherichia coli mutabile and found it to be on the order of  one mutation/one hundred thousand cells/cell generation (1652).

Phineas W. Whiting (US), working with Habrobracon, was the first to study what would later be called conditional lethal mutants (2975).

Norman Harold Horowitz (US) and Urs Leupold (CH) were the first to isolate temperature-sensitive mutants of bacteria. Such mutants are only able to grow at temperatures lower than that at which the wild-type is able to grow (1284).

Ernst Hadorn (CH) coined the term conditional lethal mutant to describe mutants of Drosophila which were either lethal, or allowed relatively normal development to occur, depending upon the growth conditions imposed by the experimenter (1123).

Henry Hallett Dale (GB) and Wilhelm Sigmund Feldberg (DE-GB) reasoned that the substance released by stimulated nerves which provokes the contraction of eserinized (eserine blocks acetylcholinesterase) leech muscle must be acetylcholine (590). 

Ragnar Arthur Granit (FI-SE) and Per-Olof Therman (SE) established that details of the visual image are elaborated by the interplay of excitation and inhibition in the nervous center of the retina, i.e., that light can both excite and inhibit and that the two opposite processes are antagonistic. They did this by recording the mass discharge in the optic nerve together with the electroretinograph (1068, 1069).

Charles Armstrong (US), and Ralph Dougall Lillie (US) appear to be among the first to describe an infection caused by the virus of lymphocytic choriomeningitis (acute aseptic meningitis, idiopathic meningitis). It appeared as a contaminant in monkeys inoculated with the virus of St. Louis Encephalitis (70).

T.F. McNair Scott (US) and Thomas Milton Rivers (US) isolated and identified this virus from human cases (2253, 2254, 2427).

Claud D. Johnson (US) and Ernest William Goodpasture (US) filtered the mumps agent through Berkefeld V and N filters then with the filtrate produced the disease in monkeys. This was proof that mumps (epidemic parotitis) is caused by a virus (1364).

Karl Habel (US) succeeded in growing the mumps virus in the chick embryo. He also demonstrated a good correlation between the skin reactions to virus grown in the chick allantoic sac and in the monkey parotid gland. Because of the greater availability of egg-grown virus, the wider use of this reaction then became possible (1120).

Jeanette H. Levens (US) and John Franklin Enders (US) developed a hemagglutination test to titer the mumps virus (1641). They also showed that influenza A virus could be assayed by hemagglutination.

Thomas Huckle Weller (US), and John Franklin Enders (US) grew the mumps virus in cell culture consisting of fragments of chick amniotic membrane nourished with a balanced salt solution and ox serum ultrafiltrate. They succeeded, where others had failed, by incorporating the recently available penicillin into their cultures (2940).

Gertrude Henle (DE) and Friedrich Deinhardt (DE) propagated and performed primary isolation of mumps virus in monkey kidney tissue culture  (1211).

Robert E. Weibel (US), Victor M. Villarejos (US), Gloria Hernandez (ES), Joseph Stokes, Jr. (US), Eugene B. Buynak (US), and Maurice Ralph Hilleman (US) developed a combined live measles-mumps virus vaccine (2930).

William J. McAleer (US), Eugene B. Buynak (US), Robert E. Weibel (US), Victor M. Villarejos (US), Edgar M. Scattergood (US), Hermann E. Wasmuth (US), Arlene A. McLean (US), and Maurice Ralph Hilleman (US) developed measles, mumps and rubella virus vaccines prepared from virus produced by the unit process (1809).

Ivan Claude Jagger (US) and N. Chandler (US) were the first to describe the big vein disease of lettuce and reported that it was soil-borne and infectious (1350).

Carl Clarence Lindegren (US) found that in Neurospora all asci in a single perithecium arise from a single pair of nuclei associated at the initiation of the perithecium (1677).

Wendell H. Tisdale (US) and Ira Williams (US) working for the Du Pont Chemical Company discovered the dialkyldithiocarbamates as fungicides (2737). This group includes thiram, ferbam, maneb, zineb and mancozeb which are all surface acting agents.

Ladislaus Laszlo Marton (US), Stuart Mudd (US), and David Lackman (US) were among the first to publish electron photomicrographs of biological specimens in the United States (1791, 1792, 1929). In 1937 Marton published the first electron micrograph of bacteria.

Arthur Felix (PL-GB) and Margaret R. Pitt (GB) discovered the heat labile Vi somatic antigen of the Salmonellae (868).

Alice Catherine Evans (US), using the Clark phage which she renamed B563, was the first person to utilize a phage to classify bacterial strains, thus founding the analytical field of phage typing (848).

Roy T. Fisk (US) developed the method of typing staphylococci by using bacteriophages (908).

Per Fredrik Thorkelsson Scholander (SE-NO-US) revised the lichen family, the Umbilicariaceae (2407).

Sanford B. Hooker (US) and Edna M. Follensby (US) discovered that the erythrogenic toxin of scarlet fever is in reality two closely related toxins, which they called erythrogenic toxins A and B (1271).

Florence Barbara Seibert (US) prepared purified protein derivative (PPD) from tuberculin. This enabled the first reliable tuberculin test (2429).

Florence Barbara Seibert (US) and John T. Glenn (US) prepared a large batch of PPD that has served as the standard reference material (PPD-S) in the United States (2430).

Louis Alphonse Julianelle (US) and Charlotte W. Wieghard (US) introduced the first classification of the staphylococci based on differences in antigenic structure. They recognized two serological types of staphylococci based of specific carbohydrates obtained by chemical fractionation of the organisms. Type A strains were found to be pathogenic and capable of fermenting mannitol, while type B was comprised of strains which failed to ferment mannitol and had little, if any, pathogenicity (1380). 

Chester W. Emmons (US) modernized the taxonomic scheme of Sabouraud and others and established the current classification of the dermatophytes on the basis of spore morphology and accessory organs (833).

James E. Knott (US) and Mikhail Khristoforovich Chailakhyan (RU) independently discovered that the flowering process is prompted not by a substance(s) in the bud but rather by a substance(s) produced in the leaves. Knott said, “Though the response of the plant may be localized in the bud, the leaves appear to function in some way to hasten the reproductive response to the appropriate photoperiod….Accordingly, the part played by the foliage of spinach in hastening the response to a photoperiod favorable to reproductive growth may be in the production of some substance, or stimulus, that is transported to the growing point.” Chailakhyan studied Saratov millet, Perilla nankinesis, Helianthus annuus and Helianthus tuberosus (sunflower) concluding, “the processes induced by the changes in the length of daylight and leading to the reproductive development of plants (flowering and fruiting) occur within the leaf tissues. The formative process occurring in the zones of growth (growing points) are secondary changes dependent upon the functional activity of the leaf.” Chailakhyan further demonstrated that the chemical promoter of flowering is not specific to a species but can stimulate a number of species. He named this hormone florigen, flower former (428-430, 1475).

Ferdinand Gustav Julius Sachs (DE), in 1880 and 1882, had guessed that leaves produce a promoter of flowering. He never demonstrated it experimentally.

Eric T.B. Francis (GB) authored The Anatomy of the Salamander (Salamander musculosa), an example of outstanding descriptive zoology (938).

William T. Heron (US), William M. Hales (US), and Dwight Joyce Ingle (US) reported that repetitive contraction of skeletal muscle requires the activity of a substance(s), which can be extracted from the adrenal cortex (1222). This knowledge was developed into a bioassy for adrenal hormones that facilitated the purification of cortisone.

Balduin Lucké (US) suggested a viral etiology for a renal adenocarcinoma he observed in the Northern Leopard Frog, Rana pipiens. This is the first postulation of a virus infection of an amphibian (1715, 1716).

Wallace Osgood Fenn (US), Doris M. Cobb (US), Albert H. Hegnauer (US), Burton Sanford Marsh (US), Jeanne F. Manery (US), Walter R. Bloor (US), Thomas R. Noonan (US), Lorraine F. Haege (US), Lorin J. Mullins (US), and Robert B. Dean (US) made the first determinations of potassium, sodium, magnesium and calcium in nerve. They showed that intracellular potassium is mobile and that muscle potassium shifts in response to various environmental factors. They found that during muscle contraction potassium is lost from muscle in exchange for sodium, and that the process is reversed in recovery. This was the first time that sodium was shown to penetrate muscle. This work laid the foundation for the Hodgkin-Huxley hypotheses concerning initiation and propagation of nerve and muscle impulses and the magnitude and polarity of electrical potential differences across cell membranes. Fenn said, “The explanation for a loss of potassium from a muscle during activity is a matter of fundamental theoretical importance. In terms of the theory which I have been using as a guide, it is interpreted as an increase in the permeability of the muscle membrane of sufficient extent to permit sodium which enters then displaces one molecule of potassium” (870). They showed that potassium escapes from muscle during contraction in situ and that a large part of this potassium appears in the liver. Potassium uptake was linked with carbohydrate metabolism, particularly with glycogen deposition, and tends to follow the Cori cycle. Radioactive potassium was ingested as part of the first study of the kinetics of potassium metabolism and the demonstration that it is taken up by erythrocytes. Nearly all muscle potassium was found to be exchangeable, supporting the notion that it is maintained by an active energetic process (636, 870-885, 1197, 1945, 1992, 1993).

Philip Duryeé McMaster (US), Stephen S. Hudack (US), and John G. Kidd (US) demonstrated that lymph nodes, draining skin sites injected with bacteria or viruses, formed antibodies against these agents in very high concentrations (1314, 1830, 1831, 1833, 1834).

Frederick W. Madison (US) and Theodore L. Squier (US) defined the etiology of primary granulocytopenia (agranulocytic angina). They suggested that the primary granulocytopenia following the use of such drugs amidopyrine with a barbiturate might be the result of an allergic or anaphylactoid drug reaction (1753).

John Silas Lundy (US) brought to a climax a long series of trials by many workers when he used the intravenous introduction of Pentothal (thiopental sodium, a barbiturate) to put a patient peacefully to sleep on June 18, 1934. Pentothal rapidly became the standard induction agent, being much more pleasant than inhaling the pungent ether. It was not until the 1990s that propofol, a more rapidly metabolized agent with fewer side effects, finally replaced Pentothal. Lundy (US) is best known for introducing intravenous anesthesia into clinical practice (1724). 

Ralph Milton Waters (US) and Erwin R. Schmidt (US) published their paper on the physiologic and pharmacologic effects of cyclopropane on the human body (2915).

J. Roswell Gallagher (US) described an outbreak of bronchopneumonia in a group of 16 boys living at a preparatory school (a closed community). He especially stressed that these children did not have pneumococcal pneumonia but something different--something "atypical" (990).

Robert A. Reimann (US) described a group of eight patients with chest infection but atypical clinical presentations and no chest pain. He coined the term "atypical pneumonia" because the manifestations in these patients differed greatly from those in patients presenting with acute pneumococcal pneumonia. Reimann's initial impression was that this illness was caused by a filterable agent, most likely a virus, but to this date the cause of his patients' illnesses remains unknown (2215).

Clive M. McCay (US), Mary F. Crowell (US), and Leonard Amby Maynard (US) studied the effects of food restriction on the life span of rats. They concluded that if an animal ate what it should and little more its life span was increased (1813, 1814).

Ernst Klenk (DE) identified sphingomyelin as the stored phospholipid in cells from patients with Niemann-Pick disease (1457).

Ivar Asbjørn Følling (NO) described phenylketonuria (PKU) and called attention to its association with serious mental deficiency. He developed a test for demonstrating phenylpyruvic acid found in the urine of a person with PKU (923).

Fuller Albright (US), Esther Bloomberg (US), Benjamin Castleman (US), Edward D. Churchill (US), Walter Bauer (US), and Joseph C. Aub (US) gave the initial clinical description of hyperparathyroidism (21, 23).

William Jason Mixter (US) and Joseph S. Barr (US) discovered herniated intervertebral disks as a pathological condition (1900).

Lillian Lauricella (US), on April 17, 1934, gave birth to twin daughters, conceived by artificial insemination using donor sperm (AID) (1).

Walter Edward Dandy (US) outlined his theory of vascular compression as a cause of trigeminal neuralgia (TN), and pointed to the main problem with that theory; namely, that vascular contact occasionally occurs without the production of pain and may be absent when neuralgia is present (607).

Peter J. Hamlyn (GB) and Thomas T. King (GB) confirmed that vascular compression of the fifth cranial nerve is an anatomical abnormality specific to TN (1139).

Alexandra Adler (AT-US) suggested that the thalamic arcuate nucleus of the brain is associated with taste (10).

Harry Dickson Patton (US), Theodore Cedric Ruch (US), and A. Earl Walker (US) subjected monkeys to lesions of the thalamic arcuate nucleus and confirmed Adler’s suggestion (2048).

Harry Dickson Patton (US) found evidence that the most important part of the taste area lay buried in the operculum, just below the facial regions (2047).

Michael Ellis DeBakey (US), four years after entering medical school, designed the first roller pump, which remains the basis for all cardiac by-pass surgery performed today (637).

Ralph A. Colp (US) was the first to describe a granulomatous inflammation of the terminal ileum and cecum called ileo-colitis (513).

Arthur Evans (GB) was the first to successfully operate on the thoracic region of the esophagus for cancer. He reported a 23-year cure of cancer of the cervical esophagus by radical excision of the cervical esophagus and larynx (849).

Philippe l'Héritier (FR) and Georges Teissier (FR) devised the population cage method for the experimental study of natural selection. They showed, among other things, that unfavorable mutations (such as bar) could be maintained in a population of Drosophila in a stable balanced polymorphism in spite of the deleterious effects of the mutation on the flies that carried it (1551-1553).

Nikolai Wladimirovich Timoféeff-Ressovsky (RU) experimentally measured the viability of strains of Drosophila funebris of different geographical origin (2727).

Francis Bertody Sumner (US) experimentally showed the selective value of protective coloration in fishes (2664).

G. Edward Lewis (US) found the first Ramapithecus (Ramapithecus brevirostris), the earliest known hominid fossil, in deposits in the Siwalik Hills of Northern India (1649).

William Beebe (US) and Otis Barton (US) developed the deep diving bathysphere. This round steel submersible was used on August 5, 1934 for a drop to 3,028 feet into the ocean off Nonsuch Island (160, 566). Beebe is commemorated by Protopelagonemertes beebei Coe, 1936, Metapenaeopsis beebei Burkenroad, and Aeginura beebei Bigelow, 1940.

Auguste Piccard (CH-BE) developed this type of equipment into what he referred to as a bathyscaphe, i.e., a more maneuverable submarine balloon, but looking somewhat like a conventional submarine. In 1954 his second bathyscaph the Trieste descended 10,330 feet into the Mediterranean and in 1960 his third vessel Trieste II was lowered to 35,800 feet (10,900 m) when it touched bottom in the Marianas Trench.

ca. 1935

Otto Heinrich Warburg (DE), Otto Fritz Meyerhof (DE-US), Einar Lundsgaard (DE) and Hermann Karl Felix Blaschko (DE-GB) demonstrated that ATP is generated from ADP in coupled enzymatic reactions during the anaerobic breakdown of glucose to lactic acid in muscle (1880). need Warburg ref


Hans Spemann (DE) was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his discovery of the organizer effect in embryonic development.

Max Knoll (DE) demonstrated the feasibility of the scanning electron microscope; three years later a prototype was built by Manfred von Ardenne (DE) (1472, 2820).

Alexis Carrel (FR-US) and Charles A. Lindbergh (US) described an all-glass system for the perfusion of whole organs (403).

Arthur Lindo Patterson (NZ-US) developed an analytical method for determining interatomic spacings from x-ray data (2046).

Rudolf Schoenheimer (DE-US) and David Rittenberg (US) introduced the use of deuterium as an isotopic tracer into biochemical research in animals (2402). This methodology marked a milestone in biochemistry because for the first time an isotope was systematically introduced into an organic compound so that a defined reaction or pathway could be studied. See, Georg Charles de Hevesy, 1923.

Wolfgang Schott (DE), inspecting findings of the German Meteor oceanographic expedition of 1925-27, realized that the species whose shells were found in the muck of the seabed depended sensitively on the temperature of the water where the creatures had lived. The mix of foraminifera species could serve as a thermometer of past climates (2419).

Harold Clayton Urey (US), Samuel Epstein (US), Heinz A. Lowenstam (US), and Charles R. McKinney (US) were able to prepare a history of changing ocean temperatures over long geologic periods. This work was based on the knowledge that heavy isotopes of oxygen react more slowly than normal atoms. Thus the proportion of oxygen isotopes in a seashell depends upon the temperature of the ocean at the time the shell was formed (2764, 2768, 2769).

David Rockwell Goddard (US) and Leonor Michaelis (DE- US) found that reducing agents such as thioglycolic acid could break the disulfide linkages in keratin (hair, wool, feathers). They did not patent this discovery (1036). Thioglycolic acid and other thiol compounds became the basic ingredients of the permanent wave solutions used in the cosmetic industry.

Harry Bender (US) discovered that technical benzene hexachloride (BHC) is a potent insecticide. He added benzene to chlorine in a Dewar flask in the open air and noticed that part of the product which spilled on the ground “attracted and killed flies and bees” (178). See Michael Faraday, 1825 and Van der Linden, 1912.

Eric John Underwood (AU), John Francis Filmer (AU), and Hedley Ralph Marston (AU) showed that cobalt is a necessary element in the diet of animals (1782, 2761).

Ernst Klenk (DE) characterized a new type of acidic glycolipid—naming it substance X—from the brains of patients suffering from amaurotic familial idiocy (1458).

Ernst Klenk (DE) coined the term ganglioside to name substance X that he characterized in 1935 (1460).

Paul Rothemund (US) synthesized the simple chlorophyll-like substance protochlorophyll (2304).

Robert H. Sifferd (US) and Vincent du Vigneaud (US) synthesized carnosine, a naturally occurring small peptide (2498).

Charles Robert Harington (GB) and Thomas Hobson Mead (GB) were the first to synthesize glutathione, a small naturally occurring polypeptide (1160).

Richard H. McCoy (US), Curtis E. Meyer (US), and William Cumming Rose (US) isolated the amino acid threonine from hydrolysates of fibrin and demonstrated that it is one of the essential amino acids in rats (1822, 1854).

Herbert E. Carter (US) synthesized all isomers of threonine and found that the L-isomer is the essential form in rats (404).

Charles Robert Harington (GB) reported that enlargement of the thyroid gland in hyperthyroidism was found to be associated with heart dysfunction, exophthalmos, and increased metabolic rate (1159).

Ya-Pin Lee (US), Akira E. Takemori (US), Henry Arnold Lardy (US), Ching-Yuan Su (US), Nancy Kneer (US), and Susan Wielgus (US) found that thyroid hormone and also dehydroepiandrosterone induced the synthesis of mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase to as much as 20 times the normal concentration and formed part of the thermogenic system (1591, 1596, 1617, 1618).

Harold King (GB) purified and determined the structure of d-tubocurarine, one of the many alkaloids present in curare preparations (1449, 1450).

A.J. Everett (GB), L.A. Lowe (GB), and S. Wilkinson (GB) made one minor correction in its structure (853).

Kurt Guenter Stern (GB-US) using optical methods (a spectrophotometer) made the first direct observation of an enzyme-substrate complex (2635).

Béla Tankó (HU) and Robert Robison (GB) announced the discovery of phosphohexose kinase (2688).

Karl Zeile (DE) and Axel Hugo Theodor Theorell (SE) performed work, which led to the complete purification of cytochrome c and its characterization as a protein unit of molecular weight 13,000 with a porphyrin unit covalently linked to the protein by way of two cysteine residues (2710, 3097).

Otto Heinrich Warburg (DE), Walter Christian (DE), Alfred Griese (DE), Frank Dickens (GB), Gertrude E. Glock (GB), Bernard Leonard Horecker (US), Pauline Z. Smyrniotis (US), Jarvis Edwin Seegmiller (US), Paul A. Marks (US), Howard H. Hiatt (US), Hans Klenow (US), Efraim Racker (PL-AT-US), and Dan Couri (US) extensively studied and purified all of the enzymes found in the type of glycolysis called the phosphogluconate pathway, also known as the pentose phosphate pathway or hexose monophosphate shunt. This is a multifunctional pathway specialized to carry out four main functions: (1) generate reducing power in the form of NADPH, needed for the synthesis of fatty acids and steroids from acetyl-CoA, (2) to convert hexoses to pentoses, particularly D-ribose 5-phosphate, required for the synthesis of nucleic acids, (3) the oxidative degradation of pentoses by converting them into hexoses, which can then enter the glycolytic sequence, and (4) it is modified so as to participate in the formation of glucose from CO2 in the dark reactions of photosynthesis (559, 686-688, 1275, 1277-1280, 2902, 2908). Horecker (US) coined the phrase hexose monophosphate shunt in his 1951b paper mentioned above.

Paul A. Srere (US), Jack R. Cooper (US), Vida Klybas (US) and Efraim Racker (PL-AT-US), discovered xylulose-5-phosphate, a new intermediate in the pentose phosphate cycle (2586).

Paul A. Srere (US), Hans Leo Kornberg (GB-US), and Efraim Racker (PL-AT-US) demonstrated that transaldolase and transketolase, highly purified, were able to effect the conversion of pentose phosphate to hexose phosphate (2587).

Hans Leo Kornberg (GB-US) and Efraim Racker (PL-AT-US) found that erythrose 4-phosphate is an intermediate in that process (1494).

Harland Goff Wood (US), Joseph Katz (US), and Bernard R. Landau (US) used carbon-14 to estimate the proportion of carbohydrate metabolized in the pentose pathway and glycolysis. These studies helped determine the stoichiometry of the pentose pathway (3051).

Percy W. Zimmerman (US) and Frank Wilcoxon (US) discovered several synthetic substances with hormone activity in plants (3102). 

Hermann James Almquist (US) and E.L. Robert Stockstad (US) demonstrated that fecal microorganisms are capable of synthesizing vitamin K. They purified the vitamin under a high vacuum (41-45).

Phoebus Aaron Theodor Levene (RU-US) and Robert Stuart Tipson (US) determined that “…in desoxy-ribose nucleic acid the positions of the phosphoric acid radicals are carbon atoms (3) and (5) of the desoxyribose” (1640).

Otto Fritz Meyerhof (DE-US) and Wilhelm Kiessling (DE) found that muscle extract contains an isomerase, which catalyzes the conversion of synthetic D-3-phosphoglyceraldehyde to dihydroxyacetone phosphate (1872).

Otto Fritz Meyerhof (DE-US) and Wilhelm Kiessling (DE) showed that in glycolysis it is the oxidation of the aldehyde to the acid that balances the reduction of acetylaldehyde to ethanol (in alcoholic fermentation) or of pyruvic acid to lactic acid (in glycolysis), and that phosphoglycerol is not a necessary participant in the dismutation as Embden had proposed. They also demonstrated that in iodoacetate poisoned muscle extracts, the phosphoryl group of 2-phosphoenolpyruvic acid is transferred to glucose by way of ATP to yield hexose phosphates and pyruvic acid (1871).

Jakub (Jacob) Karol Parnas (PL) and Tadeusz Baranowski; Tadeush Baranowski (PL) found that in muscle extracts glycogen and inorganic phosphate can react to form hexose monophosphates if the oxidation-reduction process is blocked using iodoacetic acid and no ATP is being generated (2040). This was of importance because it established beyond doubt the participation of inorganic phosphate in the splitting of glycogen and the discovery of phosphorylase activity in muscles.

Harland Goff Wood (US), Chester Hamlin Werkman (US), Allen Hemingway (US) and Alfred Otto Carl Nier (US) demonstrated that many heterotrophic forms of life assimilate carbon dioxide. They proposed that carbon dioxide and pyruvate combine to form oxaloacetate, which subsequently is reduced to succinate—the Wood-Werkman reaction (2947, 3054-3058).

Arthur Kaskel Solomon (US), Birgit Vennesland (DE-US), Friedrich W. Klemperer (US), John Machlin Buchanan (US), and A. Baird Hastings (US) determined that higher organisms utilize carbon dioxide as a substrate of reactions (2553). 

Hutton D. Slade (US), Harland Goff Wood (US), Alfred Otto Carl Nier (US), Allen Hemingway (US), and Chester Hamlin Werkman (US) reported that fixation of carbon dioxide by C3 and C1 addition is apparently a very general reaction among the heterotrophic bacteria (2520). At this time, it was dogma that carbon dioxide is an inert end product of the metabolism of all living forms except the specially adapted chemosynthetic and photosynthetic autotrophs.

Henry Arnold Lardy (US) and Julius Adler (US) found that propionate could be metabolized by carbon dioxide addition to ultimately yield succinate (1592). 

Hans Adolf Krebs (DE-GB) found that the kidney contains separate oxidative deaminases for D- and L-amino acids and that both kidney and brain tissue will convert ammonium glutamate to glutamine and hydrolyze it back as well (1515, 1516).

Henry Borsook (US) and Geoffrey Keighley (US) concluded from nutritional studies that there is a continuing metabolism of protein, and that tissue proteins are constantly being synthesized from amino acids (257).

Charles Herbert Best (US-CA) and M. Elinor Huntsman (CA) reported that choline is a lipotropic agent that prevents deposition of fat in the liver (202).

Kenneth Bryan Raper (US) identified the slime mold, Dictyostelium discoideum, then with Theo M. Konijn (US) laid the groundwork for the later use of this organism as a model system for the study of intercellular communication (1488, 2194).

Hugh A. Davson (GB) and James Frederic Danielli (GB) proposed a protein-lipid sandwich model for the structure of cell membranes. This Davson-Danielli model proposed the idea of two layers of phospholipids sandwiched in between two outer layers of protein. The phospholipids were oriented with their hydrophilic ends at the two surfaces and their hydrophobic tails towards the interior of the membrane. This structure explained the stability of plasma membranes because of the strong hydrophilic and hydrophobic interactions. It also accounted for the fact that lipid-soluble substances could pass through a plasma membrane easily. They proposed that this membrane was approximately eight nanometers thick, and had small pores in the protein coat to allow the passage of certain molecules and ions (611, 618).

John Burdon Sanderson Haldane (GB-IN) was the first to estimate the spontaneous mutation rate of a human gene (1128).

Sterling Howard Emerson (US) and George Wells Beadle (US), using the attached-X chromosome in Drosophila melanogaster, were able to show that each crossover between chromosomes at the first division of meiosis could, with equal likelihood, involve either one of the two chromatids into which each chromosome is divided (142, 147, 831).

Royal Alexander Brink (CA-US) and Delmer C. Cooper (US) offered proof that crossing over involves an exchange of segments between homologous chromosomes in Zea mays (302).

George Wells Beadle (US) and Boris Ephrussi (RU-FR) implanted embryonic eye tissue from larvae of vermilion and cinnabar mutants into larvae of normal Drosophila flies and observed that, upon metamorphosis of these larvae into mature flies, the implanted eye tissue developed into supernumerary eyes with normal eye color. It could be concluded, therefore, that the body tissues of the normal flies supply some substance that the vermilion and cinnabar mutant eye tissues are unable to synthesize, but one they can convert into the brown eye pigment. Beadle and Ephrussi then implanted the same embryonic mutant tissues into the larvae of vermilion and cinnabar mutant flies and observed that vermilion eye tissue implanted into cinnabar host larvae developed the normal eye color, whereas cinnabar eye tissue implanted into vermilion host larvae developed the mutant cinnabar eye color. Beadle and Ephrussi inferred from these observations that the synthesis of the brown eye pigment arises by the metabolic chain: Precursor to substance I to substance II tobrown pigment.

The vermilion mutant would thus carry a block in the reaction that converts the precursor to substance I, whereas the cinnabar mutant would carry a block in the reaction that converts substance I to substance II. Thus in the wild-type host larva, both of the mutant eye-tissue transplants are provided with substance II, which they can convert to the brown pigment. The vermilion mutant eye-tissue transplant in the cinnabar host larva is provided with substance I, which it can convert to substance II and to brown pigment. But the cinnabar mutant eye-tissue transplant in the vermilion host larva is not provided there with the substance II, which it lacks, and hence fails to form the brown pigment. Within a few years biochemical studies showed that the precursor is the amino acid tryptophan and that substances I and II are formylkynurenin and hydroxykynurenin, respectively. The genetically controlled metabolic eye color sequence could thus be written as: tryptophane toformylkynurenin (substance I) tohydroxykynurenin (substance II) tobrown pigment.

The stage was now set for formulating more clearly the physiological role of genes. The normal, wild-type allele of the vermilion gene of Drosophila could be envisaged as presiding over the formation of an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of tryptophan to formylkynurenin. The mutant allele, by contrast, has lost the capacity to form that enzyme. Hence the tissues of a homozygous mutant fly carrying the vermilion mutant gene on both of its homologous chromosomes lack the enzyme, and the metabolism of such flies is blocked at the reaction step normally catalyzed by that enzyme. The tissues of a heterozygous fly, carrying one mutant and one wild-type allele of the vermilion gene, would contain the enzyme, however, and hence are capable of forming formylkynurenin. Similarly, the mutant gene of the cinnabar gene has lost the capacity to form the enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of formylkynurenin to hydroxykynurenin, the enzyme that is normally formed under the direction of the wild-type allele. From this viewpoint, the recessive character of both the vermilion and cinnabar mutations is accounted for by the absence of an enzymatic function that the dominant, wild-type allele can supply (148, 149, 843, 844).

George William Beadle (US) found that fat bodies of all eye color mutants studied, except those from vermilion larvae, are shown to produce v+ substance following transplantation to appropriate test animals. Malpighian tubes of wild type larvae release both v+ and cn+ substances following transplantation. Both substances can be extracted from the larval tubes with hot Ringer’s solution. It was possible to demonstrate the presence of v+ substance in the blood of wild type larvae during some part or all of a 24-hour interval just prior to puparium formation (143).

Alfred Kuhn (DE), Adolf Friedrich Johann Butenandt (DE), Wolfhard Weidel (DE), and Erich Becker (DE) did very similar work in Ephestia, studying the biochemical genetics of eye-pigment synthesis (374, 1534). These works represent the first step toward the one gene, one enzyme, hypothesis.

Nikolai Wladimirovich Timoféeff-Ressovsky (RU), Karl Günter Zimmer (DE), and Max Ludwig Henning Delbrück (DE-US) formulated a target theory of gene mutation, which says that a mutation can be induced if a single electron is detached by high energy radiation (2728). 

Calvin Blackman Bridges (US) showed that in Drosophila salivary gland chromosomes certain sequences recur in different regions and that these tend to be found paired in the form of synapsis of somatic chromosomes. He referred to these regions as repeats and assumed that they had arisen as duplications of the same segment (tandem repeats) (293, 294).

Calvin Blackman Bridges (US) and P.N. Bridges (US) reported the accurate determination of the salivary characteristics of the Payne-R inversion (a supressor of crossing over) in Drosophila melanogaster (295).

Nagaharu U; Woo Jang-Choo (Korean-JP) discovered the evolutionary scheme of three allopolyploid species of Brassica based on three diploid species of genome donors. He used both the chromosome numbers and synthetic hybrids to prove the model and showed that rutabaga could be synthesized by crossing turnip and cabbage (624, 1958, 2342).

Erwin Bünning (DE) proved the genetic origin of biological rhythms. He found that circadian rhythms persisted in the bean plant Phaseolus and the fruit fly Drosophila, even though generation after generation had been raised in environments completely lacking cues to the passage of time (339, 340).

J. Arthur Ramsay (GB) investigated water loss from the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana. He found that very high wind speeds significantly increased rates of water loss, attributing this result to eddies set up within the tracheal system, increasing water evaporation from inside the tracheal system itself. Ramsay provided evidence for what was later termed the critical or transition temperature for water loss. Water-loss rates increase rapidly above this temperature. Ramsay then performed the first biophysical measurements on surface (cuticle) waxes, finding that the surface tension of wax-coated droplets decreased dramatically at about 30°C, right where water loss began to increase. He concluded that melting of these same lipids on the cockroaches' cuticle was responsible for increased transpiration (2164).

In a striking example of convergent evolution, most terrestrial organisms have similar lipid waterproofing layers (1121).

Wendell Meredith Stanley (US) reported the crystallization of pure tobacco mosaic virus to the world. This gave rise to the controversy of whether a virus is alive or dead. Most microbiologists today consider that they are not alive, because they are acellular (2606-2609).

J.P. Cleary (US), Paul J. Beard (US), and Charles E. Clifton (US) concluded that the population of a bacterium in continuous culture will not exceed a specific maximum cell number even when the effects of inhibitory substances are reduced to a low level because the major population limiting factor appears to be the amount of energy and building material available per cell per unit time (480).

Frank Macfarlane Burnet (AU) and Diana H. Bull (AU) grew the influenza virus in chick embryos (347, 348).

St. Louis encephalitis was first recognized as a unique clinical entity in association with a large outbreak of the disease at St. Louis, MO in the summer of 1933 (515).

Leslie T. Webster (US), Anna D. Clow (US), and Johannes H. Bauer (US) found that the Anopheles quadrimaculatus (mosquito) will harbor the virus of St. Louis encephalitis for 21-42 days following a blood meal from an infected animal (2928).

Kenneth M. Smith (GB) and John G. Bald (GB) were the first to describe tobacco necrosis disease as being caused by a virus (2537).

William Trager (US) performed the first successful infection of insect tissue in vitro by an insect virus (grasserie). He inoculated primary cultures of ovarian tissue from Bombyx mori with dilutions of hemolymph from diseased larvae (2746).

Meredith Hoskins (US) reported that when rhesus monkeys (Macacus rhesus) were inoculated simultaneously with neurotropic and viscerotropic strains of yellow fever virus the neurotropic strain appeared to have a very definite protective effect by reducing the virulence of the viscerotropic strain. This is referred to as the interference phenomenon and was first demonstrated in animals by Hoskins (1290). 

Leonell C. Strong (US) established the C3H inbred strain of mice for the study of spontaneous carcinoma of the mammary gland (2658).

Emmy Klieneberger (GB) discovered L form bacteria when she found them growing in association with Streptobacillus moniliformis. Originally she thought they represented a unique organism but other workers subsequently showed them to be a bacterial variant of organisms such as Streptobacillus moniliformis (1461). These organisms lack cell walls but are not mycoplasmas. 

Gerhard J. Domagk (DE) discovered that a red dye compound, Prontosil rubrum (4-sulfonamido-2, 4-diamino-azobenzene hydrochloride) is very low in toxicity to animals but very active against streptococcal infections in animals (715).

Jacques Gustave Marie Tréfouël (FR), Thérèse Tréfouël, née Boyer (FR), Filomena Nitti (IT-FR), and David Bovet (CH-FR), working at the Pasteur Institute, discovered that the antibacterial action of the drug prontosil is due to it being converted to sulfanilamide within the animal body  (2753).

Leonard Colebrook (GB), Méave Kenny (GB), and Anthony W. Purdie (GB) provided overwhelming evidence of the efficacy of both Prontosil and sulfanilamide in streptococcal septicemia (bloodstream infection), thereby ushering in the sulfonamide era (503-505).


Gerhard J. Domagk (DE) discovered that the germicidal properties of quaternary ammonium compounds required that at least one of the four radicals consist of a long-chain aliphatic group (716).

Jerome T. Syverton (US), George Packer Berry (US), R.W. Harrison (US) and Elizabeth Moore (US) successfully cultured the virus of St. Louis encephalitis in tissue culture (1169, 2673).

Albert Spear Hitchcock (US) and Mary Agnes Chase (US) prepared the Manual of Grasses of the United States (1935). Its usefulness continues through today in the form of a 2nd edition in 1950 (1244, 1245).

An easy way to store blood plasma was discovered. It was first frozen, and then dried into flakes in a vacuum. Packed in tiny ampullae, the plasma was shipped with a pint of sterile water and tubing. ref

Dempsie B. Morrison (US), Alan Hisey (US), and Erich Peters (US) established that the combination of oxygen with hemoglobins takes place according to the ratio, Fe/O2, one gram-atom of pigmentary iron per gram-molecule of oxygen fixed (1922).

William Frederick Windle (US) and Marvin F. Austin (US) described the routes of the earliest axons in the central nervous system of the chick embryo, assessed at several stages between the second and sixth days of incubation. They focused on the descending, or reticulospinal, axons arising from hindbrain nuclei (3030).

William L.R. Cruce (US), Sherry L. Stuesse (US), and R. Glenn Northcutt (US) used retrogradely transported axonal tracers (horseradish peroxidase and Fluoro-Gold) to identify groups of brainstem neurons that projected to the spinal cord, in two cartilaginous fishes, the Thornback Guitarfish, and the Horn Shark. They identified numerous distinct reticular nuclei in these elasmobranchs, consistent with a complex organization similar to the reticular formation in other vertebrates (573).

John G. New (US), Bethany D. Snyder (US), and Katherine L. Woodson (US) traced axons descending to the spinal cord in the Channel Catfish, and found that the majority of neurons projecting to the spinal cord are located in the reticular formation of the hindbrain. Both ascending and descending reticular formation projections are of great clinical importance in humans, as they can be damaged or destroyed by strokes, spinal cord injuries, and astrocytomas (1979).

Eli Kennerly Marshall, Jr. (US) and Morris Rosenfeld (US) observed that in respiratory depression anoxia provides a major ventilatory drive mediated through the sino-aortic mechanism. Their observation recognized that often when the mammal is threatened with anoxemia, “it may adapt itself … to a primitive type of respiratory control (the sino-aortic rather than central) which is normal for lower vertebrates” (1778, 2298). See, Corneille and  Jean Francois Heymans, 1927.

Note: It is a prime rule in accident rooms not to give oxygen to patients depressed with morphine, barbiturates, or allied drugs.

Carlyle F. Jacobsen (US) first discovered that damage to the primate prefrontal cortex (PF) appeared to cause a short-term memory deficit (1348, 1349).

Shintaro Funahashi (US), Charles J. Bruce (US), and Patricia S. Goldman-Rakic (US) found evidence to strengthen the evidence that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of the monkey participates in the process of working or transient memory and further indicate that this area of the cortex contains a complete “memory” map of visual space (979).

Armand James Quick (US), Margaret Stanley-Brown (US), and Frederic W. Bancroft (US) developed the one-stage prothrombin-time technique using rabbit brain extract. This test detects the amount of prothrombin present in blood plasma and determines prothrombin-clotting time (2149, 2150). The technique was based on the assumption that, given enough tissue, calcium, and fibrinogen, there is only one factor limiting the time course of clotting: prothrombin. It is now recognized that this result is limited by deficiencies of factors additional to prothrombin, but this does not diminish the importance of this technique in the control of coumarin therapy. See, Whipple, 1913.

The one-stage prothrombin-time made possible the immediate differentiation between the coagulation defect in hemophilia and that in obstructive jaundice.

Emory D. Warner (US), Kenneth M. Brinkhous (US), and Harry P. Smith (US) developed a method of measuring prothrombin, which became known as the two-stage technique (2913).

Hugh Leslie Marriott (GB) and Alan Kekwick (GB) introduced the continuous drip blood transfusion method, in which blood flows from a flask (1776). This was made possible by Luis Agote’s discovery in 1914. Earlier transfusions were directly from donor to recipient.

Claude Schaeffer Beck (US) presented his technique for development of a blood supply to the heart by operation. It prescribed grafting a flap of the pectoralis muscle over the exposed epicardium to provide a new blood supply (156).

Frank Mason Sones, Jr. (US) accidently performed the first selective coronary angiography when he accidently injected dye into the right coronary artery instead of into the cardiac valve as intended. Instead of fibrillating, the man's heart went into asystole, and Sones shouted at the patient to cough, which successfully restarted the heart beating (721, 1884).

Arthur M. Vineberg (CA) introduced the Vineberg procedure, which consists of the revascularization of the entire heart by internal mammary artery implantation, epicardiectomy and free omental graft (2810, 2811).

Vasilii I. Kolessov (RU) performed the first internal mammary artery-coronary artery anastomosis (1483).

Donald B. Effler (US), Rene Gerónimo Favaloro (AR), Laurence K. Groves (US), Chalit Cheanvechai (TH), Robert A. Quint (US), and Frank Mason Sones, Jr. (US), beginning in 1967, performed some of the first coronary by-pass operations using the patients’ native saphenous veins as autografts (790, 863).

W. Dudley Johnson (US), Robert J. Flemma (US), Derward Lepley, Jr. (US), and Edwin H. Ellison (US) introduced modern coronary by-pass surgery with their method of myocardial revascularization. Veins are usually inserted into an area of normal artery; however, if a second area of atherosclerosis occurs (commonly in the mid-anterior descending artery), the arteriotomy extends across the plaque into normal artery on each end. The vein is sutured as a patch graft always extending the anastomosis to normal artery proximally and distally. With progressive atherosclerosis this maneuver preserves bidirectional flow (1370).

H. Edward Garrett (US), Edward W. Dennis (US), and Michael Ellis DeBakey (US) performed an autogenous saphenous vein by-pass from the ascending aorta to the anterior descending coronary artery. The patient was a 42-year-old man who had extensive occlusive disease of the coronary artery and angina pectoris (998). This team first performed the operation in 1964.

Allen Oldfather Whipple (US), William Barclay Parsons (US), and Clifton R. Mullins (US) introduced a two-stage radical pancreaticoduodenectomy to treat carcinoma of the ampulla of Vater (2961). Twenty-eight months was the longest survival time course of the three cases reported. This was not the first time such an operation was performed.

Allen Oldfather Whipple (US) described the first reported case of a one-stage pancreaticoduodenectomy for a carcinoma of the head of the pancreas (2960).

Arnold Rice Rich (US) found carcinoma of the prostate in 14% of all autopsies and in 28% of those aged over 70 years (2226).

Burrhus Frederic Skinner (US), a leading behaviorist and proponent of operant conditioning, invented the Skinner box for facilitating experimental observations. His main scientific works include The Behavior of Organisms (1938), and Verbal Behavior (1957). He founded behaviorism (2513-2516).

John Ridley Stroop (US) was the first to think of combining a word with object/property dimensions, creating the now famous situation of response conflict (2659). An example of this phenomenon is that when asked to name the color of ink in which an incompatible color word is printed (e.g., to say "red" aloud in response to the stimulus word GREEN printed in red ink), people take longer than to name the same ink color in a suitable control condition (e.g., to say "red" to the stimulus XXXXX printed in red ink). This has been called the Stroop effect.

Arthur George Tansley (GB) coined and defined the term ecosystem. "The weakness of Clements is. . . that vegetation is an organism and therefore must obey the laws of development of what we commonly know as organisms. . . . But the more fundamental conception is, as it seems to me, the whole system (in the sense of physics) including not only the organism-complex, but also the whole complex of physical factors forming what we call the environment of the biome…Though the organism may claim our primary interest, when we are trying to think fundamentally we cannot separate them [organisms] from their special environment, with which they form one physical system" (2689).

Julia Anna Gardener (US), T. Wayland Vaughan (US), and Willis Parkison Popenoe (US) helped establish standard stratigraphic sections for Tertiary rocks in the Southern Caribbean, Coastal Plain of Texas, and the Rio Grande Embayment in Northeast Mexico (994, 995).


Henry Hallett Dale (GB) and Otto Loewi (DE-US) were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their discoveries relating to chemical transmission of nerve impulses.

Harold Clayton Urey (US), Adriaan H.W. Aten, Jr. (US), Albert S. Keston (US), George B. Pegram (US), John R. Huffman (US), Harry G. Thode (US), and Marvin Fox (US) devised laboratory procedures for preparing high concentrations of such isotopes as carbon-13, oxygen-18, and nitrogen-15 (2765, 2770, 2771).

Lewis John Stadler (US) and George F. Sprague (US) discovered that ultraviolet light is mutagenic in maize (2602).

John Tileston Edsall (US) used Raman spectroscopy to show that both the amino and carboxyl groups of amino acids are charged at isoelectric pH (785-787).

Reynold C. Fuson (US), Robert E. Christ (US), Richard Johann Kuhn (DE) and Colin John Owen Rhonabwy Morris (GB) synthesized vitamin A (retinol) (985, 1538).

Thomas William Birch (AU-GB) and Paul György (GB) discovered vitamin B6 (pyridoxine hydrochloride) (208). 

Barend Coenraad Petrus Jansen (NL) authored a quantitative chemical test for vitamin B1 based on the oxidation of the vitamin into a yellow substance with intense blue fluorescence (thiochrome) as discovered by George Barger (GB), Franz Bergel (AT-GB), Alexander Robertus Todd (GB), and Rudolph Albert Peters (GB) (125, 1357, 2084).

Hans Christian Hagedorn (DK), B. Norman Jensen (DK), Niels B. Krarup (DK), and I. Wodstrup (DK) developed protamine insulinate, one of the first successful longer-acting exogenous insulins (1124).

Linus Carl Pauling (US) and Charles Dubois Coryell (US) demonstrated that in deoxyhemoglobin the bonds between iron and nitrogen are ionic and weak whereas in oxyhemoglobin they are covalent and stronger (2052). 

Daniel Bovet (CH-FR-IT) and Anne Marie Staub (DE) synthesized the first histamine receptor antagonists (popularly referred to as the classical antihistamines but now called H1-receptor antagonists). These early studies of the antihistamines were qualitative, for example, the demonstration of their effectiveness in protecting against bronchospasm produced in guinea pigs by anaphylaxis or administration of histamine. Though qualitative, these studies yielded compounds that remain major ligands to define histamine receptors, e.g., mepyramine (pyrilamine) (266).

André Michael Lwoff (FR), Marguerite Lwoff (FR), Bert Cyril James Gabriel Knight (FR), and John Howard Mueller (FR) demonstrated that nicotinic acid is an essential growth factor for some bacteria (1470, 1732, 1733, 1930). This led to the use of bacterial growth as a quantitative assay of growth factors.

Klaas Tammo Wieringa (NL) discovered Clostridium aceticum, the first acetogenic bacterium found to grow with hydrogen as an energy source and carbon dioxide as a carbon source (2982, 2983).

Carl Ferdinand Cori (CZ-US) and Gerty Theresa Cori, née Radnitz (CZ -US) discovered that glucose-1-phosphate is formed naturally in muscle. This was evidence for the presence of glycogen phosphorylase (544). They presented evidence for phosphoglucomutase, the enzyme which converts glucose-1-phosphate to glucose-6-phosphate.

Chester Hamlin Werkman (US), E.A. Zoellner (US), Henry Gilman (US), and Howard Reynolds (US) were the first to isolate phosphoglyceric acid from bacteria (2948). Along with Robert William Stone (US) and Wilbur Paul Wiggert (US) they reported the formation of phosphoglyceric acid and related intermediary compounds in the dissimilation of glucose by a variety of heterotrophic bacteria (2645-2647, 2987).

Franz Knoop (DE) and Carl Martius (DE) established some of the intermediate stages of the oxidation of citric acid when they discovered the following sequence of reactions in liver tissue: citrate — cis-aconitate — isocitrate — oxalosuccinate — alpha-ketoglutarate.

The end-product of these sequences, alpha-oxoglutaric acid (alpha-ketoglutaric acid), was already known as an intermediate product because it is formed from the amino acid glutamate and had been shown to be oxidized to succinic acid (1474).

Carl Martius (DE) and Franz Knoop (DE) demonstrated that citric acid could be formed from pyruvic acid (1789). Carl Martius (DE) worked out the sequence citric-aconitic-isocitric-oxalosuccinic acid by the action of aconitase and isocitrate dehydrogenase (1788).

Erich Adler (SE), Hans von Euler (SE), Gunnar Günther (SE), and Marianne Plass (SE) determined that triphosphopyridinenucleotide (TPN) is the coenzyme for isocitrate dehydrogenase (11). Synonyms for TPN are Warburg's coenzyme II and codehydrogenase II.

Edward Lawrie Tatum (US), Harland Goff Wood (US), William Harold Peterson (US), Milton Silverman (US) and Chester Hamlin Werkman (US) were among the first to demonstrate the role of vitamin B1 and co-carboxylase in bacterial metabolism (2503, 2504, 2695).

Béla Tankó (HU), Gladys Macphail James (GB), William Owen James (GB), Arthur Hugh Bunting (GB), C.R.C. Heard (GB), and Charles Samuel Hanes (GB) demonstrated that glycolytic systems in higher plants are essentially the same as those discovered in animals, and yeast (1150, 1353-1355, 2687).

David Bodian (US) developed a new method for staining nerve fibers and nerve endings in mounted paraffin sections (240).

Peter A. Gorer (GB), using inbred strains of mice, discovered four blood group antigens. The growth and rejection of a tumor correlated with the expression of antigen II. Gorer formulated the concept of tissue transplantation as, “normal and neoplastic tissues contain iso-antigenic factors which are genetically determined. Iso-antigenic factors present in the grafted tissue and absent in the host are capable of eliciting a response which results in the destruction of the graft.” This represents the discovery of what came to be known as the H-2 genetic region in mice (1056, 1057).

Clara J. Lynch (US), Thomas P. Hughes (US), Leslie T. Webster (US), and Anna D. Clow (US) were the first to demonstrate that a host gene can control resistance to disease induced by an animal virus (1734, 2927). This resistance was directed against flaviviruses.

Cyril Norman Hugh Long (GB-US) and Francis D.W. Lukens (US) found that removing the adrenal gland and pituitary gland of a diabetic animal reduced the blood level of glucose and thus the severity of its diabetic state (1702). This would later be linked to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) of the anterior pituitary gland. ACTH stimulates the release of other hormones, which encourage the conversion of amino acids to glucose.

Torbjörn Oskar Caspersson (SE) demonstrated that the so-called euchromatin bands on chromosomes represent areas, which are very rich in nucleic acids (411).

Calvin Blackman Bridges (US), Eleanor Nichols Skoog (US), and Ju-chi Li (CN) chose the notopleural deficiency in Drosophila melanogaster to establish a close correspondence between the loci on the genetic maps, deduced from linkage studies, and the particular chromosome localities, deduced from study of the transverse bands which form a diversified series along the salivary chromosome (297).

Carl D. LaRue (US) successfully established embryo cultures of different gymnosperms (1597).

George Henry Hepting (US) and Dorothy J. Blaisdell (US) described the mechanisms with which trees restrict the development of decay and discoloration in stems to “tissues extant at time of wounding.” This phenomenon is now known as compartmentalization (1218).

John Zachary Young (GB) discovered the giant nerve fibers of the squid, Loligo forbesi. This made possible many important experiments in neurophysiology (3090-3092).

Herald Rea Cox (US), Peter Kosciusko Olitsky (US), Joseph W. Beard (US), and Harold Finkelstein (US) developed vaccines for equine encephalomyelitis (153, 562).

Curt Stern (DE-US), while working with several sex-linked alleles of Drosophila, revealed a previously unrecognized phenomenon, mitotic crossing over (2630). 

Frederick Charles Bawden (GB), Norman Wingate Pirie (GB), John Desmond Bernal (GB), and Isadore Fankuchen (US) demonstrated that tobacco mosaic virus contains phosphorus as a component of a phospho-ribonucleic acid (141, 193).

Frederick Charles Bawden (GB), Norman Wingate Pirie (GB), Hubert S. Loring (US), Wendell Meredith Stanley (US), and Max Augustus Lauffer (US) demonstrated that all plant viruses tested up to this time were pure nucleoprotein. This was the first indication that nucleic acids, found in all cells, is found also in acellular "life" (138-141, 1709, 2611).

George P. Berry (US) and Helen M. Dedrick (US) reported the changing of rabbit fibroma virus (Shope) into infectious myxomatosis virus (Sanarelli). This Berry-Dedrick phenomenon has been referred to variously as transformation, recombination, multiplicity of reactivation, and non-genetic reactivation (199).

Frank Macfarlane Burnet (AU) and Dora Lush (AU) published a paper showing that bacteriophages can sport mutants whose plaques have a distinctly different appearance from those of the ordinary wild-type (354).

Felix G. Gustafson (US) obtained the first successful growth of the parthenocarpic fruits (tomato, grape, and fig) by applying auxin on unfertilized ovaries (1107).

K. Kanazawa (JP) was the first to grow the rabies virus in tissue culture (1401).

Henry Edward Shortt (GB), T. Ramachandra Rao (IN), and C.S. Swaminath (IN) reported culturing the virus of dengue fever (breakbone fever) on the chorioallantoic membrane of chick embryos (2496).

Henry Edward Shortt (GB), S. Ramachandra Rao (IN), C.S. Swaminath (IN), and C.G. Pandit (IN) reported culturing the virus of pappataci fever (phlebotomus fever, sand-fly fever, three-day fever) on the chorioallantoic membrane of chick embryos (2495, 2496).

Jean Cuillé (FR) and Paul-Louis Chelle (FR) reported that scrapie can be serially transmitted to sheep and that it passes bacterial filters. They noted that signs of the disease did not appear until more than one year had elapsed from the time of exposure to the contagious material (574-576). Scrapie gets its name from the tendency of affected animals to rub against fence posts during the excitable phase of the disease.

Josef Gerstmann (AT-US), Ernst Sträussler (AT), and Ilya Mark Scheinker (AT) described a disease characterized by degeneration of the nervous system, starting usually in the fourth or fifth decade of life with slowly developing dysarthria and cerebellar ataxia and then dementia, accompanied by spinocerebellar and corticospinal tract degeneration, and absence of leg reflexes. Death follows 2 to 10 years after the onset of symptoms (1012). Today this is known as Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome, one of the amyloid dependent subacute spongioform encephalopathies associated with prion infection. It behaves in an autosomal dominant pattern.

Bjorn Sigurdsson (IS), Páll Agnar Pálsson (IS), and Halldór Grímsson (IS) determined that both visna and maedi are slow virus infections of sheep (2500, 2502). Visna means wasting and is characterized by progressive neurologic impairment and inanition. Maedi means shortness of breath and is characterized as a chronic pneumonia. Sigurdsson developed the concept of slow infection and described it as: (a) a long but rather predictable incubation period of months to years, during which the infectious agent produces clinically unapparent but progressive pathologic damage; and (b) a protracted course, once clinical signs have appeared, generally ending in serious disease or death (2501).

Daniel Carleton Gajdusek (US) and Vincent Zigas (AU) were the first to describe kuru (shivering or trembling), a human spongiform encephalopathy discovered among the Fore people of New Guinea (989).

Wlliam J. Hadlow (US) pointed out the similarity in the neuropathology of scrapie in sheep with that of kuru in man. He arrived at this conclusion after observing brain sections of kuru victims prepared by Igor Klatzo (DE-US) (1122, 1455).

Herbert B. Parry (GB) suggested that scrapie, a spongiform encephalopathy of sheep, is an inherited but also transmissible disease (2042).

Daniel Carleton Gajdusek (US), Clarence Joseph Gibbs, Jr. (US), and Michael P. Alpers (US) were the first to transmit a human prion disease, kuru, to experimental animals (987, 988).

Tikvah Alper (GB) and John Stanley Griffith (GB) developed the hypothesis that some transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are caused by an infectious agent consisting solely of proteins (46, 1086).

David C. Bolton (US), Michael P. McKinley (US), and Stanley Ben Prusiner (US) argued that a protein, not a virus or any other known parasite, was the infectious agent responsible for scrapie (249). Prusiner named the infectious agents prions (proteinaceous infectious particle) (2136).

Stanley Ben Prusiner (US), Michael P. McKinley (US), Karen A. Bowman (US), David C. Bolton (US), Paul E. Bendheim (US), Darlene F. Groth (US), George G. Glenner (US), Hansruedl Büeler (CH), Adriano Aguzzi (CH), Andreas Sailer (CH), R.A. Greiner (CH), Peter Autenried (US), Michel Aguet (CH), Charles Weissmann (CH), Ana Serban (US), Ruth Koehler (US), Dallas Foster (US), Marilyn Torchia (US), Dennis R. Burton (US), Shu-Lian Yang (CN-US), Stephen J. DeArmond (US), Neil Stahl (US), and Ruth Gabizon (IL) found that a modified form of the normal prion protein (PrP) called protein prion scrapie (PrPsc) is essential for infectivity (336, 2137-2140). It now appears that kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker disease (GSS), and fatal familial insomnia (FFI) are all caused by a mutation of the normal gene PrPc to the abnormal gene PrPsc. The various disease phenotypes most likely arise from differences in familial genotypes and environmental factors.

Robert S. Sparkes (US), Melvin I. Simon (US), Vivian H. Cohn (US), R.E. Keith Fournier (US), Janice Lem (US), Ivana Klisak (US), Camilla Heinzmann (US), Cila Blatt (US), Michael Lucero (US), Thuluvancheri K. Mohandas (US), Stephen J. DeArmond (US), David Westaway (US), Stanley B. Prusiner (US), and Leslie P. Weiner (US) determined that prion protein (PrP) is encoded by a gene on the short arm of chromosome 20 in humans (2573).

Yu-Cheng Liao (US), Roger V. Lebo (US), Gary A. Clawson (US), and Edward A. Smuckler (US) identified and characterized a human complementary DNA whose protein product is considered to be the major component of scrapie-associated fibrils in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, kuru, and Gerstmann-Straussler syndrome.  (1665).

Gerald A.H. Wells (GB), Anthony C. Scott (GB), C.T. Johnson (GB), R.F. Gunning (GB), R.D. Hancock (GB), Martin Jeffrey (GB), Michael Dawson (GB), and Raymond Bradley (GB) reported a new spongiform encephalopathy in cattle (2943).

James Hope (GB), Laura J.D. Reekie (GB), and Nora Hunter (GB), Gerd Multhaup (DE), Konrad Beyreuther (DE), Heather White (GB), Anthony C. Scott (GB), Michael J. Stack (GB), Michael Dawson (GB), and Gerald A.H. Wells (GB) showed that bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), commonly called mad cow disease, is caused by a prion (1272).

Karen Hsiao (US), Harry F. Baker (GB), Tim J. Crow (GB), Mark Poulter (GB), Frank Owen (GB), Joseph D. Terwilliger (US), David Westaway (US), Jurg Ott (US), and Stanley Ben Prusiner (US) showed that in Gerstmann-Straüssler-Scheinker (GSS) syndrome prion protein (PrP) codon 102 is linked to the putative gene for the syndrome in two pedigrees, providing the best evidence to date that this familial condition is inherited despite also being infectious, and that substitution of leucine for proline at prion protein (PrP) codon 102 may lead to the development of Gerstmann-Straüssler-Scheinker (GSS) syndrome (1303).

Dmitry Goldgaber (US), Lev G. Goldfarb (US), Paul Brown (US), David M. Asher (US), W. Ted Brown (US), Scott Lin (US), James W. Teener (US), Stephen M. Feinstone (US), Richard Rubenstein (US), Richard J. Kascsak (US), John W. Boellaard (DE) and Daniel Carlton Gajdusek (US) found a mutation in the prion protein (PrP) gene of two patients with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) from one family and a second mutation in the same gene in three patients with Gerstmann-Straüssler-Scheinker (GSS) from another family. The mutation in two related familial CJD patients changed glutamine in position 200 to lysine (1041).

Matti Haltia (FI), Jussi Kovanen (FI), Lev G. Goldfarb (US), Paul Brown (US), and Daniel Carleton Gajdusek (US) found a new G-to-A mutation in codon 178 of the PRNP gene (resulting in a substitution of asparagine for aspartic acid) in the DNA of eight family members with typical Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) (1135).

Rossella Medori (US), Pasquale Montagna (IT), Hans-Juergen Tritschler (DE), Andrea C. LeBlanc (CA), Pietro Cortelli (IT), Paolo Tinuper (IT), Elio Lugaresi (IT), Pierluigi Gambetti (US), Federico Villare (US), Valeria Manetto (US), Hsiao Ying Chen (US), Run Xue (US), Suzanne M. Leal (US), Patrizia Avoni (IT), Mirella Mochi (IT), Agostino Baruzzi (IT), Jean Jacques Hauw (FR), Jurg Ott (US), and Lucila Autilio-Gambetti (US) identified fatal familial insomnia (FFI) as a disease caused by a prion linked to a mutation in codon 178 of the prion protein gene (PRNP) resulting in the substitution of aspartic acid with asparagine (D178N) (1842, 1843). This disease is characterized by marked decrease or loss of the ability to sleep, dysautonomia and motor signs, and pathologically by preferential atrophy of thalamic nuclei.

Lev G. Goldfarb (US), Robert B. Petersen (US), Massimo Tabaton (IT), Paul Brown (US), Andrea C. LeBlanc (CA), Pasquale Montagna (IT), Pietro Cortelli (IT), Jean Julien (FR), Claude Vital (FR), William W. Pendelbury (US), Matti Haltia (FI), Peter R. Willis (US), Jean Jacques Hauw (FR), Paul E. McKeever (US), Lucia Monari (IT), Bertold Schrank (DE), Gary D. Swergold (US), Lucila Autilio-Gambetti (US), Daniel Carleton Gajdusek (US), Elio Lugaresi (IT), Pierluigi Gambetti (US), and Michael Steel (US) determined that familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), subtype CJD 178, shares the D178N mutation with FFI although the clinical and pathological findings between the two are quite distinct. This is believed to be an example of phenotypic heterogeneity where both penetrance and expressivity are influenced by the familial genotypes and the environment (1040, 2616).

Stephen J. Sawcer (GB), Gerald M. Yuill (GB), Thomas F. Esmonde (GB), Peter Estibeiro (GB), James W. Ironside (GB), John E. Bell (GB), and Robert G. Will (GB) reported that two farmers who had cattle with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) or mad cow disease died of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD) (2370).

Stanley Ben Prusiner (US) and Michael R. Scott (US) suggested that mutant prions have the capacity to reshape normal prions into versions of themselves by causing a change in their folding pattern (2141).

John Joseph Bittner (US), in mice, discovered a naturally transferable cancer agent that is transmitted through the milk of the mother to her offspring (211-213).

Samuel Graff (US), Dan H. Moore (US), Wendell Meredith Stanley (US), Henry T. Randall (US), and Cushman D. Haagensen (US) isolated and characterized this agent as a virus (1064, 1065). Today it is called the Bittner mammary tumor virus.

Albert Jan Kluyver (NL) and Cornelis Bernardus Kees van Niel (NL-US) proposed that bacterial genera be defined both morphologically and biochemically (1467).

Henry Hallett Dale (GB), Wilhelm Sigmund Feldberg (DE-GB), and Marthe Louise Vogt (DE-GB) found that in the presence of eserine (it blocks the action of acetylcholinesterase), curare does not block acetylcholine release from the motor nerve terminals upon electrical stimulation but, of course, blocks the effect of acetylcholine on the muscle membrane (591). 

Alister Clavering Hardy (GB) and Nora Ennis (GB) reported on the use of their plankton continuous recorder. Their aim was to develop a technique for estimating the numbers or weights of planktonic organisms beneath a unit area of sea surface or in a unit volume of water (1156).

Max Walker De Laubenfels (US) wrote an overview of all sponge genera. Presented as a monograph on the sponges of the Florida Keys, he revised almost casually all extant supraspecific taxa, erecting in the process several hundreds of new taxa. These paper taxa, i.e., erected by simply reading the descriptions in the previous literature, were mostly insufficiently established to be of use in sponge classification. Nevertheless, his book presented the first comprehensive overview of the genera and families of sponges, and it formed the basis for modern sponge classification (628). He is commemorated by Delaubenfelsia Dickinson, 1945; Endectyon delaubenfelsi Burton, 1930; Holoplocamia delaubenfelsi Little, 1963; Rhaphidophlus delaubenfelsi Lévi, 1963; and Xestospongia delaubenfelsi Riveros, 1951.

Karl von Frisch (AT) was the first to suggest that the tightly coupled otic gas bladder in the mormyrid fishes can transmit the sound pressure component of the acoustic signal into the inner ear to enhance overall hearing ability (2836, 2837).

Richard Edwin Shope (US) found evidence that the virus, which caused the 1918 influenza pandemic in humans, and the swine influenza virus are one and the same (2489).

M. Robert Irwin (US) and Leon J. Cole (US) established that antigens are inherited using the Ringdove, Streptopelia risoria, and the Pearlneck dove, Spilopelia chinensis, as their experimental material. The term immunogenetics was coined in this article (1344).

Ronald Aylmer Fisher (GB-AU) produced an article that represents a milestone in numerical taxonomy (906).

Thore Edvard Brandt (SE) described a zinc deficiency syndrome in infants, characterized by acral dermatitis, alopecia, diarrhea, steatorrhea, and anal pustular eruptions on the face and around body orifices (278). The syndrome is caused by the absence of the ligand essential for zing absorption, which is present in human but not cow milk. A similar disease picture may be seen in patients receiving artificial nutrition with low zinc content. Untreated, the disease is usually lethal.

Perrin Hamilton Long (US) and Eleanor A. Bliss (US) are credited with having introduced sulfonamides, which were the first effective antibacterial agents, to the United States. They used sulfanilamide in clinical applications at Johns Hopkins University in 1936 (1703, 1704, 1706).

Francis F. Schwentker (US), Sidney Gelman (US), Perrin Hamilton Long (US), and Eleanor A. Bliss (US) were the first to use antimicrobial therapy against meningococcal infections in demonstrating the efficacy of sulfonamides against meningococcus (1705, 2426).

Walter Thomas James Morgan (GB) and Stanley Miles Partridge (NZ-GB) were the first to describe the somatic antigen (endotoxin) of the Enterobacteriaceae as a toxin (1918-1920).


William Augustus Hinton (US) published the first major text on syphilis entitled Syphilis and Its Treatment (1241). Hinton developed the Hinton Test to detect syphilis in blood and spinal fluids, which reduced the number of false positive diagnoses of the disease. John A.V. Davies (US) improved the test to make it applicable to the cerebrospinal fluid. It then became known as the Davies-Hinton Test .

Arthur J. Patek, Jr. (US), Richard P. Stetson (US), and F.H. Laskey Taylor (US) found that patients with hemophilia are lacking a factor present in normal plasma. They called it anti-hemophilic factor (AHF) or anti-hemophilic globulin (AHG) (2044, 2045). This deficiency now called hemophilia A (or factor VIII deficiency) is found almost exclusively in males and is one of the most common of the hereditary coagulation disorders

Yngve Zotterman (SE) isolated the single nerve units in the taste receptors of the tongue (682, 3113).

Harold P. Himsworth (GB) noted that there are two main types of diabetes, the insulin-depleted (type 1) and the insulin-resistant form (type 2). Insulin resistance is a term and concept of his coinage (1237).

Wilder Graves Penfield (US-CA) found that stimulation anywhere on the cerebral cortex could bring responses of one kind or another, but he found that only by stimulating the temporal lobes (the lower parts of the brain on each side) could he elicit meaningful, integrated responses such as memory, including sound, movement, and color. These memories were much more distinct than usual memory, and were often about things unremembered under ordinary circumstances. It seemed he had found a physical basis for memory, an engram. Penfield said, “there is hidden away in the brain, a record of the stream of consciousness” (2064-2067). In reality, however, the reported episodes of recall occurred in less than five percent of his patients, and these results have not been replicated by modern surgeons (1360).

Hans Hugo Bruno Selye (AT-HU-CA) proposed the concept of the stress syndrome after a twelve-year study of the physiological effects of stress on animals. He promoted the complex topic of stress as applied to every aspect of daily life or medicine (2437-2443).

Howard Bishop Lewis (US), Barker H. Brown (US), and Florence R. White (US) administered either cystine, cysteine hydrochloride, or dl-methionine, combined with a high or low protein diet to a cystinuric subject and measured the amount of extra cystine and sulfur excreted in the subject’s urine. They found that the administration of cystine did not affect cystine excretion, but it did induce a large increase in the sulfur content of the urine. Cysteine hydrochloride and dl-methionine, on the other hand, led to increases in the excreted amounts of both cystine and sulfate. Surprisingly, less extra cystine was excreted after methionine was administered to the subject when he consumed a high protein diet. These results led them to conclude, “the utilization of the precursor of the urinary cystine in cystinuria occurs more readily under conditions of a high level of protein metabolism." These experiments also confirmed an earlier hypothesis by Erwin Brand (US) who postulated that cysteine is a product of the catabolism of methionine and that the error in cystinuria is a failure of the proper utilization of cysteine and not of cystine. Thus, the extra cystine excreted after the feeding of methionine is derived directly from the degradation of methionine, with cysteine as an intermediary product (1651).

Guido Fanconi (CH), Erwin Uehlinger (CH), and Christian Knauer (CH) described cystic fibrosis (mucovidosis) also called Clarke-Hadfield syndrome (860).

Paul Herbert Kimmelstiel (DE-US) and Clifford Wilson (GB) related that cases of kidney disease frequently, “show a striking hyaline thickening of the intercapillary connective tissue of the glomerulus. Evidence is presented which…suggests that arteriosclerosis and diabetes may play a part in its causation…. The characteristic clinical features are a previous history of diabetes, severe and widespread edema of the nephrotic type and gross albuminuria. Hypertension is frequently present.” This condition develops in about 20 to 25 percent of patients, in whom diabetes mellitus has been present for several years, usually beginning about 15 years after onset of diabetes and is often referred to as Kimmelstiel-Wilson syndrome (1446, 1447).

Robert Gesell (US), A. Kearney Atkinson (US), Richard C. Brown (US), Conway S. Magee (US), John W. Bricker (US), G. Stella (GB), Robert Franklin Pitts (US), Horace Winchell Magoun (US), and Stephen Walter Ranson (US) discovered that the respiratory center of the medulla is not a compact, sharply localized structure, but is scattered bilaterally in the gray matter of the ventral reticular formation of the medulla overlying the upper (cephalic) four-fifths of the inferior olive (1013-1016, 1755, 2107, 2109-2111, 2624, 2625). The location is practically the same in the dog and cat (1015, 2109, 2111).

António Caetano Abreau Freire De Egas Moniz (PT) developed frontal leukotomy for treatment of certain clinical psychoses (793, 794).

Walter Jackson Freeman (US), with no qualifications for surgery, and James Winston Watts (US), in 1936, introduced a surgical technique for frontal lobe lobotomy into the U.S.A. The early 'technique' involved drilling burr-holes; later Freeman developed his famous/infamous transorbital approach, literally pushing an ice pick into the brain via the eye sockets (947, 948).

Harold Neuhof (US) and Arthur S.W. Touroff (US) detailed the principles of operative treatment for acute putrid abscess of the lung in the era prior to antibiotic availability (1977).

Carl Gottfried Hartman (US) finally described the 28-day menstrual cycle and calculated the most fertile period for women as 11 to 14 days after the first day of the menstrual flow (1174). 

C.U. Ariens Kappers (US), G. Carl Huber (US), and Elizabeth Caroline Crosby (US) wrote their very important and influential book, The Comparative Anatomy of the Nervous System of Vertebrates, Including Man (1403).

Alvin John Elliott (US) invented the sterile evacuated tube for blood transfer (810, 811).

Henry Norman Bethune (CA) realized that a frequent cause of death on the battlefield is medical shock brought on by loss of blood and that a casualty whose wounds do not appear life threatening could suddenly die. He conceived the idea of administering blood transfusions on the spot. He developed the world's first mobile medical unit. The unit contained dressings for 500 wounds, and enough supplies and medicine for 100 operations. Bethune organized a service to collect blood from donors and deliver it to the battlefront, thereby saving countless lives. His work during the Spanish Civil War in developing mobile medical units was a precursor to the later development of Mobile Army Surgical Hospital (MASH) units (1221, 2319). See, Dominique Jean Larrey, 1803.

Georges Girard (FR) and Jean-Marie Robic (FR) developed an anti-plague (Yersinia pestis) vaccine known as the EV strain (1033).

Remington Kellogg (US) wrote Review of the Archaeoceti, a landmark in cetology (1426).

Alvan T. Marston (GB) found Homo sapiens fossil remains at Swanscombe, England (1781). This specimen, sometimes referred to as Swanscombe Man, was thermoluminescence dated at ca. 225,000 years old. 

Nikolaas Tinbergen (NL) devised many important and ingenious experiments to test aspects of animal behavior such as the releaser concept of Lorenz, sexual fighting in birds, social organization among vertebrates, begging response, and orientation mechanism (2729-2735).

Robert A. Broom (ZA) discovered the fossil remains of Australopithecus transvaalensis: Homo africanus at Sterckfontein dolomitic limestone cave deposit, northwest of Krugersdorp, near Johannesburg, Transvaal, Republic of South Africa (304, 305). It was dated at ca. 3.26 M.Y.B.P.

The California Institute of Technology established its Marine Station at Corona del Mar, California.


“Now my own suspicion is that the Universe is not only queerer than we suppose, but queerer than we CAN suppose.” John Burdon Sanderson Haldane (1130).

“What does it matter to Science if her passionate servants are rich or poor, happy or unhappy, healthy or ill? She knows that they have been created to seek and to discover, and that they will seek and find until their strength dries up at its source. It is not in a scientist's power to struggle against his vocation: even on his days of disgust or rebellion his steps lead him inevitably back to his laboratory apparatus.” Eve Curie Labouisse in her biography of Madame Curie (1555).

Clinton Joseph Davisson (US) and George Paget Thomson (GB) were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for their experimental discovery of the diffraction of electrons by crystals.

Walter Norman Haworth (GB) for his investigations on carbohydrates and vitamin C and Paul Karrer (RU-CH) for his investigations on carotenoids, flavins, and vitamins A and B2 were awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry.

Albert Imre Szent-Györgyi (HU-US) was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his discoveries in connection with the biological combustion processes, with special reference to vitamin C and the catalysis of fumaric acid.

William S. Koffman (US) developed a rapid photoelectric method for the determination of glucose in blood and urine (1255).

Yasushige Ohmori (JP) reported a method for the determination of alkaline phosphatase in the blood (2007).

Tadeus Reichstein (PL-CH) discovered a steroid hormone from the adrenal cortex which he named substance M (cortisol) (2210).

Esmond Emerson Snell (US), Frank Morgan Strong (US), William Harold Peterson (US), and M. Swaminathan (IN) introduced microbial assays to estimation the concentration of growth factors, including vitamins (2546, 2669).

Vilém Laufberger (CZ) isolated a crystallizable protein from horse spleen, which contained over 20 per cent by dry weight of iron. He named it ferritine (ferritin) and speculated that it served as a depot for iron in the body (1603).

Arthur L. Schade (US) and Leona Caroline (US) identified transferrin as an abundant plasma iron transport protein (2377). Both ferritin and transferrin sequester iron to keep it nonreactive.

M. Edward Kaighn (US), Alfred M. Prince (US), Michael K. Skinner (US), Michael D. Griswold (US), Kathleen R. Zahs (US), Violeta Bigornia (US), and Christian F. Deschepper (US) reported that transferrin is actively secreted by hepatocytes, Sertoli cells of the testes, and distinct cells at the blood/brain barrier (1390, 2517, 3094).

Kevin M. Shannon (US), James W. Larrick (US), Samuel A. Fulcher (US), Kathy B. Burck (US), John Pacely (US), Jack C. Davis (US), and David B. Ring (US) determined that transferrin receptor, TFR1, is found on rapidly dividing cells, on activated lymphocytes, and on erythroid precursors. TFR1 binds diferric transferrin to internalize it (2457).

Hiromi Gunshin (US), Bryan Mackenzie (US), Urs V. Berger (US), Yoshimi Gunshin (US), Michael F. Romero (US), Walter F. Boron (US), Stephan Nussberger (US), John L. Gollan (US), and Matthias A. Hediger (US) determined that most iron enters the body by way of the duodenum where it is pumped through enterocytes by a proton-coupled metal-ion transporter (1102).

Alexander Krause (DE), Susanne Neitz (DE), Hans-Jürgen Mägert (DE), Axel Schulz (DE), Wolf-Georg Forssmann (DE), Peter Schulz-Knappe (DE), Knut Adermann (DE), Christina H. Park (US), Erika V. Valore (US), Alan J. Waring (US), Thomas Ganz (US), Christelle Pigeon (FR), Gennady Ilyin (FR), Brice Courselaud (FR), Patricia Leroyer (FR), Bruno Turlin (FR), Pierre Brissot (FR), and Olivier Loréal (FR) discovered hepcidin, a peptide hormone produced in the liver, that has primary responsibility for modulating iron availability to meet iron needs (1504, 2037, 2100).

Cindy N. Roy (US), David A. Weinstein (US), and Nancy C. Andrews (US) proposed a central role for hepcidin in anemia of chronic disease, linking the inflammatory process with iron recycling and erythropoiesis (2312). 

Elizabeta Nemeth (US), Marie S. Tuttle (US), Julie Powelson (US), Michael B. Vaughn (US), Adriana Donovan (US), Diane McVey Ward (US), Tomas Ganz (US), Jerry Kaplan (US), Ivana de Domenico (US), Charles Langelier (US), Wesley L. Sundquist (US), and Giovanni Musci (IT) found that hepcidin binds to cell-surface ferroportin, triggering its tyrosine phosphorylation, internalization, and ubiquitin-mediated degradation in lysosomes. By removing ferroportin from the plasma membrane, hepcidin shuts off cellular iron export. This is particularly important in the intestine, where inactivation of basolateral ferroportin leads to retention of iron in the intestinal epithelium, and in iron-recycling macrophages of the reticuloendothelial system, where inactivation of ferroportin interrupts release of iron recovered from senescent erythrocytes (625, 1973).

George C. Shaw (US), John J. Cope (US), Liangtao Li (US), Kenneth Corson (US), Candace Hersey (US), Gabriele E. Ackermann (US), Babette Gwynn (US), Amy J. Lambert (US), Rebecca A. Wingert (US), David Traver (US), Nikolaus S. Trede (US), Bruce A. Barut (US), Yi Zhou (US), Emmanuel Minet (US), Adriana Donovan (US), Alison Brownie (US), Rena Balzan (MT), Mitchell J. Weiss (US), Luanna L. Peters (US), Jerry Kaplan (US), Leonard I. Zon (US), and Barry H. Paw (US) found that precise regulation of iron transport in mitochondria is essential for heme biosynthesis, hemoglobin production, and Fe-S cluster protein assembly during red cell development. Mitoferrin functions as the principal mitochondrial iron importer essential for heme biosynthesis in vertebrate erythroblasts (2458).

Tomas Ganz (US) found that induction of hepcidin in inflammation and consequent iron sequestration augments innate immune defenses against invading pathogens. The resulting decrease in plasma iron levels eventually limits iron availability to erythropoiesis and contributes to the anemia associated with infection and inflammation (992).

Thomas T. Chen (US), Li Li (US), Dong-Hui Chung (US), Christopher D.C. Allen (US), Suzy V. Torti (US), Frank M. Torti (US), Jason G. Cyster (US), Chih-Ying Chen (US), Frances M. Brodsky (US), Eréne C. Niemi (US), Mary C. Nalamura (US), William E. Seaman (US), and Michael R. Daws (US) reported that ferritin receptors are present on lymphocytes and other cell types but their physiologic function has not been fully defined (448).

Alwin Max Pappenheimer, Jr. (US) isolated, crystallized, and characterized diphtheria toxin (2036). This was the first bacterial toxin to be obtained in pure crystalline form.

William Charlton (GB), Walter Norman Haworth (GB), Stanley Peat (GB), Edmund Langley Hirst (GB), Frederick A. Isherwood (GB), F. Smith (GB), William Zev Hazzid (GB), and Israel Lyon Chaikoff (GB-US) settled the basic structural features of the starch, and glycogen molecules (443, 1180, 1185, 1186).

Otto Fritz Meyerhof (DE-US) proposed that the splitting of ATP might supply energy to initiate the succession of events in muscular activity (1863).

Otto Fritz Meyerhof (DE-US), Walter Schulz (DE), Philipp Schuster (DE), Paul Ohlmeyer (DE-US), and Walter Möhle (DE) found that the oxidation of D-3-phosphoglyceraldehyde to D-3-phosphoglyceric acid requires phosphate, diphosphopyridine nucleotide (DPN), and adenosine diphosphate (ADP). It yields adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and reduced diphosphopyridine nucleotide (DPNH) (1882, 1883). 

Alexander Logie du Toit (ZA) championed continental drift and was the first to realize that the southern continents had at one time formed the super continent Gondwanaland (736). 

Eugene I. Rabinowitch (US) and Joseph Weiss (US) provided evidence that chlorophyll a can be oxidized by light and ferric compounds (2152).

Michael Heidelberger (US), Kai O. Pedersen (SE), and Elvin Abraham Kabat (US) determined the molecular weight of antibodies (1199, 1385). They were measuring mostly immunoglobulin gamma.

Rudolf Schoenheimer (DE-US) and David Rittenberg (US) found that the degradation and synthesis of saturated fatty acids proceeds two carbon atoms at a time and saturated fatty acids can be converted to mono-unsaturated fatty acids and vice versa. When mice were fed fatty acids labeled with deuterium, most of the deuterium was recovered in the fat tissues rather than being immediately utilized, i.e., newly ingested fat is stored whereas older fat is used. When water labeled with deuterium was administered to mice, it was found that 50 percent of the hydrogen atoms of cholesterol derived from the hydrogen atoms of the water. Body fat is not static, as was previously thought, but rather in a dynamic turnover state even when adequate fat is supplied in the diet (2250, 2403).

Rudolf Schoenheimer (DE-US), David Rittenberg (US), Marvin Fox (US), Albert S. Keston (US), and Sarah Ratner (US) used heavy nitrogen (N15) labeled amino acids to trace the fate of amino nitrogen and found that there was rapid changing and shifting, even though the overall movement might be small. In their words, “It is scarcely possible to reconcile our findings with any theory which requires a distinction between these two types of nitrogen. It has been shown that nitrogenous groupings of tissue proteins are constantly involved in chemical reactions; peptide linkages open, the amino acids liberated mix with others of the same species of whatever source, diet, or tissue. This mixture of amino acid molecules, while in the free state, takes part in a variety of chemical reactions: some reenter directly into vacant positions left open by the rupture of peptide linkages; others transfer their nitrogen to deaminated molecules to form new amino acids. These in turn continuously enter the same chemical cycles, which render the source of the nitrogen indistinguishable. Some body constituents like glutamic acid and aspartic acid and some proteins like those of the liver, serum, and other organs are more actively involved than others in this general metabolic pool originating from interactions of dietary nitrogen with the relatively larger quantities of reactive tissue nitrogen” (2401, 2404-2406).

This work on fats and proteins led to a biochemical generalization concerning the biochemical constituents of the body: The large, complex macromolecules are constantly involved in rapid chemical reactions with their smaller component units, a continuing and constant process of degradation and resynthesis. This generalization overthrew the prevailing opinion that the dietary constituents are used only for repair and for energetic purposes. 

Ernest Francois Auguste Fourneau (FR), Jacques Gustave Marie Tréfouël (FR), Frederico Nitti (FR), Daniel Bovet (CH-FR-IT), and Thérèse Tréfouël, née Boyer (FR) discovered the antibacterial activity of diasone (Diamidin), 4-4’ diaminodiphenyl sulfone, dihydrostreptomycin (DDS). It is also called dapsone (933).

Guy Henry Faget (US), Frederick A. Johansen (US), Sister Hilary Ross (US), R.C. Pogge (US), J.F. Dinan (US), Bernard M. Prejean (US), and C.G. Eccles (US) of the National Leprosarium, United States Marine Hospital #66, pioneered sulfone drug therapy. Dr. Faget and his staff demonstrated the efficacy of sulfone drugs, including Promin, Diasone, and Promizole in the treatment of Hansen's disease (leprosy) (855-858).

James A. Doull (US) carried out clinical trials on the efficacy of using diasone (Diamidin), 4-4’ diaminodiphenyl sulfone, and dihydrostreptomycin for the treatment of leprosy. It is also called DDS or dapsone. The trials were successful and even today it is still used in combination with antibiotics for treatment of Hansen’s disease (leprosy) (729).

André Pirson (DE) discovered that manganese is essential for oxygenic photosynthesis (2104, 2105). 

Albert Francis Blakeslee (US), Amos G. Avery (US), and Albert Levan (SE) discovered that the plant alkaloid colchicine—isolated from autumn crocus and other members of the genus Colchicum—could induce mutations in cells by interfering with cell division. It prevented chromosomes, once doubled, from being partitioned into daughter cells (219, 1635).

James Frederick Bonner (US) and James English, Jr. (US) discovered a plant wound hormone, which stimulates cell division. They called it traumatin. Chemically it is 1-decene-1, 10-dicarboxylic acid (251).

Don C. Zimmerman (US) and Carol A. Coudron (US) determined that the wound hormone results from a non-enzymatic oxidation of 12-oxo-trans-10-dodecenoic acid, the first compound in the jasmonic acid pathway (3099).

Charles E. Clifton (US) reported that both sodium azide and 2,4-dinitrophenol inhibit oxidative assimilation, therefore, suggesting an inhibition of energy transfer to the energy-requiring assimilatory reactions (487).

Henry Arnold Lardy (US) and Paul H. Phillips (US) gave the first clear evidence that 2,4-dinitrophenol interferes with the energy-coupling mechanism with the result that oxidation and glycolysis run rampant, while the energy is lost as heat rather than being conserved for work (1594).

Jacques Lucien Monod (FR) proved that agents, which uncouple oxidative phosphorylation, such as 2,4-dinitrophenol, completely blocked the shift from one substrate to the other. This suggested that the shift required synthesis of another enzyme thus requiring considerable energy (1907).

M.I. Nakhimovskaia (RU) was the first to survey the soil for the presence of actinomycetes antagonistic to bacteria. Of 80 isolates studied, 47 could suppress bacterial growth, but only 27 released antagonistic substances into the medium (1967).

Selig Hecht (PL-US) explained that when the eyes are exposed to light visual purple (rhodopsin) is converted into a nerve stimulator and retinene (retinal) (yellow). New visual purple is synthesized from vitamin A (retinol) obtained from the blood stream (1194).

Harry N. Holmes (US) and Ruth E. Corbet (US) crystallized vitamin A (retinol) from liver oil of mackerel and other fishes (1261).

Thaddeus Robert Rudolph Mann (PL-GB) found that in plant tissues the highest concentration of hematin (iron protoporphyrin) occurred in the meristematic tissues and concluded that these higher concentrations correlated with higher metabolic activity (1761, 1762).

Aleksandr Evseyevich Braunstein (RU) and Maria Grigorievna Kritzmann (RU) reported that in minced pigeon-breast muscle, the alpha-amino group of glutamic acid is transferred reversibly to pyruvic acid (to form alanine) or to oxaloacetate (to form aspartic acid) thus effecting a transamination reaction. This discovery provided a metabolic linkage between the ornithine cycle and the citric acid cycle (287).

Philip Pacy Cohen (US) pointed out problems of earlier papers on transamination then refined and made precise the study of transamination. Cohen originated the term transaminase for the enzyme catalyzing transamination (494, 495).

Herman Moritz Kalckar (DK-US), Vladimir Aleksandrovich Belitzer; Vladimir Aleksandrovich Belitser (RU), and Elena T. Tsibakova; Elena T. Tsibakowa (RU) independently supplied evidence that phosphorylation is coupled to respiration. They showed that when various intermediates in the tricarboxylic acid cycle were oxidized by buffered suspensions of freshly minced liver, kidney, or muscle tissue, inorganic phosphate present in the medium disappeared. Concomitantly, there was an increase in the concentration of organic phosphate compounds, such as glucose 6-phosphate and fructose 6-phosphate, whose phosphate groups are derived from ATP. When the tissue suspensions were deprived of oxygen or poisoned with cyanide, uptake of inorganic phosphate did not take place. It was therefore concluded that phosphorylation of ADP is coupled to aerobic respiration as a mechanism for energy recovery.

Belitzer and Tsibakova reported that the phosphorylation of creatine in pigeon heart muscle is coupled to the oxidation of any one of a number of metabolites (e.g., citrate, alpha-ketoglutarate, succinate, pyruvate, lactate, malate, fumarate) and that approximately two molecules of creatine phosphate are synthesized per atom of oxygen consumed (170, 1391, 1393, 1397).

Albert Imre Szent-Györgyi (HU-US) drawing on the earlier observations of Torsten Ludvig Thunberg (SE), Federico Battelli (IT), Lina Salomonovna Stern (LT-CH) and others assembled a logical sequence for the cellular oxidation of succinate: succinate—fumarate—malate—oxaloacetate. Especially significant was Szent-Györgyi’s observation that adding small amounts of oxaloacetate or malate to minced muscle suspensions evokes the utilization of an amount of oxygen far beyond that required to oxidize the added dicarboxylic acid to CO2 and water. From this and other experiments Szent-Györgyi concluded that these acids stimulate the oxidation of some endogenous substrate in the tissue, presumably glycogen, one molecule of malate or oxaloacetate promoting the oxidation of many molecules of the endogenous substrate (2675).

Carl Martius (DE) and Franz Knoop (DE), somewhat later, found that citrate is enzymatically oxidized to succinate by animal tissues in the sequence: citrate—alpha ketoglutarate—succinate (1789).

Hans Adolf Krebs (DE-GB), William Arthur Johnson (GB), and Leonard V. Eggleston (GB) observed that citric acid exerts a catalytic effect on the respiration of minced pigeon-breast muscle and that citrate is successively converted to alpha-ketoglutarate and succinate, and that oxaloacetate is converted into citrate by the addition of two carbon atoms from an unidentified source. From their conclusions and those of prior workers like Franz Knoop (DE), Carl Martius (DE), and Albert Imre Szent-Györgyi (HU-US) they proposed a citric acid cycle: citrate — isocitrate — oxalosuccinate — alpha-ketoglutarate — succinate — fumarate — malate —oxaloacetate — citrate (1518, 1522). This cycle has been found to exist in virtually all plants, animals, and aerobic microorganisms (1517) and has been called tricarboxylic acid cycle, citric acid cycle, and Krebs cycle.

Erwin Paul Negelein (DE) and Hans Joachim Wulff (DE) crystallized alcohol dehydrogenase from yeast (1972).

Mortimer Louis Anson (US) crystallized carboxypeptidase (67).

Robert A. Fulton (US) and Horatio C. Mason (US) produced the first evidence for the absorption and translocation of a bulky insecticidal molecule foreign to the plant, when they found that derris applied to the first two leaves of bean plants reduced the attack by the Mexican bean beetle (Chrysomelidae) on leaves subsequently produced (978). This was evidence that the insecticide had spread to become systemic.

Conrad Arnold Elvehjem (US), Robert James Madden (US), Frank Morgan Strong (US), and Dilworth Wayne Woolley (CA-US) demonstrated that lack of sufficient nicotinic acid (vitamin B3 or nicotinamide) in a dog’s diet leads to a disease called black-tongue (820-822). Pellagra is the human equivalent of black-tongue.

Homer William Smith (US) discovered that since inulin is completely filterable at the glomerulus and not reabsorbed, excreted, or synthesized by the renal tubules it can be used to measure glomerular filtration (2533).

Kenneth Vivian Thimann (GB-US) and Frits Warmolt Went (NL-US) suggested that depending on its concentration auxin might produce inhibitory effects in one tissue and stimulation in another, different tissues being characterized by a series of overlapping optimal concentration curves (2711, 2945).

George S. Avery, Jr. (US), Paul R. Burkholder (US) and Harriet B. Creighton (US) found that methyl 3-indole acetate, potassium 3-indole acetate, gamma-3-indole butyric acid, methyl gamma-3-indole butyrate, potassium gamma-3-indole butyrate, alpha-naphthalene acetic acid, potassium alpha-naphthyl acetate, methyl alpha-naphthyl acetate, ethyl alpha-naphthyl acetate, beta-3-indole propionic acid, and potassium beta-3-indole propionate are effective in promoting growth curvatures of the Avena coleoptile (Went method) (89).

Edward Calvin Kendall (US) and Dwight Joyce Ingle (US) characterized the relation between the adrenal gland and salt and water metabolism, a phenomenon that subsequently became the basis for a bioassay system that led to the recognition that the adrenal cortex secretes a mineralocorticoid hormone (aldosterone) (1430).

Dwight Joyce Ingle (US) and Edward Calvin Kendall (US) found that administration of adrenalcortical extracts or purified glucocorticoids to intact rats causes atrophy of the adrenal glands. Adrenal atrophy could be avoided by simultaneous administration of pituitary extracts (1332, 1335). 

Dwight Joyce Ingle (US), Choh Hao Li (CN-US), and Herbert McLean Evans (US) established that the changes in adrenal size and activity are mediated by the pituitary hormone adrenocorticotropin (1334, 1336, 1337). The elucidation of the feedback mechanism between the adrenal cortex and the pituitary became the model for similar studies. 

Alan Lloyd Hodgkin (GB) demonstrated the dependence of nerve conduction on the electronic spread of depolarization induced by local current from the region of the action potential to that ahead of it to cause enhanced excitability and excitation (1247, 1248).

Edward Holbrook Derrick (AU), Frank Macfarlane Burnet (AU), and Mavis Freeman (AU), worked on an outbreak of febrile disease among abattoir workers, described Q fever (Nine-Mile Fever) and Derrick designated Rickettsia burnetii (Coxiella burnetii) as the etiological agent (349-352, 678, 679). The Q stands for query and not Queensland as some writers have reported.

Gordon E. Davis (US) and Herald Rea Cox (US) identified a new rickettsial disease, which they called Nine Mile Fever (named for Nine Mile Creek where the ticks were collected). It is synonymous with Q fever (617).

Fred R. Beaudette (US) and Charles B. Hudson (US) were the first to isolate coronavirus. The source was chickens with infectious bronchitis (154).

David Arthur John Tyrrell (GB) and M.L. Bynoe (GB) used cultures of human ciliated embryonal trachea to propagate the first human coronavirus in vitro (2759).

Jane Parry (GB) reported that severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is likely caused by a strain of coronavirus (2043). It was later called SARS-Associated Coronavirus (SARS-CoV).

Victor M. Corman (DE), Isabelle Eckerle (DE), Tobias Bleicker (DE), Ali Muhammad Zaki (SA), Olfert Landt (DE), Monika Eschbach-Bludau (DE), Sander van Boheemen (NL), Robin Gopal (GB), Tobias M. Ballhause (DE), Theo M. Bestebroer (NL), Doreen Muth (DE), Marcel A. Müller (DE), Jan Felix Drexler (DE), Maria Zambon (GB), Albert D. Osterhaus (NL), Ron A.M. Fouchier (NL), and Christian Drosten (DE) first reported a novel coronavirus called “Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus” (MERS-CoV) in 2012 in Saudi Arabia (552).

Gilbert Julias Dalldorf (US), Margaret Douglass (US), and Horace Eddy Robinson (US) demonstrated the ability of one virus to modify the course of infection by another (infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus protected monkeys from infection by poliomyelitis) (592-595).

Thomas Milton Rivers (US) devised a set of postulates, similar to Koch’s, which were very useful in establishing the causal role of a virus in disease. River’s postulates, applicable to both animal and plant viruses, can be stated as follows:

1) The viral agent must be found either in the host’s body fluids at the time of the disease or in the cells showing specific lesions.

2) The viral agent obtained from the infected host must produce the specific disease in a suitable healthy animal or plant or provide evidence of infection in the form of antibodies (substances produced by vertebrates in response to a virus) against the viral agent. It is important to note that all host material used for inoculation must be free of any bacteria or other microorganisms.

3) Similar material from such newly infected animals or plants must in turn be capable of transmitting the disease in question to other hosts (2252).

Arthur Quinton Wells (GB) discovered and characterized the acid-fast bacillus Mycobacterium microti as the cause of an epizootic, chronic infection of the field vole, i.e., vole tuberculosis (2942).

Robert Lee Hill (GB), Fay Bendall (GB), and Ronald Scarisbrick (GB) discovered that light-induced oxygen evolution could be observed in cell-free granular preparations extracted from green leaves. Illumination of such preparations in the presence of artificial electron acceptors, such as ferricyanide or reducible dyes, caused evolution of oxygen and simultaneous reduction of the electron acceptor —this later became known as the Hill reaction. Carbon dioxide was apparently not required, nor was it reduced to a stable form that accumulated, suggesting that the photoreduction of carbon dioxide to hexose is a later step in photosynthesis. Electrons are being induced to flow away from water molecules to an acceptor, thus yielding molecular oxygen from the water. Yet in animal tissues electrons arising from organic substrates flow toward molecular oxygen, which is reduced to water. Clearly, the direction of electron flow is opposite to that in respiration. The energy of this reversed electron flow, which takes place only on illumination, comes from the absorbed light (1231-1236). The 1960 paper was the first to describe a ‘Z’-scheme for the two light reactions of photosynthesis.

H. Close Hesseltine (US) presented evidence indicating that pregnancy and diabetes mellitus are predisposing conditions for mycotic vulvovaginitis (1225).

John Burdon Sanderson Haldane (GB-IN) introduced the concept of genetic load which was defined as the proportion of the population that die each generation as a result of the action of selection on a genetic system (1129).

Tracy Morton Sonneborn (US) demonstrated the mechanism for inheritance of mating type in Paramecium aurelia. He determined that a single gene controlled mating type. This was the first gene to be demonstrated in the ciliates (2561-2564).

Gladwyn Kingsley Noble (US) and A.H. Schmidt (US) discovered that two groups of snakes, the pit vipers (Crotalidae) and the boas (Boidae) use thermal radiation from a warm-blooded animal such as a mouse to guide their striking motion (1990).

Theodore Holmes Bullock (US) and Friedrich P.J. Diecke (US) showed that pit vipers could detect long-wavelength infrared radiation (338).

Frank Fraser Darling (GB) did a classic field study of red deer and wrote A Herd of Red Deer. This research would be instructive reading for any aspiring field biologist (612).

Theodosius Grigorievich Dobzhansky (Ukrainian-US) authored Genetics and the Origin of Species in which he concluded that genetic mutations generate numerous variations thus providing the raw material for natural selection. This book also made a deep impression on naturalists by relating systematics to genetics (703).

Walter Michel (DE) was the first to produce artificial heterokaryons. He fused plant protoplasts from different species and genera (1887).

William Jacob Robbins (US), Mary A. Bartley (US) and Frederick Kavanagh (US) showed that vitamin B1 (thiamine) promotes the growth of tomato root tips and fungi in culture (2256, 2257). This was the first time that a vitamin was shown to be necessary for plant or fungal growth.

William Jacob Robbins (US) and Mary Stebbins (US), had by 1949, kept tomato roots through 131 consecutive passes in a solution of mineral salts, cane sugar, and thiamine or thiazole. A period of over twenty years!

Charles Drechsler (US) discovered that the fungus Arthrobotrys dactyloides throttles its nematode prey with nooses of three cells held out on a short stalk. A nematode worm passing through one of these traps triggers its closure. The cells triple in volume in a tenth of a second, constricting and ensnaring the worm for consumption (732).

Alfred Edwards Emerson (US), based on his work with termites, wrote the first of many articles defending the use of behavioral traits as taxonomic characters (824).

Per Fredrik Thorkelsson Scholander (SE-NO-US), Laurence Irving (US), Wilhelm Bjerknes (NO), Edda Bradstreet (US), Stuart W. Grinnell (US), Herschel V. Murdaugh, Jr. (US), Bodil M. Schmidt-Nielsen (DK-US), J.W. Wood (US), William L. Mitchell (US), Harold Theodore Hammel (US), David Hugh LeMessurier (AU), Edvard A. Hemmingsen (NO-US), and Walter F. Garey (US) investigated the physiology of deep diving mammals and found that: seals exhale prior to a dive, thus decreasing the nitrogen content of their lungs and avoiding the “bends.” The oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood is much greater in a seal than in man. The seal’s blood volume is relatively large, and both blood and muscles contain much larger amounts of hemoglobin, and thus hold more oxygen, than in mammals in general. A seal’s most characteristic response to an experimental dive is to slow the heart down to a few beats per minute (diving bradycardia is typical of all animals investigated; that is mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and even fishes which had been taken out of water); the blood is diverted to the most vital organs, notably the central nervous system and eyes. The muscles, which are able to function anaerobically through the formation of lactic acid, receive no blood and thus acquire an oxygen debt that is repaid when oxygen is again available at the termination of the dive.

For these investigations Scholander developed new methods for continuous recording of the respiratory metabolism of diving animals (1342, 1343, 1948, 2408-2418).

Julia Bell (GB) and John Burdon Sanderson Haldane (GB) described the first example of linkage in humans in X-linked pedigrees transmitting both hemophilia and color blindness (171).

Max Theiler (ZA-US), Hugh Hollingsworth Smith (US), Henrique A. Penna (BR), and Adhemar Paoliello (BR) carried out successful field trials of their yellow fever vaccine (2527, 2708).

Jacob Furth (US) and Morton Kahn (US) were the first to allude to cancer stem cell (CSC) or tumor-initiating cell principles. Using cell lines, they provided the first quantitative assay for the assessment of the frequency of the malignant cell maintaining the hematopoietic tumor. They showed that a single leukemic cell is able to transmit the systemic disease when transplanted into a mouse (981).

Robert Bruce (CA) and Hugo Van der Gaag (CA) used the spleen colony-forming assay (CFU-S) to show that only a small subset of primary cancer tissue is able to proliferate in vivo (323).

Tsvee Lapidot (CA), Christian Sirard (CA), Josef Vormoor (CA), Barbara Murdoch (CA), Trang Hoang (CA), Julio Caceres-Cortes (CA), Mark Minden (CA), Bruce Paterson (CA), Michael A. Caligiuri (US), Dominique Bonnet (CA) and John E. Dick (CA) showed that when isolated from acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients, only a small fraction of the tumor cells with a characteristic marker signature is able to establish leukemia in recipient mice (254, 1590).

Muhammad Al-Hajj (US), Max S. Wicha (US), Adalberto Benito-Hernandez (US), Sean J. Morrison (US), Michael F. Clarke (US), Sheila K. Singh (CA), Cynthia Hawkins (CA), Ian D. Clarke (CA), Jeremy A. Squire (CA), Jane Bayani (CA), Takuichiro Hide (CA), R. Mark Henkelman (CA), Michael D. Cusimano (CA), and Peter B. Dirks (CA) revealed that the cancer stem cell (CSC) concept extends beyond hematopoietic malignancies. They showed that human breast and brain tumors are not homogeneous, but rather contain a small subset of cells that can be prospectively isolated and are able to initiate phenotypically heterogeneous cancers in vivo (19, 2509).

Hans Popper (AT-US), Emil Mandel (AT), and Helene Mayer (AT) developed the creatinine clearance test for assessing kidney function (2117).

William Warrick Cardozo (US) concluded that sickle cell anemia is inherited following Mendelian law and is more frequent among black people or people of African descent (402).

Samuel Soskin (US) and Rachmiel Levine (PL-CA-US) espoused the concept of a hepatic threshold for glucose, defined as the blood glucose level at which glucose production and utilization by the liver exactly balance each other. They believed that the hepatic threshold for glucose is elevated in diabetes and lowered by insulin (2570).

Ludvig G. Browman (US) showed that the exposition of rats to continuous light interrupts the estral cycle inducing the state of persistent estrous (309).

Virginia Mayo Fiske (US) reported on the effect of light on sexual maturation, estrous cycles, and anterior pituitary in the rat (914).

Fuller Albright (US), Allen M. Butler (US), Aubrey Otis Hampton (US), and Philip H. Smith (US) described a syndrome (later to become Albright’s syndrome) distinguished by precocious puberty in girls, cystic bone disease, and brownish pigmentation of the skin (25).

Raphael Issacs (US), using careful cytological study of the cell types in lymphosarcoma leukemia, found that the cells are not lymphocytes, but lymphosarcoma cells, so that the condition is true lymphosarcoma cell leukemia (1345).

Abraham Albert Hijmans van den Bergh (NL) and Wilhelm Grotepass (NL) gave the first clinical and biochemical picture of variegate porphyria (VP) (2777).

Jan Gosta Waldenström (SE) described over one hundred patients with acute intermittent porphyria (AIP), most of who originated from a small village in Northern Sweden (2876). AIP is characterized by recurrent episodes of abdominal pain, vomiting, constipation, hypertension, tachycardia, and neurologic involvement including muscle weakness, mental changes, and even seizures.

Since this early observation, specific inherited deficiencies of enzymes within the heme synthetic pathway have been delineated that allow improved understanding of classification, pathogenesis, and genetic screening. 

L. James Strand (US), Bertram F. Felsher (US), Allan G. Redeker (US), and Harvey S. Marver (US) determined that acute intermittent porphyria is characterized as an autosomal dominant condition resulting from decreased levels of porphobilinogen deaminase (PBG) or hydroxymethylbilane synthase (HMB) (2651).

Robert Alexander McCance (GB), Elsie M. Widdowson (GB), Norman M. Keith (GB), Arnold E. Osterberg (GB), and Harry E. King (GB) observed that renal potassium clearances in excess of glomerular filtration rate often occurred (1420, 1810). This implied tubular secretion of potassium.

Robert Alexander McCance (GB) and Elsie M. Widdowson (GB) concluded that no physiologic mechanism of iron excretion exists. Consequently, absorption alone regulates body iron stores (1811). 

James Wenceslas Papez (US) published work on the limbic circuit and conceived a mechanism of emotion (hypocampo-thalamo-cingulate-hippocampal circuit) associated with this region of the brain (2035). Limbic means border.

Paul D. MacLean (US) coined the phrase limbic system and distinguished three limbic circuits based on function; emotions related to self-preservation (amygdala and hippocampus), emotions related to pleasure (cingulate gyrus and septum), and emotions related to social cooperation (parts of the hypothalamus and anteriorthalamus) (1746, 1747).

Paul D. MacLean (US) proposed that our skull holds not one brain, but three, each representing a distinct evolutionary stratum that has formed upon the older layer before it, like an archaeological site: the triune brain. The three levels are 1) the Reptilian Brain, 2) the Limbic System (Paleomammalian brain), and 3) the Neocortex (Neomammalian brain) (1748). 

Tracy J. Putnam (US) and H. Houston Merritt (US) were the first to discover that phenytoin (PHT) (also diphenylhydantoin) is a therapeutically effective substance when it counteracts electrically induced hyperexcitability and convulsions in the cat (1852, 2144).

Riojun Kinosita (JP-US) found that liver tumors could be readily induced by ingestion of dimethylaminoazobenzene, a dye known as " butter-yellow " (1452).

Wade H. Marshall (US), Clinton Nathan Woolsey (US), and Archibald Philip Bard (US) used the cathode ray oscilloscope and the evoked potential technique to develop detailed mapping of the somatic sensory area of the cerebral cortex of the cat and monkey (1779, 1780, 3079).

Walter Edward Dandy (US), in 1937, performed he first direct surgical approach and clipping of a cerebral aneurysm (608).

James Barrett Brown (US) achieved permanent survival of skin grafts exchanged between human monozygotic twins (314).

Alfred Wiskott (DE), Robert Anderson Aldrich (US), Arthur G. Steinberg (US), and Donald C. Campbell (US) described a syndrome characterized by a triad of eczema, profound thrombocytopenia, and frequent infections due to immunological deficiency. It is a sex-linked recessive disorder with a defect in both T and B cell function (29, 3039). It is often called Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome.

Thomas Hale Ham (US) established that in chronic hemolytic anemia with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) the lysis is affected by complement. He demonstrated a dose-response relationship (limited because hemolysis disappears with even very little dilution of serum), and that inhibition or destruction of complement or components of complement abrogated the lytic reaction (1136).

John Heysham Gibbon, Jr. (US) was the first to attempt a bypass of the heart using an external circulation. Partially replacing the circulation between the heart and the lungs, he managed to keep a cat alive in this way for four hours. Two years later, under sterile conditions, 3 out of 13 cats survived for more than 250 days following similar procedures, with the remaining animals living for between 1 and 23 days (1018, 1019). See, J.J.C. LeGallois, 1813, M. von Frey, 1885, and S. Brukhonenko, 1929.

Clarence Dennis (US), Dwight S. Spreng, Jr. (US), George E. Nelson (US), Karl E. Karlson (US), Russell M. Nelson (US), John V. Thomas (US), Walter Phillip Eder (US), and Richard L. Varco (US) reported the first case of open-heart surgery with machine-supported circulation and oxygenation. It was performed on April 1, 1951. This was apparently the first occasion for such an attempt to be made anywhere. The patient was a 4-year old child with a known inter-atrial septal defect who was previously operated upon with hope of repair by closed technique. When an attempt was made to take the patient off perfusion, the patient’s heart could not maintain the circulation, and the patient expired. Postmortem examination revealed that the lesion was not the simple secundum type of defect but rather an atrioventricular canal, a complicated set of anomalies (648).

Forest Dewey Dodrill (US), Edward Hill (US), and Robert A. Gerisch (US) performed the first clinically successful total left-sided heart bypass in a human on July 3, 1952. The machine was used to substitute for the left ventricle for 50 minutes while a surgical procedure was carried out to repair the mitral valve; the patient's own lungs were used to oxygenate the blood (709, 710).

John Heysham Gibbon, Jr. (US) successfully applied extracorporeal circulation in an 18 year old female with an atrial septal defect. Unfortunately he was unable to repeat this success in other humans (1020).

John Heysham Gibbon, Jr. (US), Arthur R.C. Dobell (US), and George B. Voigt (US) reported the closure of interventicular septal defects on dogs during open cardiotomy with the maintenance of the cardio-respiratory functions by a pump oxygenator (1022).

Erwin Chargaff (AT-US) and Kenneth B. Olson (US) discovered that protamine could neutralize heparin’s function as an anticoagulant (442).

Bernard J. Miller (US), John Heysham Gibbon, Jr. (US), and Mary Gibbon (US) used protamine to reverse the anticoagulation effects of sodium heparin during open-heart surgery (1892).

Clarence Walton Lillehei (US), Morley Cohen (US), Herbert E. Warden (US), and Richard L. Varco (US) used controlled cross-circulation to correct a ventricular septal defect in an 11-year-old boy. The boy's anesthetized father served as the oxygenator. Blood flow was routed from the patient's caval system to the father's femoral vein and lungs, where it was oxygenated and then returned to the patient's carotid artery. The cardiac defect was repaired with a total pump time course of 19 minutes. Over the ensuing 15 months, Lillehei operated on 45 patients with otherwise irreparable complex interventricular defects; most of these patients were less than 2 years old. Although cross-circulation was a major advance, it was not adopted for widespread use because it posed a serious risk to the "donor"  (1670).

Clarence Walton Lillehei (US) and Richard A. DeWall (US), in 1955, advanced the concept of a heart-lung machine. They called it a helix reservoir bubble oxygenator, which bubbled oxygen through the blood during the operation (1671).

John W. Kirklin (US), James W. Dushane (US), Robert T. Patrick (US), David E. Donald (US), Peter S. Hetzel (US), Harry G. Harshbarger (US), and Earl H. Wood (US) began a successful series of open-heart surgeries utilizing an extracorporeal circulation machine (a modified Mayo-Gibbon-IBM pump oxygenator) (1454).

These early versions of heart-lung machines were cumbersome and dangerous —often leaking blood, damaging blood cells and causing air embolisms (1021).

Clarence Walton Lillehei (US), Vincent L. Gott (US), Richard A. DeWall (US), and Richard L. Varco (US) used a pump oxygenator while correcting a pure mitral regurgitation with suture plication of the commissures under direct vision. Heart-lung machines had come of age (1672).

Arne Torkildsen (NO), in 1937, performed the first ventriculocisternostomy to relieve obstructive hydrocephalus. This is the surgical formation of an opening between the ventricles of the brain and the cerebellomedullary cistern (2745).

Andrew W. Contratto (US) and Samuel A. Levine (US) studied 180 cases of aortic stenosis, unassociated with other significant valve disease, 53 of which were examined post mortem. Among the cases an early history of rheumatic fever was common. A loud basal systolic murmur, a systolic thrill near the aortic area, and calcification of the valve were common. Disturbances in conduction such as bundle branch block and auriculoventricular block were common. Angina pectoris occurred in 22.7 % of the cases. There were 21 instances of syncope (527). 

William H. Lang (GB) positioned Cooksonia pertonii as the earliest known land-living vascular plant found in England and one of the earliest in the world (1586).

Dianne Edwards (GB) and E. Catherine W. Rogerson (GB) discovered Cooksonia pertonii near Brecon Beacons, England in 420 Ma rock (788, 789).

Ales Hrdlicka (CZ-US) proposed that America had been peopled from Asia via the Bering Strait (1302).

Dorothy Anne Elizabeth Garrod (GB), Dorothea Minola Alice Bate (GB), Theodore Doney McCowan  (GB), and Arthur Keith (GB) reported the discovery at Mugharet et-Tabun, Mount Carmel, southeast of Haifa, Israel of a fossilized female skeleton likely to be Homo sapiens neanderthalensis; Homo neanderthalensis. They also discovered Homo remains from roughly the same time period in a nearby cave named Mugharet es-Skhül (999, 1821). These specimens are dated at 30K-60K B.P. 

ca. 1938

James Gordon Horsfall (US) introduced chloranil as a fungicide for legume seed treatment (1286).


Richard Johann Kuhn (DE) was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work on carotenoids and vitamins. He was caused by the authorities of his country to decline the award but later received the diploma and the medal. 

Corneille Jean Francois Heymans (BE) was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for the discovery of the role played by the sinus and aortic mechanisms in the regulation of respiration.

William Thomas Astbury (GB), and Florence Ogilvy Bell (GB) presented the first x-ray diffraction pictures of DNA. They were of calf thymus DNA sent to them by Torbjörn Oskar Caspersson, the Swedish biochemist (78-80).

Max Ferdinand Perutz (AT-GB), John Desmond Bernal (GB), Isadore Fankuchen (US), Michael George Rossmann (US), Ann F. Cullis (GB), Hilary Muirhead (GB), Georg Will (GB), and Anthony C.T. North (GB) were among the first to report the tertiary and quaternary structure of a protein—hemoglobin and chymotrypsin. Perutz began this work as part of his Ph.D. thesis in 1937 (194, 2074-2081).

Guilio Fermi (GB), Max Ferdinand Perutz AT-GB), Boaz Shaanan (IL), and Roger Fourme (FR) determined the crystal structure of human deoxyhemoglobin at 1.74 Å resolution (888). 

Donald Dexter van Slyke (US), Alma Hiller (US), Robert T. Dillon (US), and Douglas A. MacFadyen (US) announced the discovery of the amino acid hydroxylysine, which they isolated from gelatin (2789).

James R. Weisiger (US), Elizabeth A. Jacobs (US), John Clark Sheehan (US), and William A. Bolhofer (US) later synthesized hydroxylysine (2462, 2934).

Albert Neuberger (DE-GB) discovered that ovalbumin, a protein from chicken egg white, contains a carbohydrate moiety. This marks the beginning of modern glycoprotein research (1976).

Virginia Clementine Irvine (US), Sydney Charles Bausor (US), Percy W. Zimmerman (US), Alfred E. Hitchcock (US), and Frank Wilcoxon (US) demonstrated that beta-naphthoxyacetic acid is an auxin (137, 1341, 3101).

Edward Charles Dodds (GB) discovered diethylstilbestrol (DES), a powerful synthetic hormone used to treat prostate conditions, to fatten cattle, to treat women at risk for miscarriage and as a morning-after contraceptive (705, 706).

In 1972 the prescribed form of diethylstilbestrol (DES) was proved carcinogenic in adult women as well as in fetuses, when unusual types of endometrial cancer, reminiscent of the adenocarcinomas of the vagina of DES daughters, developed in young women treated with DES for five years or longer.

Arthur Stoll (CH) and Albert Hoffman (CH-US), in 1938, produced lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) while trying to synthesize a new drug for the treatment of headaches. It is one of the most potent psychoactive drugs known (2644). Later it was shown to block or inhibit the action of the brain’s neurotransmitter serotonin (2097).

David Keilin (PL-GB) and Edward Francis Hartree (GB) described the mechanism of the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide by catalase (1417).

Felix Haurowitz (CZ-US) discovered the drastic change in crystalline shape of deoxyhemoglobin from hexagonal plates to elongated prisms as oxygen is taken up (1182). This is sometimes cited as the first observation of an allosteric reaction.

Lionel Ernest Howard Whitby (GB) reported that 2-(p-aminobenzene sulphonamide) pyridine is chemotherapeutically active in experimental infections in mice against pneumococci of Types I, II, III, V, VII, VIII and especially against Types I, VII, and VIII. It was as active as sulphanilamide against hemoltyic streptococcus and meningococcus (2965).

Maxwell Finland (RU-US), Elias Strauss (US), and Osler L. Peterson (US) reported that the sulfonamide, “Sulfadiazine was used in the treatment of 446 patients with various infections. It appeared to be highly effective in the treatment of…pneumococcic, staphylococcic and…pneumonias; meningococcic infections; acute infections of the upper respiratory tract including sinusitis; erysipelas; acute infections of the urinary tract, particularly those associated with Escherichia coli bacilluria, and acute gonorrheal arthritis…. Toxic effects…were relatively mild and infrequent” (897).

Emil L. Smith (US) demonstrated that chlorophyll is bound to proteins (2525).

Cornelis Adrianus Gerrit Wiersma (NL-US) identified the lateral giant interneuron as key to triggering the tail flip escape in response to a sharp tap on the animal's abdomen (2984, 2985).

Franklin B. Krasne (US) made one of the first attempts to analyze the synaptic basis for the release of an animal's fixed action pattern. In this case the neural controls of the crayfish escape response. More complex than a simple reflex, this response results from a 'decision' reached by the animal in response to a specific sort of stimulus. Once triggered, the response orchestrates the behavior of the animal's entire body. These escape behaviors are often found to be subject to simple forms of learning, including habituation, dishabituation and sensitization. For crayfish escape, the relevant question was whether habituation of the escape response occurred because the afferent pathway to the lateral giant interneuron, or the lateral giant interneuron itself, became less excitable with repeated stimulation, or because increasingly strong inhibition was imposed on the lateral giant interneuron circuit from elsewhere in the nervous system.

Krasne completed the general outline for the afferent path to the lateral giant interneuron, and therefore for the entire escape circuit. This was one of the first, if not the first, polysynaptic circuits for a fixed action pattern that had been so described. Second, he demonstrated that much, but not all, of behavioral habituation of the escape response could be accounted for by synaptic depression within one limb of the afferent path that carries nervous signals to the lateral giant interneuron (1501).

Archibald Vivian Hill (GB) found that, even in "isometric" contractions, the muscle fibers initially shorten. He proposed that skeletal muscles have two distinct components in series with each other: a contractile component that shortens when stimulated and an elastic component that lengthens under tension. Hill proposed an empirical relation for the force-velocity curve that emphasized the hyperbolic form of the data. This equation is still commonly used today: (force + a)(velocity + b) = (forcemax + a)b, where a and b are constants. The functional importance of the Hill equation is that it allowed scientists to clearly distinguish between slow-twitch and fast-twitch muscles and, using this relationship, develop force-power curves and determine peak power (1228).

John T. Manter (US) created an elegant force plate design which stands out from others because it was the first to record forces in three axes – vertical, fore–aft and lateral – and therefore is the prototype of the modern force plate used in biomechanics research as well as clinical orthopedics. His work appears to be the first to combine simultaneous measurements of individual foot forces and film to use the modern inverse dynamics approach to estimate the muscle forces acting at individual joints and for measuring mechanical work. Manter's inverse dynamics analysis of cat walking led him to conclude that some muscles may act isometrically (1765).

Herman Moritz Kalckar (DK-US) provided evidence for the production of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEPA) from fumaric or malic acids, observations that later provided an important clue to the mechanisms involved in the formation of glucose from non-carbohydrate sources in animal tissues (1392).

Carl Ferdinand Cori (CZ-US), Gerty Theresa Cori, née Radnitz (CZ-US), Sidney P. Colowick (US) and Gerhard Schmidt (DE-US) recognized that ATP is required to phosphorylate glucose and thus energize it for the biosynthesis of glycogen. They also discovered that if glycogen is broken down it is not hydrolyzed to glucose units but rather is converted to units of glucose-1-phosphate by phosphorylase in a readily reversible reaction. (Later it was discovered, by others, that the glycogen synthesis reaction is uridine-5’-triphosphate + glucose-1-phosphate yieldsuridine diphosphate glucose (UDPG), which yieldsglycogen in the presence of glycogen synthetase). They demonstrated the in vitro synthesis of amylose (the linear alpha 1,4-glycosidically linked polysaccharide) from glucose-1-phosphate. During breakdown the glucose-1-phosphate is converted to glucose-6-phosphate and this in turn undergoes other changes through a whole series of phosphate-containing compounds. Painstakingly the Coris detected these and fitted them into the proper niches of the breakdown course (546, 547, 550). Wilhelm Kiessling (DE) made very similar observations (1440, 1441). 

Arda Alden Green (US), Gerty Theresa Cori, née Radnitz (CZ-US), Carl Ferdinand Cori (CZ-US), and John L. Oncley (US) later crystallized phosphorylase (1078, 1079).

Charles Samuel Hanes (CA), in 1940, would show that higher plants are capable of carrying out the same reactions (1150).

William Cumming Rose (US) determined that ten amino acids are essential in the diet of the rat and dog (histidine, isoleucine, leucine. threonine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, valine, and arginine). The rat was found to survive in the absence of arginine but its growth was suboptimal (2276, 2288).

James Gordon Horsfall (US), Robert O. Magie (US), and Ross F. Suit (US) discovered that the Bordeaux mixture harms tomatoes by closing the leaf pores, weakening the cuticle around the pores, and hardening the lamella within the leaves and stunting the plants (1287).

Peter Wilhelm Joseph Holtz (DE), Rudolf Heise (DE), and Kathe Lüdtke (DE) determined that epinephrine (adrenaline) is made from norepinephrine (noradrenaline) in the chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla (1270). 

Johannes Van Overbeek (US) reported that certain nongeotropic mutants in maize did not show the usual inequality of auxin distribution (2786).

Lewis Charles Chadwick (US) and Donald C. Kiplinger (US) discovered that auxins promote rooting of stem cuttings of ornamental plants (426). 

Rudolf Signer (CH), Torbjörn Oskar Caspersson (SE), and Einar Hammarsten (SE) reported that the physical properties of calf thymus DNA suggested that the molecule is rod shaped, with a length approximately 300 times its width, and a molecular weight between 500,000 and 1,000,000 (2499).

Erhard Robert Fernholz (US) determined the structure of alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) (890).

Paul Karrer (RU-CH), Hans Heinrich Fritzsche (CH), Beat Heinrich Ringier (CH), and H. Salomon (CH) synthesized alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) and proved its biological role as a vitamin (1407).

Albert Edward Gillam (GB) and Isidore Morris Heilbron (GB), William Edward Jones (GB), Edgar Lederer (FR), and Franz H. Rathmann (FR) discovered that vitamin A (retinol) in the retinas of fresh water fishes differs from that found in other animals. This form is called vitamin A2 (1029, 1616).

W. William Sebrell (US) and Roy F. Butler (US) used canine experiments to show that some pellagra patients who resisted treatment with nicotinic acid were in fact simultaneously suffering from riboflavin (vitamin B2) deficiency (2428). Joseph Goldberger (SK-US) and George A. Wheeler (US) had called this condition pellagra sine pellagra but did not appreciate its underlying cause.

Samuel Lepkovsky (US), John C. Keresztesy (US), Joseph R. Stevens (US), Paul György (US), Richard Johann Kuhn (DE), Gerhard Wendt (DE), A. Ichiba (JP), and K. Michi (JP) isolated and crystallized pyridoxine (vitamin B6) (1115, 1329, 1434, 1541, 1629).

William C. Langston (US), William J. Darby (US), Carroll F. Shukers (US), and Paul L. Day (US) found that vitamin M (folic acid) is essential for the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) (1588). 

Wilhelm Sigmund Feldberg (DE-GB) and Charles Halliley Kellaway (GB) discovered that cobra venom contains a substance that causes the contraction of smooth muscle in the guinea pig. They determined that it is distinct from histamine, another known factor in inflammatory reactions. Relative to histamine, this new mediator has a longer duration of action and thus was called the slow reacting substance (SRS) (865).

Walter E. Brocklehurst (GB) refined its name to "slow reacting substance of anaphylaxis," or SRS-A (303). See Dahlen, 1980.

Robert C. Murphy (US) Sven Hammerstrom (SE), and Bengt Samuelsson (SE) elucidated the structure of the "slow reacting substance of anaphylaxis" (SRS-A) as a derivative of arachidonic acid, leukotriene (1949).

Georg Charles de Hevesy (HU-SE), Jakub (Jacob) Karol Parnas (PL), Tadeusz Baranowski; Tadeush Baranowski (PL), A. Jerzy Gutke (PL), Pawel Ostern (PL), and Tadeusz W. Korzybski (PL) conducted experiments with tissues, eggs, milk, and yeast fermentations using synthetic radioactive adenylic acid, in which it was possible to trace radioactive phosphorus. After a period of incubation a considerable portion of the active phosphorus was found in the sugar phosphoric acid esters fraction. Evidence indicated that this also occurs in bacteria, muscle, and yeast cells (626, 1495, 2039). These experiments are likely the first to use radioactive phoshorus in biological studies.

Wilhelm Kiessling (DE) and Otto Fritz Meyerhof (DE-US) found that adenylic acid and its allied phosphates act as coenzymes in the transfer of phosphates from phosphopyruvic acid to glucose (1442, 1443). Among these adenosine nucleotides are: adenylic acid, adenosine diphosphate and adenosine triphosphate, diadenosine pentaphosphoric acid, diadenosine tetraphosphoric acid, and the pyrophosphate. All apparently function as phosphate carriers in cellular glycolysis.

Otto Heinrich Warburg (DE) discovered flavoproteins on the basis of simple observations on lactobacilli that lack the red cytochromes. On exposure to air the intact cells become yellow. He isolated dehydrogenases, flavoproteins, and identified their coenzymes (2895).

Otto Heinrich Warburg (DE) and Walter Christian (DE) working with a preparation of D-amino oxidase isolated a flavin derivative, which would later be shown to be flavine-adenine-dinucleotide (FAD) (2903).

Erwin Haas (US) showed that this FAD is also the prosthetic group of a flavoprotein isolated from yeast (1119).

Michael Doudoroff (RU-US) discovered that riboflavin (vitamin B2) is directly involved in bacterial luminescence (722).

Hans W. Doerr (DE) stated that herpes simplex virus infection in man resulted from the endogenous production of a virus-like agent by the cell under the influence of certain stimuli, and were not caused by exogenous infection. Once the agent had been produced, it would act on the cells of susceptible animals (not man) as a true virus (712).

Frank Macfarlane Burnet (AU) and Stan W. Williams (AU) stated that ‘Herpes simplex infections, however, once contracted, seem to persist for life. The virus remains for the most part latent; but under the stimulus of trauma, fever, and so forth it may at any time be called into activity and provoke a visible herpetic lesion” (358).

Stephen Bartlett (GB), Anda G. Cotton (GB), Isaac Walker Rupel (US), Gustav Bohstedt (US), Edwin Bret Hart (US), Edwin C. Owen (GB), James Andrew Buchan Smith (GB), and Norman Charles Wright (GB) clearly established that bacteria of the rumen synthesize protein from nonproteinaceous material and are capable of obtaining nitrogen from sources such as urea. Significant amounts of protein is made available to the ruminant when the bacteria die and are digested (130, 2016, 2324).

Barbara McClintock (US) and Hermann Joseph Muller, Jr. (US) defined telomeres as special structures required for chromosome stability (prevention of fusion) (1819, 1938).

Herbert Göpfert (DE) and Hans Schaefer (DE) used extracellular electrodes to record, during synaptic transmission, the proper electrical response of the post-synaptic membrane, or endplate potential (1054).

Albert Claude (BE-US) reported RNA rich particles in the cytoplasm (473-475).

Torbjörn Oskar Caspersson (SE), Jack Schultz (US), Lennart Aquilonius (SE), and Jean Louis Auguste Brachet (BE) collected considerable evidence about the location of the nucleic acids within cells. Their work indicated that there is a correlation between high levels of protein synthesis and high levels of RNA synthesis. Caspersson also noted that most of the cytoplasmic RNA is concentrated in particles (271, 272, 412-418, 2424).

Edgar G. Anderson (US) and Leslie Hubricht (US) developed the concept of introgressive hybridization—usually termed “introgression”—and gave it its name. As the name implies, introgression refers to the gradual infiltration of germplasm of one species into another through repeated backcrossing (52).

Theodosius Grigorievich Dobzhansky (RU-US) and Alfred Henry Sturtevant (US) published the first account of the use of inversions in constructing a chromosomal phylogenetic tree (704).

William Ernest Castle (US), from his genetic studies in mice, concluded that albinism has no influence on body size (422).

Marcus Morton Rhoades (US) discovered the Dotted mutator gene in maize. It was found on a single ear of corn where it produced a phenotype of variegated endosperm characterized by purple dots on a colorless background (2221).

Barbara S. Burks (US) recorded the first case of autosomal linkage in man. It involved tooth deficiency and hair color (345).

Warren Weaver (US) is credited with being the first person to use the phrase molecular biology in its modern context. In his 1938 report to the Rockefeller Foundation he said, "Among the studies to which the Foundation is giving support is a series in a relatively new field, which may be called molecular biology” (2925). See, Karl Friedrich Wilhelm Ludwig, 1858.

Harry Plotz (US) grew the measles virus in the Macacus rhesus monkey, transferred it to chick embryo culture, then induced the disease in monkeys (2115). This work essentially proved the viral etiology of measles.

John Franklin Enders (US) and Thomas C. Peeples (US) grew the measles (rubeola) virus in several cell lines including human kidney tissue culture and observed that it induced the formation of multinucleated syncytia with a foamy appearance in cell culture. It was during these experiments that foamy virus (a retrovirus) was discovered (837).

Erich Traub (DE-US) showed that if you inject lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus into embryonic mice in utero, they grow up without making antibodies to it, even though it is very foreign. Mice infected as adults give a normal immune response (2752). Ray David Owen (US) would later call this phenomenon tolerance. See Owen, 1945.

Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV), and Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV) are members of the genus Alphavirus (family Togaviridae) transmitted by mosquitoes. Enzootic strains of EEEV and WEEV typically circulate among birds, whereas, VEEV circulates among rodents in forest or swamp habitats. Epizootic strains of VEEV, typically belonging to subtypes IAB and IC, circulate among equine amplification hosts in agricultural habitats, but are not known to persist in permanent foci. 

C.E. Beck (US), Ralph W.G. Wyckoff (US), Vladimir Kubes (US), and Francisco A. Ríos (US) were first to isolate the etiological agent of Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE). It came from specimens obtained during an equine epizootic in Venezuela in 1936 (155, 1530).

LeRoy D. Fothergill (US), John Holmes Dingle (US), Sidney Farber (US), and Marion L. Connerley (US) isolated EEEV from the brain tissue of several humans thus proving that it can infect man (931).

Leroy D. Fothergill (US), John Holmes Dingle (US), and Jacksolt Cabot Fellow (US) confirmed birds as playing a role in the transmission cycle of EEEV (932).

Beatrice F. Howitt (US) isolated the virus of equine encephalitis from the brain of a child (1300).

William Trager (US) was the first to successfully grow an arbovirus (equine encephalomyelitis) in insect tissue culture. He maintained fragments of tissue from the mosquito, Aedes aegypti for two to three weeks depending upon the tissue (2747).

Beatrice F. Howitt (US) isolated WEEV from a man infected with it during an epidemic in California. This proved that humans are susceptible (1301).

Rebecca R. Rico-Hesse (US), John T. Roehrig (VE), Dennis W. Trent (VE), and R.W. Dickerman (VE) reported that subtype IE VEEV strains have historically been considered enzootic and the mosquito Culex (Melanoconion) taeniopus is the proven enzootic vector for enzootic strains of this subtype (2240). Epizootic IAB and IC VEEV strains are thought to periodically emerge and then undergo extinction when they kill or immunize most equids.

Christina Ferro (CO), Jorge Boshell (CO), Abelardo C. Moncayo (US), Marta Gonzalez (CO), Marta L. Ahumada (CO), Wenli Kang (US), and Scott C. Weaver (US) found that enzootic and epizootic VEEV strains typically use mosquitoes from different species as vectors. Enzootic strains are believed to be transmitted almost exclusively by mosquitoes of the Spissipes section of the subgenus Melanoconion within the genus Culex (891).

Michael J. Turell (US), Joseph R. Bearman (US), Gary W. Neeley (US), Peter J. Bosak (US), Lisa M. Reed (US), Wayne J. Crans (US), Michael R. Sardelis (US), David J. Dohm (US), Benedict Pagac (US), and Richard G. Andre (US) reported that during some years, EEEV is transmitted to mammalian hosts by bridge vectors, mosquitoes that feed on both birds and mammals. Bridge vectors for EEEV include Coquilletidia perturbans and members of the genera Aedes, Ochlerotatus, and Culex. EEEV can also be found in the introduced species Aedes albopictus (the Asian tiger mosquito), and limited evidence suggests this mosquito might be a particularly efficient vector (259, 2366, 2754).

William Reisen (US) states that Culex tarsalis is the most important mosquito vector of arboviruses in western North America, responsible for maintenance, amplification and epidemic transmission of St. Louis and western equine encephalitis viruses in irrigated and riparian habitats. This species is also a vector of Llano Seco, Turlock, Gay Lodge, and Hart Park viruses, and several species of avian malaria. Cx. tarsalis is an efficient experimental vector of Japanese and Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses. Culex tarsalis appears to be the most important vector of WEEV with a variety of mammals as incidental hosts (2218).

Henry R. Shinefield (US) and Thomas E. Townsend (US) presented evidence that in humans, WEEV can cross the placenta (2479).

There is currently a VEEV vaccine available for both humans and horses. The live attenuated vaccine known as TC-83 is a strain of VEEV that was passed 83 times in guinea pig heart cells. There is also an inactivated form of the vaccine known as C-84 derived from the TC-83 strain. Currently only the C-84 vaccine is licensed for use in horses in the U.S. although countries such as Mexico and Colombia still produce the live vaccine for horses.

James D. Trask (US), Alfred J. Vignec (US), and John R. Paul (US) isolated poliovirus from human feces (2750, 2751).

John Franklin Enders (US), Thomas Huckle Weller (US), and Frederick Chapman Robbins (US) were the first to grow poliovirus in high titer in cell culture. They used human embryonic extraneural tissue (836, 838, 2941).

Jordi Casals (ES-US), Peter K. Olitsky (US), and Ralph O. Anslow (US) adapted type 2-poliomyelitis virus to suckling mice and showed that the brains of these animals contained antigen in sufficient concentration to fix complement with poliomyelitis antisera (407).

Joseph Louis Melnick (US) and Nada Ledinko (US) reported immunity following oral administration of poliomyelitis virus to monkeys (1848).

Hilary Koprowski (PL-US), George A. Jervis (US), and Thomas W. Norton (US) created the world's first polio vaccine, based on oral administration of attenuated poliovirus. In researching a potential polio vaccine, they had focused on live viruses that were attenuated (rendered non-virulent) rather than on killed viruses. They developed the polio vaccine by attenuating the virus in brain cells of the cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus), a New World species susceptible to polio. They then conducted the first human trial of his attenuated oral poliovirus vaccine, first treating themselves, then at a New York State facility for intellectually disabled children and children with epilepsy (1489).

Jonas Edward Salk (US) prepared a vaccine of chemically inactivated poliovirus (2345-2348). Why this vaccine was chosen for widespread use in lieu of either the Koprowski or Sabin vaccines is interesting. 

Albert Bruce Sabin (PL-US) developed a polio vaccine containing live attenuated viruses from the three known strains of poliovirus. He tried the vaccine on himself first then on prison volunteers. The vaccine did not displace the Salk vaccine until 1960 when its use abroad on more than 100 million people made it apparent that it was superior (2339, 2340).

Chief Medical Officer (GB) reported jaundice in a small group of individuals who had received injections of measles convalescent serum (2005). This very likely represents the first recorded cases of serum hepatitis.

Bodo van Borries (DE), Ernst August Friedrich Ruska (DE), Helmut Ruska (DE), and Gerhard Piekarski (DE) applied the electron microscope to the study of bacteria and viruses for the first time (2094-2096, 2775, 2776).

Edgar William Todd (GB) discovered that streptococci produce at least two different hemolysins, streptolysin O and streptolysin S (2738).

Rodolfo Robles (GT) proved that Mal del Pinto o Carate is caused by a spirochete in the genus Treponema. ref

Alfonso Armenteros (CU) and Grau Trjana (CU) discovered that the spirochete Treponema carateum (herrejoni) is the etiological agent of Mal del Pinto o Carate. Their studies were based on earlier studies—1927—by Salvador Gonzalez Herrejon (MX). ref 

M. Ruiz Castañeda (MX) showed that large numbers of Rickettsiae mooseri appear in the lungs of rats following intranasal inoculation  (420).

Herald Rea Cox (US) described the successful cultivation of rickettsia in the yolk sac of the developing chick embryo  (561). The family Coxiellaceae and the genus Coxiella, which contain the organism that causes Q fever, are named for him.

Samuel Rickard Christophers (GB) and James D. Fulton (GB) were the first to investigate the metabolism of malarial parasites (458).

Sterling Howard Emerson (US) studied the self-incompatibility system of Oenothera organensis and found that pollen rejection is a function of the style under control of a locus with multiple alleles (830).

Dirkje E. Reinders (NL) found that auxin present in concentrations as low as 1mg/liter stimulated water uptake in potato discs along with an increase in respiration and loss in dry weight (2216).

John Nathaniel Couch (US) discovered that scale insects and the fungus Septobasidium have a mutually reliant relationship, but that together they destroy their host tree (557).

Gottfried Samuel Fraenkel (DE-US) and John W.S. Pringle (GB) showed that the halteres, which replace the second pair of wings in the adult fly, actually function as miniature gyroscopes or balance organs (935).

Hans Spemann (DE) proposed the first cloning experiment, transferring a nucleus from an adult cell to an enucleated egg. In 1928, he used the nucleus from a 16-cell salamander embryo to create an identical twin (2575).

Robert W. Briggs (US) and Thomas J. King (US), working on the frog Rana pipiens, successfully transplanted living nuclei in multicellular organisms. They transplanted blastula nuclei into enucleated eggs, which then developed into normal embryos (301).

John Bertrand Gurdon (GB) transplanted intestinal epithelium-cell nuclei from Xenopus tadpoles into enucleated frog eggs and managed to produce 10 normal tadpoles. The logical consequence of Gurdon's success — that the nuclei of differentiated cells retain their totipotency — provided a key conceptual advance in developmental biology (1103, 1104). This work proved that genes are not lost or changed during cell differentiation — they are just differentially expressed. It became clear that their cytoplasmic environment profoundly influences the genes expressed in a nucleus.

John Burdon Sanderson Haldane (GB-IN) used the word clone (from Greek for "twig") to describe Gurdon's frog experiments of 1962 (1131).

John Bertrand Gurdon (GB) removed the nuclei from fertilized frogs’ eggs, replaced them with nuclei taken from cells of the gut of a single tadpole, and grew a number of frogs with identical genetic constitutions—an animal clone (1105, 1106).

Keith H.S. Campbell (GB), Jim McWhir (GB), William A. Ritchie (GB), and Ian Wilmut (GB) cloned identical lambs from differentiated, 9 day old embryo cells (397).

Ian Wilmut (GB), Angelika E. Schnieke (GB), Jim McWhir (GB), Alex J. Kind (GB), and Keith H. Campbell (GB) reported the birth of live lambs from three new cell populations established from adult mammary gland, fetus and embryo, i.e., the lambs were clones of adults. The fact that a lamb was derived from an adult cell confirms that differentiation of that cell did not involve the irreversible modification of genetic material required for development to term. The birth of lambs from differentiated fetal and adult cells also reinforces previous speculation that by inducing donor cells to become quiescent it will be possible to obtain normal development from a wide variety of differentiated cells (3023).

W.W. Ferguson (GB), A.H. Lewis (GB), and S.H. Watson (GB) discovered that trace quantities of molybdenum in the diet of ruminants causes diarrhea. The disease is called teart (887).

Lucy Wills (GB) and Barbara D.F. Evans (GB) determined that tropical macrocytic anemia could be treated successfully using autolyzed yeast extract and/or injections of crude liver extract but not with the purified liver extract (vitamin B12) used to treat pernicious anemia (3021).

Hugh R. Butt (US) and Albert M. Snell (US) reported that their clinical trials indicated a rough inverse relationship between prothrombin levels and coagulation time (377). This led to the use of vitamin K for the treatment of hemorrhage in humans.

Hugh R. Butt (US), Albert M. Snell (US), and Arnold E. Osterberg (US) reported the first successful correction of a vitamin K deficiency in a patient with biliary obstruction (and intraluminal bile acid deficiency). They showed that a crude vitamin K preparation was absorbed and effective only when given together with conjugated bile salts (378).

Maurice Bolks Visscher (US), Raymond C. Ingraham (US), Richard L. Varco (US), Charles W. Carr (US), Robert B. Dean (US), Dorothy Erickson (US), E. Stanton Fletcher, Jr. (US), Harry P. Gregor (US), Marian Sedin Bushet (US), and Dorothy Erickson Barker (US) demonstrated how the intestine handles electrolytes. They established that both anions and cations can be absorbed against a diffusion gradient and that there is a lengthwise gradient of absorption and secretion in the small intestine. They determined that there is a substantial two-way traffic of sodium between blood and lumen of the small intestine and colon and that there is a gradient of decreasing traffic from duodenum to colon.

Chyme is brought to isotonicity and neutrality in the duodenum and upper jejunum by a brisk flow of electrolytes in both directions across the intestinal mucosa. In the ileum there is net absorption of sodium, chloride, and water, with secretion of bicarbonate replacing chloride in the lumen. The colon performs the essential function of maintaining the volume of extracellular fluid by net absorption of the sodium that escapes absorption in the ileum. Ingraham and Visscher presented compelling evidence for the independence of absorptive and secretory fluxes (1338, 2814, 2815).

Henry Hubert Turner (US) described a series of young women with failure of sexual maturation, short stature, and neck webbing. These are the clinical symptoms of what later became known eponymically as Turner’s syndrome. Turner believed the symptoms were due to a defect in the anterior pituitary gland (2756). Today, we know the underlying cause is a 45XO karyotype.

Charles Edmund Ford (GB), Ken W. Jones (GB), Paul Emanuel Polani (ES-GB), J. Carlos De Almedia (BR), and Joseph H. Briggs (GB) discovered that gonadal dysgenesis (Turner’s syndrome) in humans is associated with a 45XO karyotype (925).

Alexander Benjamin Gutman (US) and Ethel Benedict Gutman (US) pointed out the increased serum activity of acid phosphatase in metastasizing prostate carcinoma and demonstrated the usefulness of measuring serum acid phosphatase levels in the diagnosis and management of patients with prostatic malignancy (1110).

David Bruce Dill (US) noted that reductions in maximal heart rate were as great as 40 to 50 beats per minute at an altitude of 17,500 feet; documented the phenomenon of hemoconcentration during both acute and chronic exposure to high altitude; discovered that the ability of some animals to adapt to high altitudes is more the result of quality than the quantity of their circulating hemoglobin; and showed that one way the human body adapts to higher temperature is by producing more perspiration which contains less salt per unit volume (693).

Sid Robinson (US) in his doctoral dissertation performed the first study ever done describing the effect of age and of strenuous physical training on the aerobic capacity of man. Here for the first time appeared the relationship between age and maximal heart rate as approximately 220 minus age, a finding confirmed many times since (2263).

Jerome W. Conn (US), Louis Harry Newburgh (US), Margaret W. Johnston (US), and Elizabeth S. Conn (US) were among the first to clearly recognize the relationship between obesity and adult-onset diabetes by showing the resumption of normal carbohydrate tolerance after attainment of normal weight in twenty of twenty-one patients (523).

Carl Müller (NO) first associated the physical signs, high cholesterol levels and autosomal dominant inheritance (1932).

Carl Müller (NO) identified the first patient ever who presented with xanthomas tuberosum and angina pectoris. Müller made a preliminary report of a number of cases in which he expressed that hypercholesterolemia is a frequent and important factor in heart disease, following which several new patients were referred to Müller and in 1939 he published his landmark paper (1933).

Julius Lempert (US) performed successful surgery for hearing restoration, now called Lempert's fenestration operation (1627). 

Samuel Rosen (US) mobilized the footplate of the stapes to restore hearing in otosclerosis--a procedure attempted by Jean Kessel (DE) in 1876 (2296).

John J. Shea, Jr. (US) developed the modern technique of footplate mobilization, soft tissue grafting of the oval window, and ossicular replacement. Shea is also credited with the first stapedotomy (2459, 2460).

Frederic Edward Mohs (US) developed the Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) technique in 1938 to remove skin cancer lesions. The Mohs procedure is considered the best method for treating certain types of skin cancer, especially of the head and neck, with cure rates approaching 100% (1902). Occasionally called chemosurgery.

Harvey Williams Cushing (US), Louise Charlette Eisenhardt (US), and Edward B. Schlesinger (US) published their milestone monograph on Meningiomas. Their Classification, Regional Behaviour, Life History and Surgical End Results (585).

The Congress of the United States passed the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of 1938. This act contained provisions dealing with prohibition of economic adulteration of food, mandatory food standards, truth in food labels or labeling, labeling of imitation foods as such, required labeling of foods with manufacturer’s name, address, net quantity of contents, name of the food, and ingredients of the food (521).

Harry Hatton (FR) and Joseph H. Connell (US) investigated the correlation between population age structures and severity of physical factors in the environment. They found that under very harsh conditions the population might be composed of a single dominant year class (524, 525, 1181).

Heinrich Klüver (US) and Paul C. Bucy (US) performed experimental lesion studies in monkeys, which demonstrated that large temporal lobe lesions that included the amygdala resulted in dramatic postoperative changes in behavior, including flattened affect, visual agnosia, hyperorality, and hypersexuality (1464).

South African fishermen, in 1938, netted a coelacanth off the coast of South Africa. It was identified as belonging to a group or subclass of fishes known as the Crossopterygia, or lobe-finned fish, which passed the heyday of their evolutionary history many millions of years ago and were thought to be extinct. It was named Latimeria chalumnae to honor Miss Courtenay Latimer, a museum curator, in East London, South Africa. Almost immediately living specimens were filmed in their native habitat (499, 2534, 2798).

Robert A. Broom (ZA) reported on and named the discovery of Australopithecus robustus: Paranthropus robustus (formerly Parathrops crassidens) by a schoolboy, Gert Terblanche, in 1938 at Kromdraai in South Africa. It had a body similar to that of A. africanus, but a larger and more robust skull and teeth. It existed between 2 and 1.5 million years ago. The massive face is flat or dished, with no forehead and large brow ridges. It has relatively small front teeth, but massive grinding teeth in a large lower jaw. Most specimens have sagittal crests. Its diet would have been mostly coarse, tough food that needed a lot of chewing. The average brain size is about 530 cc. Bones excavated with robustus skeletons indicate that they may have been used as digging tools (306, 307).

Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie (Journal of Animal Psychology), nowadays Ethology was founded.


“Already I was beginning to realize that a spectacle has no meaning except it be seen through the glass of a culture, a civilization, a craft.” Antoine de Saint Exupéry (629).

"Upon this gilded age, in its dark hour

Rains from the sky a meteoric shower

Of facts…they lie unquestioned, uncombined,

Wisdom enough to teach us of our ill

Is daily spun, but there exists no loom

To weave it into fabric." Edna St. Vincent Millay (1891).

“As man is now changing the composition of the atmosphere at a rate which must be very exceptional on the geological time scale, it is natural to seek for the probable effects of such a change. From the best laboratory observations it appears that the principal result of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide … would be a gradual increase in the mean temperature of the colder regions of the Earth.” Guy Stewart Callendar (388).

“The fungi in their reproduction and inheritance follow exactly the same laws that govern these activities in higher plants and animals.” Bernard Ogilvie Dodge (708).

Adolf Friedrich Johann Butenandt (DE), for his work on sex hormones, and Leopold Stefan Ruzicka (HR-CH), for his work on polymethylenes and higher terpenes, were awarded the Nobel Prize in chemistry. Butenandt was caused by the authorities of his country to decline the award but later received the diploma and the medal.

Gerhard J. Domagk (DE) was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for the discovery of the antibacterial effects of prontosil. (Caused by the authorities of his country to decline the award, but later received the diploma and the medal.)

Siemens AG (DE) produced the first commercial transmission electron microscope.

Werner E. Bachmann (US), J. Wayne Cole (US), and Alfred L. Wilds (US) accomplished the total synthesis of equilenin, a sex hormone from pregnant mares. This was particularly significant because it confirmed many of the assumptions about the configuration of the steroid ring structure (93).

Chester Wilson Emmons (US), Alexander Hollaender (US), Edgar Knapp (DE), A. Reuss (DE), Otto Risse (DE), and Hans Schreiber (DE) found that the maximum mutagenic response of bacteria to ultraviolet radiation corresponds with the peak absorption wavelengths for nucleic acid (834, 1468). This represented strong circumstantial evidence for the concept that genes consist of nucleic acid.

Frank E. Gardner (US), Paul C. Marth (US), and Lawrence P. Batjer (US) pioneered the use of 1-naphthalene-acetic acid for pre-harvest drop control in apples (993).

Vincent du Vigneaud (US), Joseph P. Chandler (US), Arden W. Moyer (US), Dorothy M. Keppel (US), Mildred Cohn (US), and George Bosworth Brown (US), through their studies of the amino acid methionine and related compounds, explained how the body shifts a methyl group from one compound to another. By such shifts the body sometimes completes the construction of a complicated molecule (739, 740).

Hermann Karl Felix Blaschko (DE-GB) was the first to propose a biosynthetic pathway for the production of catecholamines such as the hormone epinephrine (adrenaline) (221).

Walter L. Halle () had proposed a very similar pathway in 1906 (1134).

Toshiharu Nagatsu (US), Morton Levitt (US), and Sidney Udenfriend (US) confirmed Blaschko’s pathway (1961).

Linus Carl Pauling (US) and Carl George Niemann (US) discredited the theory that the amino acids of proteins exist in a cage like structure. Their evidence supported a chain structure (2054).

Jordi Folch (US) and Donald Dexter van Slyke (US) identified phosphatidyl serine (Folch and van Slyke 1939).

Henry Eyring (US) and Allen Edwin Stearn (US) suggested that denaturation of proteins involves breaking of salt linkages (formed by the mutual attraction of oppositely charged ions) and of covalent bonds (possibly the disulfide bonds of cystine units) (854). 

Rufus Lumry (US) and Henry Eyring (US) proposed a feasible mechanism to account for protein denaturation (1721).

A. Calvin Bratton (US) and Eli Kennerly Marshall, Jr. (US) developed a method for the quantitative determination of sulfonamides in blood and tissues. This method was important because it permitted a rational basis for dosage (281).

Samuel M. Ruben (US), William Zev Hassid (RU-GB-US), Martin David Kamen (CA-US), and Don DeVault (US) used the short-lived radioactive carbon, C11, as an indicator, to study the assimilation of C*O2 by barley. They found that leaves kept illuminated or in complete darkness for less than two and one-half hours formed radioactive carbohydrates. Leaves kept in the dark for over two and one-half hours did not form radioactive carbohydrates. This work with carbon 11 paved the way for isotope tracer research (2315, 2317).

Georg Borgström (SE-US) found that plant shoots exposed to ethylene exhibited positive geotropism associated with the predicted auxin distribution. Ethylene must in some way influence the transverse movement of auxin (256).

Paul Jackson Kramer (US) found that, “Most, and possibly under some circumstances all, of the water absorbed by transpiring plants is absorbed as a result of forces set in motion by loss of water in transpiration.” Water absorption in plants occurs slowly by osmotic means at night when transpiration is negligible and results in “root pressure” in the vascular system often leading to formation of droplets around the margins of leaves (guttation). During the day water is absorbed by forces originating in the shoot because of the dehydration caused by transpiration, and these forces extend through the living tissues of the root into the soil water (1498).

Ferenc Bruno Straub (GB) isolated and purified dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase from heart muscle tissue. It uses flavine adenine dinucleotide (diaphorase or coenzyme factor) as its prosthetic group (2652).  

Otto Heinrich Warburg (DE) and Walter Christian (DE) isolated an enzyme, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, which catalyzes the oxidation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate to 1,3-diphosphoglyceric acid. They demonstrated that this reaction required the presence of inorganic phosphate and oxidized DPN (NAD), which was converted to reduced DPN (NAD) during the reaction. The reduced coenzyme subsequently donated hydrogens to acetylaldehyde to produce ethyl alcohol (2894). 

Otto Heinrich Warburg (DE), Walter Christian (DE), and Theodor Bücher (DE), isolated an enzyme which converts 1,3-diphosphoglyceric acid + adenosine diphosphate (ADP) to 3-phosphoglyceric acid + adenosine triphosphate (ATP) (332, 2904). This was a particularly important discovery because for the first time it linked the release of chemical energy by oxidation to the substrate level synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), i.e., substrate level phosphorylation

Erwin Paul Negelein (DE) and Heinz Brömel (DE) determined that during glycolysis when glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate is acted upon by glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in the presence of inorganic phosphate the immediate product is 1,3-diphosphoglyceric acid (1970, 1971).

Leon A. Heppel (US) determined that K+ and Na+ are able to cross an animal cell membrane (1213-1215).

John Robert Raper (US) and Arie Jan Haagen-Smit (NL-US) discovered that hormones are used to control sexual behavior in species of Achlya, a common genus of aquatic fungi (2169-2176, 2181, 2195, 2196).

Trevor McMorris (US) and Alma Barksdale (US) isolated and characterized hormone A of Achlya. It was found to be a sterol and renamed antheridiol, the first steroid hormone found in either plants or the fungi (1836).

Daniel Israel Arnon (PL-US) and Perry R. Stout (US) discovered that molybdenum is essential for growth in all plants (72).

George Wells Beadle (US) proposed the "Teosinte Hypothesis," in which maize was domesticated from teosinte by human selection (144).

Paul Mangelsdorf (US) later suggested that maize was the product of hybridization between an undiscovered wild maize and Tripsacum, the "Tripartite Hypothesis" (1759). Most scientists currently support the “Teosinte Hypothesis.”

Harry E. Warmke (US) and Albert Francis Blakeslee (US) described the sex mechanism in polyploids of Melandrium (2912).

John Charles Walker (US) found that internal black spot in beets is a disease due to a soil boron deficiency (2883).

Juda Hirsch Quastel (GB-CA) carried out one of the earliest studies of brain metabolism when he focused on the energy-yielding oxidative processes in slices and homogenates of brain (2145).

Vladimir Aleksandrovich Engelhardt (RU) and Militsa Nikolaevna Liubimova (RU) discovered that Kühne’s myosin, isolated in 1864, possesses an ATPase activity believed to catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP and thereby directly link muscle contraction with ATP hydrolysis (842).

Frank A. Brown, Jr. (US) and Ona Cunningham (US) demonstrated the influence of the hormone from the sinus gland in the eyestalk of crustaceans on normal viability and ecdysis (311). See, Zeleny, 1905.

George Widmer Thorn (US), Lewis L. Engel (US), Harry Eisenberg (US), Samuel S. Dorrance (US), and Emerson Day (US) found that bilaterally adrenalectomized dogs, fed a constant diet of low sodium and chloride content, may be maintained in excellent condition, by means of the subcutaneous implantation of pellets of crystalline desoxy-corticosterone acetate. This demonstrated that Addison’s disease is due to a deficiency of adrenal cortical hormone (2714, 2715).

Thomas H. Jukes (US), Dilworth Wayne Woolley (CA-US), Harry A. Waisman (US), and Conrad Arnold Elvehjem (US) discovered that pantothenic acid prevents a type of dermatitis in chickens (1379, 3075).

Paul György (US) and C. Edward Poling (US) found that a greying of the hair in rats is caused by a deficiency of pantothenic acid (1118).

Floyd S. Daft (US), William Henry Sebrell (US), Sidney H. Babcock, Jr. (US), and Thomas H. Jukes (US) found that a deficiency of pantothenic acid in rats produces hemorrhagic adrenal necrosis (588, 589).

William D. Salmon (US) and Ruben William Engel (US) reported that a deficiency of pantothenic acid causes lesions in the adrenal glands of rats (2349).

Alan Lloyd Hodgkin (GB), Andrew Fielding Huxley (GB), Howard J. Curtis (US), and Kenneth Stewart Cole (US) directly measured the action potential within the nerve fiber (cells) (502, 580, 1249). “We have recently succeeded in inserting micro-electrodes into the giant axons of squids…. A small action potential was recorded from the upper end of the axon and this gradually increased as the electrode was lowered, until it reached a constant amplitude of 80-95 mv…. The axon appeared to be in a completely normal condition, for it survived and transmitted impulses for several hours…. These results…prove that the action potential arises at the surface” (1249).

Eric T. Stiller (US), John C. Keresztesy (US), Joseph R. Stevens (US), Stanton A. Harris (US), and Karl August Folkers (US) discovered the molecular structure of pyridoxine (vitamin B6) and synthesized it (1164, 1165, 2639). Its molecular structure is designated 2-methyl-3-hydroxyl-4, 5-di (hydroxymethyl)-pyridine. This vitamin is necessary for the synthesis and breakdown of amino acids, the building blocks of protein; aids in fat and carbohydrate metabolism; aids in the formation of antibodies; maintains the central nervous system; aids in the removal of excess fluid of premenstrual women; promotes healthy skin; reduces muscle spasms, leg cramps, hand numbness, nausea & stiffness of hands; and helps maintain a proper balance of sodium & phosphorous in the body. 

A deficiency of vitamin B6 may result in nervousness, insomnia, skin eruptions, loss of muscular control, anemia, mouth disorders, muscular weakness, dermatitis, arm and leg cramps, loss of hair, slow learning, and water retention.

David Keilin (PL-GB), Thaddeus Robert Rudolph Mann (PL-GB), Carl G. Holmberg (SE), Edwin L. Hove (NZ), Conrad Arnold Elvehjem (US), and Edwin Bret Hart (US) demonstrated that zinc is necessary in animal nutrition because it is a cofactor for certain enzymes (1258, 1296, 1418).

Vladimir Aleksandrovich Belitzer; Vladimir Aleksandrovich Belitser (RU), Elena T. Tsibakova (RU), and Severo Ochoa (ES-US-ES) made the first quantitative measurements of phosphorus and oxygen in the respiratory chain and determined that the P:O ratio is greater than one. Ochoa concluded that the P:O ratio during the oxidation of pyruvate to carbon dioxide is 3 (170, 1397, 2002, 2003).

W.J. Schmidt () gave the first evidence of fibrous organization in the living spindle with his observations of developing sea-urchin eggs made in 1937, and reinterpreted in 1939, with a polarizing microscope (2392).

Shinya Inoué (JP) gave the definitive visual demonstration of the existence of spindle fibers in untreated living cells (1340).

George Otto Gey (US) and Frederick B. Bang (US) were the first to report a cytopathic effect caused by a virus in cell culture. The agent was lymphopathia venera virus (1017).

Morris Frank Shaffer (US) and John Franklin Enders (US) developed a quantitative virus indicator system using counts of foci on the chorio-allantoic membrane of the chick (2444).

Ernest Everett Just (US) wrote The Biology of the Cell Surface (1384).

Johannes Friedrich Karl Holtfreter (DE-US) showed that if embryonic amphibian cells from different tissues are dissociated then mixed together the cells re-associate into tissue specific masses—so called histotypic aggregates (1267-1269). This is an application to vertebrates of Wilson’s discovery with sponges. See, Wilson, 1907.

Sven Otto Hörstadius (SE) described the differences in the early development of regulative eggs (each blastomere can give rise to a whole embryo) and mosaic eggs (isolated blastomeres produce only fragments of an embryo, i.e., determinate cleavage). He discovered the existence of a double gradient of animalization and vegetalization in the echinoderm egg (1288, 1289).

Carey H. Bostian (US) and Phineas W. Whiting (US) worked out the mechanism for sex determination in the hymenopterean, Habrobracon. Homozygosity or hemizygosity at a particular multiply allelic locus produces a male while heterozygosity at this same locus produces a female (260, 2976, 2977). Whiting went on to show that nine different alleles are known for this locus (2978).

Henry Arnold Lardy (US) and Paul H. Phillips (US) developed a medium for the preservation of animal sperm (1593).

Schack August Steenberg Krogh (DK) found that the kidneys of whales and seals can produce urine with a salt concentration higher than seawater, thus they are able to drink seawater to replace the water lost from their tissues to the surrounding ocean (1527). 

Emory Leon Ellis (US) and Max Ludwig Henning Delbrück (DE-US) demonstrated the one-step growth curve for phage. It showed that the progeny of the infecting phage particle appear only after a period of constant phage titer (815).

James R. Dawson (US), Israel J. Kligler (IL) and Hans Bernkopf (IL) cultivated rabies virus in the chick embryo (621, 1462).

Joseph I. Schleifstein (US) and Marion B. Coleman (US) were the first to recognize Yersinia enterocolitica as a human pathogen (2382).

Robert E. Black (US), Richard J. Jackson (US), Theodore F. Tsai (US), Michael Medvesky (US), Mehdi Shayegani (US), James C. Feeley (US), Kenneth I.E. MacLeod (US), and Adah M. Wakelee (US) first characterized Yersinia enterocolitica as food-borne (214).

Riitta Saario (FI), Rauli Leino (FI), Riitta Lahesmaa (FI), Kaisa Granfors (FI), Auli Toivanen (FI), Timo Yli-Kerttula (FI), Reijo Luukkainen (FI), Riitta Merilahti-Palo (FI), and Jouko Seppälä (FI) found that mild or inapparent infections of Yersinia enterocolitica may trigger autoimmune disorders such as thyroiditis and reactive arthritis, especially in individuals harboring the HLAB27 histocompatability allele (2338, 2740).

Mary E. Caldwell (US) and Dwight L. Ryerson (US) recovered members of the bacterial genus Arizona from cold-blooded animals (385).

René Jules Dubos (FR-US) and Roland D. Hotchkiss (US) isolated the antibiotics tyrocidin and gramicidin from Bacillus brevis, a common soil bacterium. Tyrocidin is toxic to all living cells; gramicidin, which is active both in the test tube and in animals against gram-positive bacteria, is, however, limited to external use because it destroys erythrocytes. Gramicidin was the first antibiotic to be produced commercially and employed clinically. It is still in use today (743, 744, 746).

Walter John Dowson (GB) named the bacterial genus Xanthomonas, but it had been known as a group for some time and its characteristics described (731).

Ian H. MacLean (GB), Keith B. Rogers (GB), and Alexander Fleming (GB) reported the first cases where microorganisms (pneumococcus) had developed resistance to sulfonamide (1745).

Hans Gaffron (DE) found that if certain unicellular green algae are deprived of oxygen, they cease to be capable of ordinary photosynthesis but become capable of reducing carbon dioxide in light if hydrogen is provided as a substitute reductant to replace water (986).

George Henry Hepting (US) identified the previously undescribed cause of wilt disease in mimosa as Fusarium. This was one of the first reports of tree disease caused by a fungal species in this taxonomic group (1216).

Carl G. Hartman (US), Chester Henry Heuser (US) and George Linius Streeter (US) followed macaque monkey embryonic development from the two-cell stage to the end of the embryonic period. Theirs is the first such complete description in a primate (1175, 1226).

Hugh G. Grady (US) and Harold L. Stewart (US) first identified the type 2 cell of the pulmonary alveolus as the cell of origin of the common alveologenic tumors of the lungs of mice (1063).

Carl Pfaffman (US) described directionally sensitive cat mechanoreceptors (2089).

A Committee for the Standardization of Blood Pressure Readings defined diastolic and systolic pressures as: “The systolic pressure is the highest level at which successive sounds are heard…. The point where the loud clear sounds change abruptly to the dull and muffled sounds should be taken as the diastolic pressure. The American Committee recommend that if there is a difference between this point and the level at which the sounds disappear completely the latter reading should be regarded also as a measure of the diastolic pressure” (2204).

Norman Macdonnell Keith (US), Henry P. Wegener (US), and Nelson W. Barker (US) created four groups for hypertension, ranging from the benign group 1 to the so-called malignant hypertension as belonging to Group 4 (1422).

Karl Sune Detlof Bergström (SE), Rune Eliasson (SE), Hans Dunér (SE), Ulf Svante Hansson von Euler-Chelpin (SE), Jan Sjövall (SE), and Bengt Pernow (SE) performed the first study on the cardiovascular effects of the pure prostaglandins in humans (189, 190).

Konrad Schäfer (DE) and Hildegard Gisela Gennerich (DE) started the study of platelet antigens when they proved the presence of AB blood-group antigens on human platelets (2378).

Norman M. Keith (US), Henry P. Wagener (US), and Nelson W. Barker (US) described some different types of hypertension, their course and prognosis (1421).

Robert Edward Gross (US) and John Perry Hubbard (US) were the first to carry out a successful ligation of a patent ductus arteriosus (a fetal blood vessel between the pulmonary artery and the aorta) (1092). The operation was performed on August 28, 1938. The patient made an uneventful recovery.

John C. Munro (US) had justified and described (but did not perform) an operation for ligation of the ductus arteriosus to repair patent ductus arteriosus (1947).

Percival Bailey (US), Douglas Nisbet Buchanan (US), and Paul Clancy Bucy (US) wrote the first serious and detailed study of intracranial tumors of infancy and childhood (101).

A. Gordon Ide (US), Norman H. Baker (US), and Stafford L. Warren (US) made the seminal suggestion that tumors might produce a vessel growth-stimulating substance (1330).

Glenn H. Algire (US), Harold W. Chalkley (US), Frances Y. Legallais (US), and Helen D. Park (US) postulated that the growth advantage of a tumor cell over its normal counterpart might not be due to "some hypothetical capacity for autonomous growth inherent within the [tumor] cell," but rather to its ability to continuously induce angiogenesis — that is, the formation of new blood vessels. They watched blood vessels migrate toward tumors in wound chambers. This was the first demonstration that tumors actively attract new blood vessels (30-32).

Isaac C. Michelson (GB) gave the first description of an angiogenic activity, regulated by oxygen, elaborated by the retina and mediating abnormal, retinopathic vessel growth (1890). Michelson's 'factor X' was eventually identified as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and confirmed to be the underlying causal factor of retinopathies.

Melvin Greenblatt (US), Philippe Shubik (GB-US), Robert L. Ehrmann (US), and Mogens Knoth (US) showed that tumor transplants stimulated the proliferation of blood vessels via a true diffusible substance that could, in theory, be identified (798, 1081).

Moses Judah Folkman (US) introduced the concept that angiogenesis inhibitors could be used in the treatment of cancer (920).

Moses Judah Folkman (US), Ezio Merler (US), Charles Abernathy (US), and Gretchen Williams (US) isolated just such a tumor angiogenic factor (TAF) from tumor extracts, and proposed that the growth of malignancies might be prevented if TAF activity were blocked (919, 921, 922).

Michael A. Gimbrone, Jr. (US), Stephen B. Leapman (US), Ramzi S. Cotran (US), and Moses Judah Folkman (US) reported that small balls of living tumor cells do not increase in size when suspended in the anterior chamber of the eye where they are deprived of vascularization. When such dormant balls of cells are moved from the anterior chamber to a nearby spot in the eye where they can attract vessels from the iris, they then grow exponentially. This is the first paper to provide direct evidence that the progressive growth of a tumor can indeed be absolutely dependent on angiogenesis (1032).

David W. Leung (US), George Cachianes (US), Wun Jing Kuang (US), David V. Goeddel (US), and Napoleone Ferrara (US) purified and subsequently identified the gene encoding vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) which is a secreted protein that can stimulate both vascular endothelial cell proliferation in vitro and angiogenesis in vivo (1633).

K. Jin Kim (US), Li Bing (US), Jane Winer (US), Mark Armanini (US), Nancy Gillett (US), Heidi S. Phillips (US), and Napoleone Ferrara (US) demonstrated that monoclonal antibody specific for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibited the growth of the tumors, but had no effect on the growth rate of the tumor cells in vitro (1445).

Douglas Hanahan (US) and Moses Judah Folkman (US) found that tumors appear to activate the angiogenic switch by changing the balance of angiogenesis inducers and countervailing inhibitors (1148).

Julian Sorell Huxley (GB) introduced the concept of the cline in evolutionary variation (1326). Cline is the gradual and continuous variation in genetic character over an extensive geographical area because of adjustments to changing conditions.

ca. 1940

It was established by general consensus that the vast majority of proteins are built up from a mixture of no more than 20 amino acids. From 1819 through 1936 only 20 amino acids had been found to be constituents of proteins based on isolation from protein hydrolysates.


“Men think themselves free, because they are conscious of their volitions and of their desires and are oblivious to the causes which dispose them to desire and to will.” Charles Scott Sherrington (2474).

Samuel M. Ruben (US) and Martin David Kamen (CA-US) isolated carbon-14, which has a half-life of 5730 years. It quickly became one of the most useful of all isotopes in biochemical research and has also been turned to historical and archaeological use. Carbon-14 did not become widely available for metabolic studies until after World War II (1399).

Alfred Otto Carl Nier (US) published the description of a mass spectrometer for routine isotope abundance measurements and suggested that the apparatus was sufficiently accurate to measure the 13C/12C ratio if separated 13C was used as a tracer in biological investigations (1985).

Charles Dubois Coryell (US) introduced the terms exergonic and endergonic to denote free-energy changes in chemical reactions (555).

Ammonium sulfamate was introduced as a herbicide for control of woody plants. ref

Andrei Nikolaevitch Belozersky (RU) found that both DNA and RNA are always present in bacteria (175).

Doris Elaine Dolby (GB), Leslie Charles Nunn (GB), and Ida Smedley-MacLean (US) discussed the possibility that linoleic acid could be a physiological precursor to arachidonic acid (714).

Roger J. Williams (US) and Randolph T. Major (US) determined the structure of pantothenic acid (3018).

Eric T. Stiller (US), Stanton A. Harris (US), Jacob Finkelstein (US), John C. Keresztesy (US), and Karl August Folkers (US), achieved the total synthesis of pure pantothenic acid (2638).

Robert E. Eakin (US), Esmond Emerson Snell (US), Roger John Williams (US), and William A. McKinley (US) isolated from raw egg white a protein called injury-producing protein, which they named avidin (756-758). This protein forms a strong union with biotin (vitamin H) and prevents its absorption from the intestinal tract.

Moses Kunitz (RU-US) described the isolation of bovine ribonuclease in crystalline form (1545).

Leslie A. Epstein (US); Leslie A. (Epstein) Falk and Ernst Boris Chain (DE-GB) showed that lysozyme is an enzyme, that its substrate is peptidoglycan of bacterial cells, and that it hydrolyzes a beta-1, 4-glycosidic bond in the glycan backbone chain (845).

Heinz Ludwig Fraenkel-Conrat (DE-US), Choh Hao Li (CN-US), Miriam E. Simpson (US), and Herbert McLean Evans (US) biologically characterized then isolated the luteinizing hormone (LH), also known as interstitial cell-stimulating hormone (ICSH) in males (936, 937, 1663).

Edward Lawrie Tatum (US) and George Wells Beadle (US) isolated and crystallized what was called the v+ hormone from a bacterial culture supplied with tryptophan (2692).

Willard F. Verwey (US) was the first to describe staphylococcal protein A (SPA). He characterized it as a protein antigen present in type A staphylococci (coagulase-positive, alpha toxin positive, mannitol fermenting, and pathogenic; i.e., S. aureus) but not in the type B staphylococci (those lacking these characteristics) (2804).

Arne Grov (NO), Berit Myklestad (NO), and Per Oeding (NO) proposed the designation protein A (1094).

Arne Forsgren (SE) and John Sjoquist (SE) showed that the well-recognized ability of all human sera to agglutinate S. aureus, which had been attributed to the universal presence of so-called natural antibodies, did not in fact represent an immune reaction. They showed that purified SPA bound to the Fc fragment of the immunoglobulin molecule, not to the antigen-binding Fab fragment (928). SPA became a valuable agent for immunochemistry and immunoassays.

Zacharias Dische (FR) discovered that the phosphorylation of glucose in erythrocytes is prevented by addition of phosphoglycerate. This may be the first example of end-product (negative feedback) inhibition (696).

Ferenc Brunó Straub (HU) reported the crystallization of lactic dehydrogenase from beef heart muscle (2653).

Wilbur Paul Wiggert (US), Milton Silverman (US), Merton Franklin Utter (US), and Chester Hamlin Werkman (US) were the first to obtain soluble enzyme preparations capable of fermenting carbohydrates from bacteria (2986). This opened the way for bacteria to be used as experimental material in the study of metabolic pathways.

Merton Franklin Utter (US) and Chester Hamlin Werkman (US) demonstrated that bacteria have fermentative pathways involving many of the same reactions as yeast and muscle (2772, 2773). 

Otto Gsell (CH) performed the first important trial of sulphatiazole (1095).

Donald Devereux Woods (GB) and Paul Gordon Fildes (GB) postulated that sulphanilamide acts by blocking the utilization of p-aminobenzoic acid by bacteria. This represents the origin of the essential metabolite inhibition hypothesis (3064-3066).

Sydney Dattilo Rubbo (AU) and J.M. Gillespie (AU) proved that p-aminobenzoic acid is a vitamin for bacteria (2313).

Edward Nielsen (US), J.J. Oleson (US), Conrad Arnold Elvehjem (US), Gustav Julius Martin (US) and Stefan Ansbacher (US) proved that for rats p-aminobenzoic acid is a vitamin (1785, 1984).

Dilworth Wayne Woolley (CA-US), Gertrude Gavin (CA), and Earle W. McHenry (CA) demonstrated that inositol is a vitamin in the diet of mice and rats (1006, 3072-3074).

Andrew J. Krog (US), and Charles G. Marshall (US) used a swab technique to establish the bactericidal action of Zephiran, a quaternary ammonium compound, against bacteria commonly found on eating and drinking utensils. A one-minute exposure to a 1: 5,000 dilution was apparently sufficient to reduce bacteria surviving on tumblers to less than 100 per rim  (1526).

Ernst Boris Chain (DE-GB), Howard Walter Florey (AU-GB), Arthur Duncan Gardner (GB), Norman G. Heatley (GB), Margaret Augusta Jennings (GB), Jena Orr-Ewing (GB), A. Gordon Sanders (GB), Edward Penley Abraham (GB), and Charles M. Fletcher (GB) developed the cultural and chemical methodology to produce pure penicillin from Penicillium and found that it displays potent in vivo antimicrobial activity against certain pathogens. This antibiotic was first used clinically on an Oxford, England policeman suffering from staphylococcal pyemia (6, 431).

Kenneth Bryan Raper (US), working at the Northern Regional Research Laboratory, isolated Penicillium chrysogenum strain NRRL 1951 from a moldy cantaloupe brought to him by a Peoria, Illinois housewife in 1943. This strain could produce large quantities of penicillin in submerged culture and subsequently became the parent of most all strains used in the production of penicillin. Once larger quantities of the antibiotic were available it was used to treat war casualties in Tunisia and Sicily in 1943.

Selman Abraham Waksman (RU-US) and Harold Boyd Woodruff (US) isolated the antibiotic actinomycin D from Streptomyces antibioticus. This antibiotic, the first ever isolated from actinomyces, is too toxic for use in animals (2857, 2858). Actinomycin D binds to DNA and blocks the movement of RNA polymerase (prevents RNA synthesis) in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

Gustav A. Kausche (DE) and Helmut Ruska (DE) took the first electron photomicrographs of chloroplasts (1413).

Linus Carl Pauling (US) proposed his version of the template mechanism for antibody synthesis. This introduced the concept of complementariness in association with biological macromolecules (2050).

Linus Carl Pauling (US) and Max Ludwig Henning Delbrück (DE-US) suggested that the surface of a gene somehow acts as a positive mold, or template, for the formation of a molecule of complementary (negative) shape (2053).

Karl Landsteiner (AT-US), Alexander Solomon Wiener (US), Philip Levine (RU-US) and Rufus E. Stetson (US) discovered that if a rabbit is injected with the blood of a rhesus monkey, (Macacus rhesus), its blood in turn develops an immune substance which will agglutinate not only the monkey’s blood but also that of about 85 percent of humans. Thus there must be in some human blood a substance which is also present in the monkey; for convenience they called it “Rh” (from rhesus) (1585, 1644).

Ronald Aylmer Fisher (GB) and Robert Russell Race (GB) postulated that the blood Rh factor is actually controlled by three pairs of closely linked genes leading to the possibility of 27 different Rh genotypes. They proposed a new nomenclature using the symbols C, c, D, d, E, e to designate the six antigens and anti-C, anti-c, anti-D, etc. to designate the antibodies specific for these antigens (Fisher's CDE hypothesis). In the 1944 paper Race also showed that in addition to the supposedly normal form of anti-Rh (anti-D) antibody, which agglutinated D-positive red cells directly, when they were suspended in a saline medium, there existed a variant, known as incomplete antibody (907, 2153). The D or Rh0 antigen is by far the most antigenic of all the Rh factors therefore anti-D antiserum is typically used in Rh blood typing.

Louis Klein Diamond (US) and Alexander Solomon Wiener (US) also discovered incomplete antibodies at about the same time (683, 2980).

Charles Richard Drew (US), medical supervisor of the "Blood for Britain Project," reported to the National Blood Transfusion Committee noting that for cases of shock, burns, and open wounds, plasma often worked better than whole blood. Plasma could also be stored and transported without refrigeration.

Øjvind Winge (DK) and Otto Laustsen (DK) showed that in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae colonial characteristics, cell shape, and fermentative ability are under the control of genes that segregate during the reductive division (3031).

Charles Clemon Deam (US) produced his Flora of Indiana; a 1,236 page creation resulting from Deam personally collecting specimens in each and every one of the 1,016 townships in Indiana. This flora has excellent keys; Indiana distributional maps for all species and especially observational and/or critical notes about most. Deam's wife Stella faithfully worked along side her husband as a research assistant (631).

Helmut Ruska (DE), U. Kottmann (DE), Edgar Pfankuch (DE), Gustav Adolf Kausche (DE), Salvador Edward Luria (IT-US), Thomas Foxen Anderson (US), Constantin Levaditi (FR), and Paul Bonet-Maury (FR) were the first to take electron photomicrographs of virus (bacteriophage), establishing their particulate nature and proving that specific bacteriophages have characteristic morphologies (1497, 1634, 1727, 2090, 2326-2328).

Richard O. Roblin, Jr. (US), James H. Williams (US), Philip S. Winnek (US), and Jackson P. English (US) discovered sulfadiazine, which later proved especially good at treating epidemic cerebrospinal meningitis (2265).

Kenneth C. Smithburn (US), Thomas P. Hughes (US), Alexander W. Burke (US), J.H. Paul (US), and Henry R. Jacobs (US) isolated the virus of West Nile Fever from the blood of an African native of Uganda (2543, 2544). In recent years WNV has spread beyond its traditional boundaries, causing illness in birds, horses, and humans in Europe and now the United States.

Costin Cernescu (RO), Simona Maria Ruta (RO), Gratiela Tardei (RO), Camelia Grancea (RO), L. Moldoveanu (RO), E. Spulbar (RO), and T.F. Tsai (RO) reported 800 cases hospitalized during the viral meningoencephalitis epidemic caused by the West Nile virus in Southern Romania (425). This report is significant because it exhibits the increased neurotropic nature of the virus.

Ralph T. White (US) and Samuel R. Dutky (US) determined that type A white milky disease of insects and type B white milky disease of insects are caused by Bacillus popilliae and Bacillus lentimorbus, respectively (2973).

Edward Penley Abraham (GB) and Ernst Boris Chain (DE-GB) described a substance from Escherichia coli that could inactivate penicillin. They named it penicillinase (beta-lactamase) (5).

Karl Meyer (US), Gladys Lounsberry Hobby (US), Eleanor Chaffee (US), and Martin Henry Dawson (US) discovered hyaluronidase in the supernatant fractions of cultures of hemolytic streptococci (1855).

Paul W. Miller (US), Walter Beno Bollen (US), Joseph E. Simmons (US), H.N. Gross (US), and Howard P. Barss (US) described Xanthomonas corylina (Xanthomonas campestris) as the causative agent of bacteriosis in filbert (1893).

Friedrich Seidel (DE), Eberhard Bock (DE), and Gerhard Krause (DE), working with the golden-eyed fly, Chrysopa (Neuroptera) discovered the existence of a primary embryonic inductor in insects, which is associated with a specific germ layer, the ectoderm. Inductive stimuli originate in the ectoderm, and the underlying mesoderm responds with specific differentiations (2434, 2435). These were primarily Bock’s discoveries.

Soichi Fukuda (JP) discovered the prothoracic gland while studying the induction of pupation in the Chinese bivoltine race of silkworm (Bombyx) and the Japanese bivoltine race. This gland was found to be the source of internal secretion, which at a critical period releases into the blood a substance responsible for pupation (970-973).

John Henry Comstock (US) reported that the wing shape and vein pattern in insects is species-specific and is useful taxonomically (518).

Gavin Rylands de Beer (GB) refuted the theory that the embryonic development of an organism repeats the adult stages of the organism’s evolutionary ancestors (623).

Ruben A. Stirton (US) and George Gaylord Simpson (US) published phylogenetic studies of the North American horse. These are considered to be among the best and most complete phylogenetic studies ever written (2508, 2640).

Edmund Briscoe Ford (GB) defined genetic polymorphism (926).

Lewis Victor Heilbrunn (US) and Floyd J. Wiercinski (US) demonstrated the contractile effect of calcium ions when injected into frog muscle cells (1200, 1202).

Lewis Victor Heilbrunn (US) put forward the calcium ion release theory of muscle contraction in 1943, stating that calcium ion released from internal storage sites into the muscle cytoplasm by electrical or chemical stimuli, was assumed to activate the contractile material (1201).

Adalbert Farkas (IL) and Joseph Aman (IL) were the first to report resistance of a plant pathogen to an organic fungicide (861).

Thaddeus Robert Rudolph Mann (PL-GB) and David Keilin (PL-GB) determined that sulphanilamide is a potent inhibitor of carbonic anhydrase (1763).

William B. Schwartz (US) found that sulphanilamide produces an increased sodium, potassium and water excretion in patients with congestive heart failure; this likely results from inhibition of carbonic anhydrase in cells of the renal tubules (2425).

William Bloom (US), Margaret A. Bloom (US), Lincoln V. Domm (US), and Franklin C. McLean (US) were the first to demonstrate the importance of estrogens in laying down bone minerals in bone metabolism. They recorded the transformation of osteoblasts into osteoclasts (231-235).

Valy Menkin (US) demonstrated that adrenal cortical extract or Compound E (cortisone) would suppress inflammation in laboratory animals (1849, 1850).  See, Philip Showalter Hench, 1949.

Fuller Albright (US) and John D. Stewart (US) pointed out the role of steatorrhea in depleting the body of fat-soluble vitamins (27).

Erik Waaler (NO) described agglutination by rheumatoid sera of sheep cells sensitized with a sub-agglutinating coating of gamma globulin. This represents the discovery of the rheumatoid factor (RF). RF is an antibody directed to the Fc part of antibodies of the human IgG class. This and the description of the same phenomenon by Harry Melvin Rose (US), Charles Ragan (US), Elizabeth Pearce (US), and Miriam Olmstead Lipman (US) laid the foundation of one of the most important tests in rheumatology. Charles M. Plotz (US) and Jacques M. Singer (US) refined the test (2114, 2275, 2846).

Ralph Rossen (US), Herman Kabat (US), John P. Anderson (US), Lawrence M. Weinberger (US), Mary H. Gibbon (US), and John Heysham Gibbon, Jr. (US) determined that the cerebral cortex in humans is damaged irreversibly by relatively short periods of ischemia (a few minutes), while lower centers, such as the medulla, can survive for longer periods of temporary interruption in their supply of blood. They noted that a cessation of blood flow to the cerebral cortex for 6.8 seconds caused a loss of consciousness (2303, 2932).

Derek Ernest Denny-Brown (NZ-GB-US), W. Ritchie Russell (GB), Hugh John Forster Cairns (GB-US-GB), and Denis Williams (GB) did extensive research on cerebral concussion, post-concussion syndrome, closed head injury, disability from head injury, “shell-shock” and the effect on the head of high explosives (384, 652-657, 673-675, 3013).

Douglas R. Drury (US), George E. Boxer (US), and DeWitt Stetten, Jr. (US) observed that the livers of diabetic or starved animals exhibited a large decrease in capacity to synthesize fatty acids (267, 734).

John Christian Krantz, Jr. (US), Jelleff C. Carr (US), Sylvan E. Forman (US), and William E. Evans, Jr. (US) introduced cyprome ether as an anesthetic (1500).

Oscar V. Batson (US) found it possible to explain most cases of aberrant malignant metastases, aberrant pyogenic metastases and aberrant embolism following air injections by the demonstrated role of the vertebral vein system (136).

Henk Verbiest (NL) identified lateral spinal stenosis of the lumbar nerve canal (2799, 2800). His first description of lateral spinal stenosis was in 1940.

Robert Fiske Griggs (US) was perhaps the first to place plant rarity into an ecological context, acknowledging that plants do not statically interact with their surrounding environment.  He also observed a geographic component to rare species distributions: some occur only in very restricted sites while others are more widespread, but sparsely populated. Griggs speculated the former were relics that had previously covered a larger area, but had become “slowly dying vestiges of races once widespread."  In addition, he proposed that “habitat choice” or specificity was an ecological determinant of rare species occurrence and that certain types of habitats (e.g. rock outcrops, oceanic islands, and river margins) consistently harbored rare plant assemblages. The most resounding theory produced from this seminal paper was the notion that many plants are rare because they are poor competitors, predominantly existing in early successional or “ecologically young” environments where competitive pressures are low (1087).

Marcel Ravidat (FR), Jacques Marsal (FR), Georges Agnel (FR), and Simon Coencas (FR) discovered the cave at Lascaux, France where man produced representational art on the walls. It contains a great collection of Paleolithic art 10,000 to 15, 000 years old (2).

There occurred a widespread epidemic of rubella (German measles) in Australia.


Albert Hewett Coons (US), Hugh J. Creech (US), R. Norman Jones (US), and Ernst Berliner (DE) attached fluorescent dyes to antibodies then used them to detect antigens; the so-called direct fluorescent antibody technique. The first fluorescent dye they used was B-anthryl isocyanate, which gives a blue fluorescence. Later they used fluorescein, to detect pneumococcal antigens. It gives a green fluorescence. This discovery made it possible to trace antigen and antibody within cells (537, 538).

Albert Hewett Coons (US) and Melvin H. Kaplan (US) improved the ability of the technique to localize antigens in tissue cells (539). This immunofluorescent technique is so important because it permits the detection of antibodies, antigens, and virtually any antigenic substance.

Archer John Porter Martin (GB) and Richard Laurence Millington Synge (GB) introduced liquid-liquid partition (column) chromatography which depends on the establishment of an equilibrium between two liquid phases (e.g., chloroform and water), one of which (water) is immobilized by being held by a solid support (e.g., silica gel), as the other (chloroform) flows through the column. Note: both high-pressure gas-liquid partition chromatography (GLC) and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) were first proposed in this paper (1784).

Fritz Prior (AT) and Erika Cremer (DE) developed gas chromatography (GC). Prior, in 1947, succeeded in separating oxygen and carbon dioxide on a charcoal column - a technical achievement for which he received his PhD (568, 2135).

Anthony T. James (GB) and Archer John Porter Martin (GB) developed high-pressure gas-liquid (partition) chromatography (GLC). They used the new column with great success to separate a variety of natural products (1352).

Douglas McClean (GB) found that some streptococci are capable of producing hyaluronidase (1815).

Francis Peyton Rous (US) and George W. Wilson (US) concluded from experimental studies on dogs that loss of blood volume, not loss of erythrocytes, was the important consideration in hemorrhage. Even after gross hemorrhage, these workers were able to restore the blood pressure to normal, and maintain it at the normal level, by replacing the blood they had removed with an equal quantity of plasma (2307).

Edwin Joseph Cohn (US), Laurence E. Strong (US), Walter L. Hughes, Jr. (US), Dwight J. Mulford (US), John N. Ashworth (US), Marshall Melin (US), and F.H. Laskey Taylor (US) developed a cold ethanol fractionation of plasma; the process of breaking down plasma into components and products. Albumin, a protein with powerful osmotic properties, plus gamma globulin and fibrinogen were isolated and became available for clinical use (497, 498).

Walter L. Tatum (US), Alvin John Elliott (US), and Naurice M. Nesset (US) established the efficacy of the use of albumin in transfusion (812, 2696).

Alvin John Elliott (US) and Naurice M. Nesset (US) perfected a sterile evacuated bottle containing chemical preservatives for the collection and preservation of blood (811).

Douglas B. Kendrick, Jr. (US) reported on the use of human albumin to treat traumatic shock. “. . .This patient was 20 years of age and was admitted to the hospital 16 hours after injury. He had a bilateral compound continued fracture of the tibia and fibula. He had fractures of five ribs with associated pleural damage, pneumothorax and subcutaneous emphysema. At the time of admission, his blood pressure was 76/30. Two bottles of albumin, consisting of approximately 25 grams, were injected over 30 minutes. The blood pressure after injection was 106/70 . . . his blood pressure remained above 130 . . . he has had no evidence of circulatory failure since the albumin was administered . . . this patient appeared quite groggy and irrational when I first saw him, but 12 hours later he was very clear mentally and appeared to be feeling better" (1432).

Isidor Schwaner Ravdin (US) reported on the effectively of using Cohn’s albumin to treat victims of the Pearl Harbor attack for burns and shock. Injected into the blood stream, albumin absorbs liquid from surrounding tissues, preventing blood vessels from collapsing; the finding associated with shock. "All seven patients were given albumin, and all showed prompt clinical improvement, including one whose state was so critical that the administration of albumin to him was debatable. There was no question as to his response: He was unconscious in the morning when he was given 250 grams of albumin. In the afternoon, he was talking, but was disoriented. The following morning, he was given the same amount of albumin. Twenty-four hours later, the edema had disappeared and he was taking food by mouth" (2200).

Paul Hermann Müller (CH) discovered that 1,1,1-trichloro-2, 2-bis (p-chlorophenyl) ethane or dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) is a potent insecticide with low toxicity for higher organisms (1941-1944). This compound was originally synthesized in 1873 by Othmar Zeidler (Othmar Ziedler) (DE) for his Ph.D. thesis work. He knew nothing of its biological activity (3096).

Samuel B. Barker (US) and William H. Summerson (US) developed a colorimetric method for identifying lactic acid in biological materials. It is applicable to a wide variety of biological materials following deproteinization (127).

Ernst Klenk (DE) isolated a product from a cerebroside fraction and named it neuraminic acid (1459). The predominant form in mammalian cells being N-acetylneuraminic acid.

Cecil James Watson (US) and Samuel Schwartz (US) developed the Watson-Schwartz Test for the qualitative detection of porphobilinogen in urine. This test is to identify patients who carry the genetic trait for hepatic porphorias associated with neurologic lesions. It is a bedside urine test which can distinguish between cases of porphobilinogen (porphyria) and urobilinogen (pellagra) (2919).

Roger Adams (US) isolated and synthesized tetrahydrocannabinol and several of its analogues (8). Tetrahydrocannabinol is the active chemical in cannabis and is one of the oldest hallucinogenic drugs known.

Hugh Brown (US), Lisa M. Eubanks (US), Claude J. Rogers (US), Albert E. Beuscher, IV (US), George F. Koob (US), Arthur J. Olson (US), Tobin J. Dickerson (US), Kim D. Janda (US) presented evidence that tetrahydrocannabinol has an anticholinesterase action which may implicate it as a potential treatment for alzheimer's and myasthenia gravis (312, 847).

Leonard Francis LaCour (GB) introduced the acetic orcein method for staining chromosomes (1560).

Edward Lawrie Tatum (US) and Arie Jan Haagen-Smit (NL-US) identified the v+ vitamin of Drosophila as l-kynurenine (2693). Kynurenine is ubiquitous in insects, despite its extremely low concentration. It is in the metabolic pathway, which leads to the production of brown pigments (skotommins).

Adolf Friedrich Johann Butenandt (DE), Wolfhard Weidel (DE), Ruth Weichert (DE), and Waldemar Derjugin (DE) determined the structure of kynurenine (375).

L-Kynurenine is a metabolite of the amino acid L-tryptophan used in the production of niacin.

Gilles J. Guillemin (AU), Bruce J. Brew (AU), Vincent Meininger (FR), Stephen J. Kerr (AU), Ka Ka Ting (AU), Lucie I. Bruijn (ZA-GB-US), Timothy M. Miller (US), Don W. Cleveland (US), M. Flint Beal (US), Wayne R. Matson (US), Kenton J. Swartz (US), Paul H. Gamache (US), Chai K. Lim (AU), George A. Smythe (AU), Roland Stocker (AU), Nicholas Stoy (GB), Gillian M. Mackay (GB), Caroline M. Forrest (GB), John Christofides (GB), Mark M. Egerton (US), Trevor W. Stone (GB), L. Gail Darlington (GB), Maria Zamanakou (GR), Anastasios E. Germenis (GR), and Vaios Karanikas (GR) demonstrated the kynurenine pathway to be involved in many diseases and disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Huntington’s disease, AIDS dementia complex, malaria, cancer, depression and schizophrenia, where imbalances in tryptophan and kynurenines have been found (151, 324, 1096-1098, 1675, 2648, 2736, 3095).

Pieter J. Hoekstra (NL), G.M. Anderson (NL), Pieter W. Troost (NL), Cees G.M. Kallenberg (NL), and Ruud B. Minderas (NL) associated kynurenine with tics in humans (1252).

Yiquan Chen (AU) and Gilles J. Guillemin (AU) reported that the kynurenine pathway is an effective mechanism in modulating the immune response and in inducing immune tolerance. This is achieved by accelerating the degradation of tryptophan and the generation of kynurenines (449).

Hershel K. Mitchell (US), Esmond Emerson Snell (US), and Roger John Williams (US) isolated folic acid from spinach (folium = leaf (Lat.)) and named it. They showed it to be a growth factor for Streptococcus lactis R (S. faecalis) (1899). It is also called folate, pteroylglutamic acid, and vitamin B9, vitamin M.

Robert B. Angier (US), James H. Boothe (US), Brian L. Hutchings (US), John H. Mowat (US), Joseph Semb (US), E.L. Robert Stokstad (US), Yellapragada SubbaRow (US), Coy W. Waller (US), Donna B. Cosulich (US), Marvin J. Fahrenbach (US), Martin E. Hultquist (US), Erwin Kuh (US), Elmore H. Northey (US), Doris R. Seeger (US), Jackson P. Sickels (US), and James M. Smith, Jr. (US) synthesized folic acid and determined its structure (65, 66).

Samuel M. Ruben (US), Merle Randall (US), Martin David Kamen (CA-US), and James Logan Hyde (US) used C18O2 and H218O containing 18O (heavy oxygen) to show that all oxygen liberated in photosynthesis originated in water; none came from carbon dioxide, and that the oxygen of CO2 enters into organic compounds (2318). Because 18O is not radioactive, Ruben used a mass spectrometer to find out where the oxygen from the water went.

Alexander Pavlovich Vinogradov; Aleksandr Pavlovich Vinogradov (RU) and R.V. Teis (RU) reached a similar conclusion (2812, 2813).

Robert Emerson (US) and Charlton M. Lewis (US) determined that a minimum of 10-12 quanta of light energy is needed for each molecule of oxygen released in photosynthesis (827, 828).

Samuel M. Ruben (US) and Martin David Kamen (CA-US) identified phosphoglyceric acid (PGA) as the first stable product of photosynthesis (2316).

Armin C. Braun (US) and Philip R. White (US) found that Agrobacterium tumefaciens introduces a factor into plant cells, which permanently transforms them into cancer cells (282-285).

Selig Hecht (PL-US), Simon Shlaer (US), and Maurice Henri Pirenne (US) revealed that a retinal rod could be excited by a single photon (1195, 1196). 

Robert B. Dean (US) and Schack August Steenberg Krogh (DK) published articles in which the concept of the sodium pump was set forth (635, 1528). Dean coined the phrase ion pump in his 1941 article.

Feodor Felix Konrad Lynen  (DE) and Marvin J. Johnson (US) proposed a key role for inorganic phosphate in the mechanism underlying the Pasteur effect  (1366, 1735).

Fritz Albert Lipmann (DE-US) presented the general hypothesis for energy transfer in living cells, to which Herman Moritz Kalckar (DK-US) also made important contributions. Lipmann postulated that ATP functions in a cyclic manner as a carrier of chemical energy from the degradation or catabolic reactions of metabolism, which yield chemical energy, to the various cellular processes that require an energy input. ATP is generated from ADP by coupled or linked phosphorylation reactions at the expense of energy yielded by degradation of fuel molecules. The ATP so generated is postulated to donate its terminal phosphate group to specific acceptor molecules, to energize them for carrying out various energy-requiring functions in the cell, e.g., the biosynthesis of cell macromolecules (chemical work), the active transport of inorganic ions and cell nutrients across membranes against gradients of concentration (osmotic work), and the contraction of muscles (mechanical work). As the energy of ATP is delivered to these energy-requiring processes, the ATP undergoes cleavage to ADP and inorganic phosphate. The ADP is then rephosphorylated at the expense of energy-yielding oxidation of fuels to yield ATP, thus completing the cellular cycle. The terminal phosphate group of the ATP was thus visualized as undergoing constant turnover, being continuously transferred to acceptor molecules and continuously replaced by phosphate groups that become energized during the catabolic degradation of cell fuels. He gave the energy-rich phosphate bond its name and invented the mark, ~, called the squiggle, as in —O~P— by which it is shown (1394, 1686).

Konrad Emil Bloch (US) and Rudolf Schoenheimer (DE-US) carried out isotope tracer studies which demonstrated that creatine is synthesized by the transfer of an amidine group from arginine to glycine, with the formation of guanidinoacetic acid which is then methylated to give creatine (228).

Carl Ferdinand Cori (CZ-US) and Gerty Theresa Cori, née Radnitz (CZ-US), Earl W. Sutherland (US), and Sidney P. Colowick (US) worked out the lactic acid metabolic cycle (Cori cycle) in which the breakdown of muscle glycogen, with formation of lactic acid, which enters the bloodstream, is converted to liver glycogen, which in turn breaks down and into glucose, which is carried to muscles where it is reconverted to muscle glycogen (542, 545, 548, 549, 2666).

Barry Commoner (US) and Kenneth Vivian Thimann (GB-US) found that concentrations of 10-5 M of iodoacetate could halt coleoptile growth but produce no effect on cellular respiration. They assumed that only a small fraction of respiration might be involved in growth (517).

Albert Imre Szent-Györgyi (HU-US), Ilona Banga (AT-HU), Tamas Erdös (HU), Mihály Gerendás (HU), Wilfred F.H.M. Mommaerts (US), and Ferenc Brunó Straub (HU), demonstrated that artificial fibrils made from myosin and another protein, which they named actin, contracted when ATP was added. The combination of actin with myosin was named actomyosin (119, 2676, 2679-2681).

Ferenc Brunó Straub (HU) separated the active components of muscle contraction into actin and myosin (2677, 2678).

George Feuer (HU), F. Molnár (HU), E. Pettkó (HU), and Ferenc Brunó Straub (HU) found that water extraction of an acetone-dried muscle residue yielded an actin solution with low viscosity, monomeric or globular (G) actin, that upon addition of salts (at physiological concentrations) polymerized to a highly viscous gel, filamentous or fibrous (F) actin (892).

Ferenc Brunó Straub (HU) and George Feuer (HU) reported that G-actin contains bound ATP and during polymerization of actin the ATP is hydrolyzed to bound ADP and Pi. Straub postulated that the transformation of G-actin-ATP to F-actin-ADP plays a role in muscle contraction (2654).

Hans Hermann Weber (DE) and Hildegard Portzehl (DE) prepared single muscle fibers from glycerol treated psoas muscles that developed tension equal to the intact muscle and reproduced the entire contraction-relaxation cycle of the muscle. Thus, it was proven without doubt that the interaction between actin, myosin and ATP is the basic mechanism for the contraction-relaxation cycle in skeletal muscle (2926).

Wolfgang Kabsch (DE), Hans Georg Mannherz (DE), Dietrich Suck (DE), Emil F. Pai (DE), and Kenneth C. Holmes (DE) were the first to crystallize G-actin and determine its structure (1389).

John Desmond Bernal (GB) and Isidor Fankuchen (US) obtained clear x-ray diffraction patterns of tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) and tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) (193).

Dorothy Mary Crowfoot (GB) and Gerhard M.J. Schmidt (IL) obtained an x-ray diffraction pattern using a single crystal of tobacco necrosis virus (572). 

Johannes van Overbeek (NL), Marie E. Conklin (US) and Albert Francis Blakeslee (US) discovered that the addition of coconut milk (Cocos nucifera) causes a drastic increase in the growth of plant embryos and tissue cultures (2787).

John Bellows Alsever (US) and Robert B. Ainslie (US) developed an anticoagulant solution for storing test erythrocytes. It consists of 2.05 % glycoside, 0.42 % sodium chloride, 0.8 % tri-sodium citrate, and 0.055 % citric acid in distilled water (47).

Harold A. Campbell (US), Mark Arnold Stahmann (US), Charles Ferdinand Huebner (US) and Karl Paul Gerhard Link (US) isolated and identified 3,3’-methylene bis- (4-hydroxycoumarin), later called dicumarol, as the anticlotting agent in spoiled clover hay which was causing cattle to bleed excessively (sweet clover disease). This contributed to our understanding of the mechanism of blood clotting and provided a method for the improved treatment of thromboembolic conditions (396, 2603).

Miyoshi Ikawa (US), Mark Arnold Stahmann (US), Karl Paul Gerhard Link (US), and Ivan Wolff (US) synthesized comparable compounds including warfarin (Coumadin). It is one of the drugs used today to treat deep vein thrombosis as well as to limit the danger of blood clots in patients with artificial valve replacements. Large doses are used in rat poison because it leads to uncontrollable internal bleeding (1331, 2604).

George Wells Beadle (US) and Edward Lawrie Tatum (US), who had previously collaborated in efforts to establish the chemical identity of substances I and II in the synthesis of Drosophila eye pigment, developed a new experimental approach for the study of the genetic control of metabolic reactions. They had become discouraged over the difficulties they encountered with Drosophila as an object for biochemical studies and turned their attention to a fungus, the bread mold Neurospora crassa. According to Beadle: “With the new organism our approach could be basically different. Through control of the constituents of the culture medium we could search for mutations in genes concerned with the synthesis of already known chemical substances of biological importance. We soon found ourselves with so many mutant strains unable to synthesize vitamins, amino acids and other essential components of protoplasm that we could not decide which ones to work on first.”

Genetic crosses between the Neurospora wild-type and the many mutants isolated and characterized in this manner revealed that most of them owe their growth factor requirement to the mutation of a single gene in the Neurospora genome. Furthermore, detailed biochemical study of the aberrant metabolism of the mutants showed that most of them carry a block at a single step in the reaction sequence leading up to the synthesis of the amino acid, vitamin, purine, or pyrimidine required for growth.

George Wells Beadle (US) and Edward Lawrie Tatum (US) proposed what Norman Harold Horowitz (US) would call the one-gene one-enzyme theory of gene action (1282). This proposal was based on their studies of mutants of the mold Neurospora crassa. The approaches they developed were extremely important not only for study of the gene-enzyme relationship but also for the analysis of the pathways of intermediary metabolism. Wild-type, i.e., unmutated, Neurospora can grow on a simple medium containing glucose as sole carbon source and only ammonia as nitrogen source. However, exposure of Neurospora spores to x-rays yields some mutant cells no longer capable of growing on this simple medium. Such mutant cells will grow normally if the medium is supplemented with the specific metabolite whose biosynthesis was impaired by the mutation. For example, some mutants of Neurospora are unable to grow unless the medium contains arginine, suggesting that an enzyme required in the synthesis of arginine from ammonia is genetically defective in these mutants. For lack of arginine such mutant cells cannot manufacture their proteins. 

The mutant cells can utilize arginine for protein biosynthesis and show normal growth only when this amino acid is supplied in the medium. Further studies show that not all mutants of Neurospora defective in the capacity to make arginine are identical; they differ with respect to the specific step in the pathway of arginine biosynthesis that is genetically defective.

The one-gene-one-enzyme theory had nothing to say about how the gene actually manages to direct the formation of the enzyme under its dominion. Above all, it did not include the idea that the gene directs the assembly of amino acids into a polypeptide chain of given primary structure. Elucidation of the physical nature of the gene and of its role as the information element of the enzyme-cannot-make-enzyme paradox was to be the work of molecular genetics, the birth of which, it should be noted, was rendered valuable midwife service by the one-gene-one-enzyme theory (145, 146, 150).

Kenneth Mather (GB) coined the term polygene and describes polygenic traits in various organisms (1799).

Carl Peter Henrik Dam (DK), Johannes Glavind (DK), Sigurd Orla-Jensen (DK), Anna D. Orla-Jensen (DK), Simon Black (US), Ralph S. Overman (US), Conrad Arnold Elvehjem (US), and Karl Paul Gerhard Link (US) have shown that Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, and other intestinal microorganisms synthesize large amounts of the B complex vitamins; thiamin, riboflavin, nicotinic acid, pyridoxine, pantothenic acid, biotin, folic acid, inositol, and vitamin K (215, 600).

Tracy Morton Sonneborn (US) explained the complex life cycle of Paramecium including macronuclear regeneration and cytoplasmic exchange and the finding that autogamy—the uniparental nuclear reorganization that periodically occurs in many paramecia—is sexual (2565, 2566).

William F. Diller (US) was the first to report autogamy in Paramecium aurelia (694).

Herbert J. Dutton (US), Winston M. Manning (US), and Benjamin Minge Duggar (US) were the first to demonstrate that light energy absorbed by accessory pigments (e.g., fucoxanthol) is transferred to chlorophyll a (753, 754).

Paul G. Smith (US), John Charles Walker (US), and William J. Hooker (US) proved for the first time that improper nutrition in plants is an important factor for initiation and eventual severity of vegetable diseases (2540, 2884-2887).

Ake Gustaffsson (SE) produced agriculturally superior new strains of cereals by selection from mutants produced by x-irradiation (1108, 1109).

Philip Levine (RU-US), Lyman Burnham (US), Eugene M. Katzin (US), and Peter Vogel (US) pointed out the great clinical importance of the anti-Rh antibody as a frequent cause of erythroblastosis fetalis (1642, 1643, 1645). The antibodies probably act as opsonins promoting macrophage engulfment and lysis of red cells. Affected newborns die shortly after birth from bilirubin neurotoxicity.

Alvin Zipursky (CA), John Pollock (CA), Rebecca Yeow (CA), Lyonel G. Israels (CA), and Bruce Chown (CA) developed anti-Rh gamma globulin vaccine to prevent erythroblastosis fetalis (454, 3106).

Frank Macfarlane Burnet (AU), Mavis Freeman (AU), Alan V. Jackson (AU), and Dora Lush (AU) proposed that descendents of cells reacting to antigen would produce antibodies specific to the antigen (353).

Sally Hughes-Schrader (US) and Hans Ris (CH-US) discovered holokinetic (diffuse centromere) chromosomes (1322).

George K. Hirst (US), Laurella McClelland (CA) and Ronald Hare (CA) discovered that influenza virus would spontaneously agglutinate chicken erythrocytes in saline. Antibodies to the virus will inhibit the agglutination. This became a direct means of recognizing the presence of this virus and measuring its titer in cell culture (1242, 1243, 1817). The reaction became known as the Hirst reaction

Stuart Mudd (US) and Thomas Foxen Anderson (US) used the electron microscope to visualize the combination of antibodies with the flagellar and somatic antigens of bacteria (1928).

Dorsey W. Bruner (US) and Philip R. Edwards (US) demonstrated that Salmonella paratyphi A grown in media containing suppressive antisera of one sort can shift to one of four different antigenic phases (326).

Marjorie Griffen Macfarlane (GB) and Bert Cyril James Gabriel Knight (GB) discovered that the alpha toxin of Clostridium welchii is an enzyme (phospholipase C) which cleaves phosphatidylcholine (1742).

Louis Gershenfeld (US), Vera Elaine Milanick (US), and David Perlstein (US) discovered that acidity decreases the antibacterial efficiency of many quaternary ammonium compounds so decidedly that they are completely ineffective at pH 3, and only weakly bactericidal at pH 4 (1010, 1011).

Zelma Baker (US), Robert W. Harrison (US), and Benjamin F. Miller (US) discovered that quaternary ammonium compounds are not very selective in their germicidal efficiency (109).

William Trager (US) was the first to grow the malarial parasite (Plasmodium) in vitro in a procedure which proved repeatable (2748, 2749).

John Holmes Dingle (US), Lewis Thomas (US), and Allan R. Morton (US) established the efficacy of sulfadiazine in the treatment of meningococcal meningitis (695).

Jacob Earl Thomas (US) developed a method for collection of bile under physiologic conditions by using a special cannula (2713).

Charles Brenton Huggins (CA-US), Clarence Vernard Hodges (US), and Roland E. Stevens (US) demonstrated the effects of castration, of estrogens, and of androgens on serum phosphatase levels in patients with extensive metastatic carcinoma of the prostate. They reported large clinical improvements in a significant number of these patients after orchiectomy and estrogen treatment. This was the first indication that a major type of cancer could be controlled by purely chemical means (1319, 1320).

Fuller Albright (US), Patricia H. Smith (US), and Anna M. Richardson (US) described post-menopausal osteoporosis (26).

Eric George L. Bywaters (GB) and Desmond Beall (GB) were the first to describe a syndrome found in many air raid casualties. The syndrome was observed in patients who were buried for several hours with pressure on a limb. They went into shock some time later, and then, despite fluid replacement, developed renal damage and died within a week (383).

Bernhard Zondek (DE-IL) reported that menstruation in women could be delayed (producing a limited amenorrhea) up to 70 days by the administration of estrogenic hormone. He realized that this had clinical significance (3109).

Frank W. Foote, Jr. (US) and Fred W. Stewart (US) initially diagnosed and described the related pattern of infiltrating lobular neoplastic breast disease in women. It is also referred to as lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS). This has been considered a special type of premalignancy ever since (924).

Paul E. Steiner (US) and Clarence C. Lushbaugh (US) presented maternal pulmonary embolism by amniotic fluid as a cause of obstetric shock and unexpected deaths in obstetrics (2622).

Paul Owen (NO) noted the correlation between diet and coronary thrombosis. ref

Robert Edward Gross (US) and William E. Ladd (US) wrote Abdominal Surgery of Infancy and Childhood, the first textbook on surgery in children (1561).


Polio continued to ravage the U.S., peaking in 1952 with about 60,000 cases (1482).


“At that subtle moment when man glances backward over his life, Sisyphus returning toward the rock, in that slight pivoting he contemplates that series of unrelated actions which becomes his fate, created by him, combined under his memory’s eye and soon sealed by his death. Thus, convinced of the wholly human origin of all that is human, a blind man eager to see who knows that night has no end, he is still on the go. The rock is still rolling.

I leave Sisyphus at the foot of the mountain! One always finds one’s burden again. But Sisyphus teaches the higher fidelity that negates the gods and raises rocks. He too concludes that all is well. This universe henceforth without a master seems to him neither sterile nor fertile. Each atom of that stone, each mineral flake of that night-filled mountain, in itself forms a world. The struggle itself toward the heights is enough to fill a man’s heart. One might imagine Sisyphus happy.” Albert Camus (398).

“To think that physics or chemistry ought to be defined in terms of matter or physiology in terms of life is more than an egregious blunder; it is a threat to the existence of science. It implies that people know what matter is without studying physics or chemistry, and what life is without studying physiology.” Robin George Collingwood (508). 

Harold H. Strain (US), Winston M. Manning (US) and Garrett Hardin (US) showed that chlorofucine, later known as chlorophyll c, is not an artifact (2649, 2650).

Jordi Folch (ES-US) showed that cephalin is not a single lipid but rather a mixture of at least three lipids (phosphatidyl ethanolamine, serine and inositol). Folch was the first to have elucidated the structure of phosphatidyl serine (917, 918).

Vincent du Vigneaud (US), Klaus Hofmann (CH-US), and Donall B. Melville (US) deduced the complicated two-ring structure of biotin (738, 741).

Albert Dorfman (US), Sam Berkman (US), and Stewart Arment Koser (US) discovered the role of pantothenic acid in pyruvate metabolism (718).

Paul Delos Boyer (US), Henry Arnold Lardy (US), and Paul H. Phillips (US) discovered the K+ activation of pyruvate kinase. This was the first demonstration of  a K+ requirement for an enzyme reaction (268, 269).

Stewart Arment Koser (US), Marjory H. Wright (US), and Albert Dorfman (US) discovered the role of biotin in aspartic acid biosynthesis (1496).

Douglas McClean (GB) and I. W. Rowlands (GB) discovered hyaluronidase in mammalian sperm (1816). This enzyme dissolves the cement substance of follicle cells that surround mammalian eggs and facilitates passage of sperm to eggs.

Otto Fritz Meyerhof (DE-US) presented what has become known as the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway (1865).

Konrad Emil Bloch (US) and David Rittenberg (US) used isotope labeling techniques to show that acetate contributes in a major way to the synthesis of fatty acids, as well as, both the aliphatic side chain and to the tetracyclic moiety of sterol molecules (225-227, 2249).

Henry N. Little (US) and Konrad Emil Bloch (US) predicted that a two-carbon metabolite of acetate is the principal if not the sole building block of cholesterol (1690).

Dean Burk (US) found that the metabolism of the regenerating liver, which grows more rapidly than most tumors, is not cancer metabolism, but perfect aerobic embryonic metabolism (342).

Herman Moritz Kalckar (DK-US) and Sidney P. Colowick (US) discovered that muscle extracts of myokinase (adenylate kinase) catalyze the reaction ATP + AMP becomes 2ADP. This is a vital reaction because it returns AMP to ADP, which can be phosphorylated to ATP. The absence of adenylate kinase leads to phosphate accumulating as AMP (512, 1395).

Karl Landsteiner (AT-US) and Merrill Wallace Chase (US) announced that delayed hypersensitivity could be transferred with cells (444, 1580). Their findings resulted in a clear separation of the class of immune responses initiated by cells from those mediated by circulating immunoglobulins.

Anna M. Kulka (US) showed that soluble antigen-antibody complexes would induce smooth muscle contraction in vitro (1543, 1544). 

Hans Voegt (DE) determined the viral etiology of infectious hepatitis (hepatitis A) by inoculating psychiatric patients from the mental hospital in Breslau (2816).

Edgar William Todd (GB) demonstrated that streptolysin O has a powerful lytic action on leucocytes when tested at low oxygen tension (2739).

Max B. Lurie (US) and Peter Zappasodi (US) provided evidence that mononuclear phagocytes while unable to damage the tubercle bacillus in non-immune individuals acquired the ability to destroy it in immune individuals (1730).

Harold Joel Conn (US) described the genus Agrobacterium with Agrobacterium tumefaciens as the type species (522).

Gladys Lounsberry Hobby (US), Karl Meyer (US), and Eleanor Chafee (US) established that under certain conditions penicillin is bactericidal and that it kills growing, but not resting cells (1246).

Harold E. Clark (US) and Kenneth R. Kerns (US) used 1-naphthalene-acetic acid to induce synchronous flowering in pineapples (Ananas comosus) (465).

Roland E. Slade (GB), William Gladstone Templeman (GB), Wilfred A. Sexton (GB), Percy W. Zimmerman (US), Alfred E. Hitchcock (US), John E. Lontz (US), Ezra Jacob Kraus (US), Franklin D. Jones (US), Philip S. Nutman (GB), H. Gerard Thornton (GB), Juda Hirsch Quastel (GB), Paul C. Marth (US), and John W. Mitchell (US) discovered that certain chlorophenoxyacetic acids act as hormone herbicides. This included 2,4-D, MCPA, and 2,4,5-T (1375, 1376, 1503, 1708, 1783, 2000, 2522, 3093, 3100).

Amchem Corp. introduced 2,4-D as the first in a series of phenoxyacetic acid herbicides to control broadleaf weeds in corn (Zea mays), wheat (Triticum spp.), barley (Hordeum vulgare), sorgham, sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum), grass pastures, and in turf. ref

Samson R. Dutky (US) developed a way to produce spores of Bacillus popilliae to provide effective suppression of the Japanese beetle by inducing bacterial milky spore disease —the first commercial microbial pesticide (752).

Sidney Fay Blake (US) and Alice C. Atwood (US) authored Geographical Guide to Floras of the World, which is a valuable bibliographical resource (216).

Sheldon C. Reed (US), Carroll Milton Williams (US), and Leigh E. Chadwick (US) found that individual flies from various inbred strains of Drosophila can beat their wings at 12,000 to 14,000 beats per minute during sustained flight until exhaustion sets in after as much as three hours, or more than 2 million double wing beats (427, 2207).

Gordon Lynn Walls (US) wrote an important book on the eye of reptiles entitled, The Vertebrate Eye and Its Adaptive Radiation. He emphasized the profound differences between the eye of snakes and lizards, and suggested that snakes evolved from nocturnal lizards (2889).

Ernst Gutmann (CZ), Ludwig Guttmann (DE), Peter Brian Medawar (GB), and John Zachary Young (GB) damaged peripheral nerves of young and adult rabbits and dogs so that their axons would be severed, leading to degeneration of the distal part. They then followed the progress of regrowth from the cut stump over time. In most cases, no regeneration was seen for 3-7 days. Axons then appeared to grow at a constant rate of 3-5 mm per day. Surprisingly, however, functional recovery was not detectable for 2-3 weeks after the first axons had reached the end organ. Monitoring of functional recovery was one of the unique dimensions of this paper. Their clear demonstration that regeneration and functional recovery were very different served as a powerful impetus for further work (1111).

Frank Kingsley Sanders (GB) and John Zachary Young (GB) performed experiments suggesting that physical constrictions in the Schwann cell guides through which regeneration occurred were important determinants of the limitation of axon diameter. Knowing that these constrictions increased with time after denervation, they stressed the importance of performing nerve repair surgery as soon as possible following injury (2354).

Ernst Gutmann (CZ) and John Zachary Young (GB) showed that the Schwann cell guides critical for regeneration through the distal nerve also play critical roles in accurate reinnervation of muscle fibers (1112).

William Cumming Rose (US), Julius E. Johnson (US), William J. Haines (US), M. Jane Oesterling (US), Morton Shane (US), Madelyn Womack (US), Leonard C. Smith (US), Byron E. Leach (US), Minor J. Coon (US), Haines B. Lockhart (US), G. Frederick Lambert (US), Donald T. Warner (US), Aleck Borman (US), Robert L. Wixom (US), and Eugene E. Dekker (US) demonstrated that humans require eight amino acids in their diet (isoleucine, leucine, threonine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, and valine) as opposed to the ten required by rats and dogs. They noted that all essential amino acids must be supplied in the L-isomeric form with the exception of methionine, which can be used in either the D-, or the L- form. They even calculated the minimum daily requirement for each of these essential amino acids. Cystine was found to spare part of the methionine requirement and tyrosine spare part of the phenylalanine requirement. Glycine, glutamic acid, urea, and ammonium salts could all supply nitrogen necessary for synthesis of the non-essential amino acids (2277-2287, 2289-2295).

C.S. Swaminath (IN), Henry Edward Shortt (GB), and L.A.P. Anderson (GB) demonstrated transmission of Leiahmania donovani (the causative agent of kala-azar) by sandflies (2668).

Jules Freund (AT-US) and Katherine McDermott (US) made a variation in oil adjuvants, which allowed them to be used with any antigen. They emulsified water in oil with the assistance of a water-miscible lanolin-like material to incorporate both dried inactivated tubercle bacilli and the target antigen in a single aggregate preparation. This was the original Freund’s complete adjuvant (949). This provided a method for inducing antibody formation and cellular responses to substances which are weakly antigenic.

Rudolf Schoenheimer (DE-US) and Hans T. Clarke (US) applied radioactive tracers to the study of the biosynthesis of cell structures and concluded that the body is in a state of dynamic equilibrium with the continual release and uptake of chemical substances to and from a metabolic pool (2400). 

Charles H. Rammelkamp, Jr. (US) and Chester S. Keefer (US) developed a method for determining the concentration of penicillin in body fluids and exudates (2158). At this time penicillin was a rare and precious commodity.

George K. Hirst (US) used penicillin to thwart bacterial contamination during the isolation of influenza virus from unfiltered throat washings inoculated into the amniotic sac of the developing chick embryo (1243).

William Smith Tillett (US), Margaret J. Cambier (US), Harold Dunn (US), William H. Harris, Jr. (US), and James E. McCormack (US) studied penicillin therapy in cases of pneumococcal pneumonia and concluded that: 1) tissue levels of penicillin are more important than serum levels, 2) it is not the total daily dose of penicillin which results in recovery from the disease, but its duration of therapy, 3) during recovery the patient develops type-specific antibodies by the seventh to the tenth day after infection, and 4) if penicillin therapy is interrupted before the 7-10 day period following infection the patient will relapse and experience a recurrence of the disease (2716-2718, 2723, 2724). These results represent the first clear-cut demonstration of a seminal principle of antibiotic therapy, namely, that the antibiotic serves to limit the growth of the infectious agent until the appropriate immune responses of the host can be marshaled and result in its eradication.

Elvin Abraham Kabat (US), Dan H. Moore (US), and Harold Landow (US) demonstrated that certain diseases are associated with a cerebrospinal protein pattern in which the gamma globulins are proportionally the predominant fraction (1387, 1388).

Elvin Abraham Kabat (US), Murray Glusman (US), and Vesta Knaub (US) found that immunoglobulin gamma (IgG) is the main component of the gamma fraction in normal cerebrospinal fluid (1386).

Hans Popper (AT-US), Frederick Steigmann (US), and Hattie A. Dyniewicz (US) discovered that vitamin A deficiency leads to liver damage (2118).

Wilhelm Sigmund Feldberg (DE-GB) and Alfred Fessard (FR) made the first experimental demonstration of the electrogenic action of acetylcholine (864). 

Harold R. Griffith (CA) and G. Enid Johnson (CA) were the first to produce muscular paralysis by the injection of a purified preparation of curare (intocostrin) as an adjuvant to surgical anesthesia. They used it to facilitate access to the abdomen during an appendectomy (1085).

Harry Fitch Klinefelter, Jr. (US), Edward Conrad Reifenstein, Jr. (US), and Fuller Albright (US) described a clinical syndrome characterized by gynecomastia, aspermatogenesis without A-Leydigism, and increased excretion of follicle-stimulating hormone. This condition would become known as Klinefelter’s syndrome. The majority of Klinefelter’s individuals have an extra female chromosome, resulting in a 47XXY karyotype. Other patterns of chromosomal aberration such as XXYY, and some mosaic patterns may result in the same syndrome. It is the most frequent type of intersexuality, occurring in one per 500-700 live male births (1463).

Clinton Nathan Woolsey (US) and Edward M. Walzl (US) selectively stimulated localized regions of auditory nerve fibers in the cochlea of the cat and mapped the patterns of evoked responses on the auditory cortex of the brain’s temporal lobe. This was the first demonstration of tonotopic (actually cochleotopic) organization of the auditory cortex (3082).

Clinton Nathan Woolsey (US) and D. Fairman (US) found a second tonal map ventral to the first with the sound spectrum in reverse order (3077).

Harlow W. Ades (US) found a secondary acoustic area in the posterior ectosylvian gyrus of the cat (9).

Werner Kuhn (CH) and Kaspar Ryffel (CH) hypothesized that the production of hypertonic urine by the kidney might result from a concentration mechanism by counter-current between descending and ascending limbs of Henle's loops (1542).

Heinrich Wirz (CH), Bartholomew Hargitay (CH), and Werner Kuhn (CH) proposed that the mammalian kidney concentrates urine by means of a counter-current mechanism. “These findings indicate that the concentration of the urine occurs without steep osmotic gradients. The loops of Henle are an example of a hairpin counter-current system. They prepare a hypertonic surrounding for the collecting ducts so that the contents of the collecting ducts are being concentrated by loosing water in this hypertonic milieu.” The tubular urine becomes osmotically concentrated in its descending limb, diluted in its ascending limb, and finally concentrated in the collecting ducts by the diffusion of water into the hyperosmotic medullary interstitium (1157, 3036-3038).

Carl W. Gottschalk (US) and Margaret Mylle (US) determined the hydrostatic pressure in renal tubules and small vessels of the rat kidney (1061).

Carl W. Gottschalk (US), Margaret Mylle (US), William E. Lassiter (US), Karl J. Ullrich (US), Bodil Schmidt-Nielsen (DK-US), Roberta O’Dell (US), and Gundula Pehling (US) used the micropuncture technique on various mammalian species with different kidney anatomies under three different conditions to show virtual equality of osmolarity in collecting ducts and at the bend of the thin loops of Henle during antidiuresis. These experiments provided definitive proof that urine is concentrated by countercurrent multiplication (1060, 1062, 2760).

William E. Lassiter (US), Carl W. Gottschalk (US), and Margaret Mylle (US) found a large net addition of urea to the fluid in the loop of Henle, indicative of urea recycling in the renal medulla (1602).

Heinrich Pette (DE) coined the word panencephalitis when he realized that some forms of viral encephalitis having a different name in different regions of the globe were in fact worldwide (2088).

Fuller Albright (US), Charles H. Burnett (US), Patricia H. Smith (US), and William Parson (US) described pseudohypoparathyroidism, a hypoparathyroidism in which there is evidence that the cause of the disturbance is the failure of the target organ(s) to respond to the hormone (24).

Harry Keil (US) was the first to propose that discoidal lupus erythematosus and systemic lupus erythematosus are forms of the same disease, and that they could even present transitional forms. It was also Keil who clearly outlined the differential diagnosis of cutaneous manifestations in order to distinguish between lupus erythematosus and dermatomyositis (1416).

Paul Klemperer (AT-US), Abou D. Pollack (US), and George Baehr (US) found that “the apparent heterogeneous involvement of various organs in disseminated lupus had no logic until it became apparent that the widespread lesions were identical in that they were mere local expressions of a morbid process affecting the entire collagenous tissue system…. A similar widespread alteration of collagen has also been noted in certain cases of diffuse scleroderma.” They defined the collagen diseases as chronic or acute processes, localized in connective tissue, especially in its intercellular components but with multiple locations throughout the organism. Due to this last phenomena they coined the phrase diffuse diseases of collagen (1456).

Arnold Rice Rich (US) and John E. Gregory (US) demonstrated that the lesions of periarteritis nodosa, rheumatic carditis, and pneumonitis, and some forms of glomerulonephritis are caused by the anaphylactic type of hypersensitivity (1083, 2228, 2230-2236).

Karl Theodore Dussik (AT) and Friederich Dussik (AT) are generally regarded as the first physicians to have employed ultrasound in medical diagnosis. They located brain tumors and the cerebral ventricles by measuring the transmission of ultrasound beam through the head, employing a transducer on either side (751).

George D. Ludwig (US) and Francis W. Struthers (US) were among the first to use pulse-echo ultrasound on animal tissues. They investigated the detection of gallstones using ultrasound, the stones being first embedded in the muscles of animals (1720).

John Silas Lundy (US) opened the first post-anesthesia recovery room in the world. Here patients were provided with specially trained personnel to monitor their recovery from the anesthetic agent (1725). 

Charles Sutherland Elton (GB) was a community ecologist. He did important early studies on food webs. His speculations on interaction of population dynamics and selection foreshadowed the founder effect principle (819). 

Ernst Walter Mayr (DE-GB-US) wrote Systematics and the Origin of Species from the Viewpoint of a Zoologist in which he gave systematics the first adequate integration of taxonomy, genetics, and natural history. Here he also produced the biological species concept, stating that species are “groups of actually or potentially interbreeding populations which are reproductively isolated from other such groups.” The 1942 paper contains the first statement of the founder principle (1806-1808). See, Aristotle, ca. 350 B.C.E. on species.

Raymond L. Lindeman (US), while studying the cycling of nutrients through a lake, realized that organisms are ecologically linked to their abiotic environment. The lake was an integrated system of the biotic and abiotic, to which he gave the name ecosystem. His trophic-dynamic viewpoint was an attempt to demonstrate how the day-to-day processes within a lake affected the long-term changes of ecological succession (1680).

Edward Smith Deevey, Jr. (US) described the biostratonomy of Linsley Pond in Connecticut. From his data he could read the 12,000-year history of the changes of conditions and communities within the pond, changes in the climate above it, and some of the activities of human population around it (638).


Henrik Carl Peter Dam (DK) for his discovery of vitamin K and Edward Adelbert Doisy (US) for his discovery of the chemical nature and synthesis of vitamin K were awarded the Nobel Prize in physiology and medicine.

George Charles de Hevesy; Georg Charles von Hevesy (HU-DE-SE-DE) was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for introducing metabolic tracer methodology using radioactive lead and phosphorus.

Edward Joseph Conway (IE) determined that the oceans during the geological period when the original vertebrates evolved (Ordovician) had salinity very similar to the oceans of today (528). This is strong evidence against the blood-reflects-the-early-seas hypothesis.

Winston M. Manning (US) and Harold H. Strain (US) discovered chlorophyll d (1764).

A. Stanley Holt (CA) and H.V. Morley (CA) determined the chemical structure of chlorophyll d (1262).

Julius Hyman (US-GB) produced mono- and bis-adducts of hexachlorocyclopentadiene (hex) by reacting it with cyclopentadiene (2113).

Clyde W. Kearns (US), Lester Ingle (US), and Robert Lee Metcalf (US) tested these products and found that the mono-adduct’s (chlordene) insecticidal potency was about one-fourth that of dichloro-diphenyl-trichloro-ethane (DDT) or 2,2-di (4-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane but that it was to volatile to be useful (1415).

Julius Hyman (US-GB) and Randolph Riemschneider (DE) solved this problem by chlorinating the reactive double bond thus producing chlordane (1328, 2246).

Leslie James Burrage (GB) and James Crosby Smart (GB), in 1943, showed that it is the gamma isomer of benzene hexachloride that is insecticidal (368, 2521). See Michael Faraday, 1825 and Van der Linden, 1912.

Charles E. Clifton (US) reported that penicillin can be produced in good yield in continuous flow cultures, and that such a method is commercially feasible (488). 

Britton Chance (US) deduced the mechanism of peroxidase action in great detail. His results strongly supported the theory that enzymes combine with their substrate forming a temporary enzyme-substrate complex (433).

Frederick W. Barnes, Jr. (US), Rudolf Schoenheimer (DE-US), Konrad Emil Bloch (US), Charles Tesar (US), and David Rittenberg (US) established that purine compounds of the tissues and the excreta are rapidly synthesized from simple metabolic units and not from preformed substances such as arginine, urea, and histidine (128, 224, 2700).

Barry Commoner (US), Seymour Fogel (US) and Walter H. Muller (US) demonstrated that auxin would promote water absorption against an osmotic gradient. The effect is inhibited by iodoacetate (516).

Alfred A. Harper (GB) and H.S. Raper (GB) discovered pancreozymin, a hormone released from the small intestine, which stimulates the secretion of pancreatic enzymes (1162).

Choh Hao Li (CN-US), Herbert McLean Evans (US), Miriam E. Simpson (US), George Sayers (US), Abraham White (US), and Cyril Norman Hugh Long (GB-US) isolated the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the pituitary gland of sheep then tested its biological activity (1658, 2375).

Choh Hao Li (CN-US), Irving I. Geschwind (US), Anthony L. Levy (US), J. Ieuan Harris (US), Jonathan S. Dixon (US), Ning G. Pon (US), and Jerker O. Porath (SE) isolated and determined the properties of alpha-corticotropin (ACTH) from sheep pituitary glands (1660).

Paul H. Bell (US), Robert G. Shepherd (US), Stuart D. Willson (US), Katherine S. Howard (US), David S. Davies (US), Selby B. Davis (US), E. Ann Eigner (US), and Nancy E. Shakespeare (US) isolated then determined the structure of porcine beta- corticotropin (ACTH) (172, 1297, 2472).

Otto Heinrich Warburg (DE) and Walter Christian (DE) isolated and crystallized aldolase (zymohexase) from muscle (2906). 

Samuel M. Ruben (US) hypothesized that in photosynthesis the reduced pyridine nucleotide and the ATP needed to reverse the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway are generated by coupling to the light-dependent reduction of water (2314).

Michael Doudoroff (RU-US), Nathan Oram Kaplan (US), and William Zev Hassid (RU-GB-US) demonstrated that a glucosyl moiety of sucrose is transferred by enzyme to phosphorous. This was the first demonstration of such a sugar transfer. Glucose-1-phosphate and fructose were found to be the products of this sucrose breakdown by the bacterium Pseudomonas saccharophila. They found that this reaction was easily reversed leading to the synthesis of sucrose; the first such synthesis discovered (726).

Robert Emerson (US) and Charlton M. Lewis (US) determined that during photosynthesis in Chlorella quantum yields, as measured by oxygen release, are high when exposed to 400-440 and 560-580 nanometer ranges of light with a dip at about 490 nanometers (829).

Otto Fritz Meyerhof  (DE-US) and Renate Junowicz-Kocholaty (US) re-determined the equilibrium constant for the isomerase and aldolase reactions in the presence and absence of inorganic phosphate, cozymase, and Warburg's oxidizing enzyme. They found that their values agreed with those previously determined and that equilibrium is not influenced by the presence of inorganic phosphate, cozymase, or Warburg's enzyme. They were also unable to detect the formation of any substance that would break down into glyceraldehyde phosphate and phosphate (1867).

Carl Ferdinand Cori (CZ-US) and Gerty Theresa Cori, née Radnitz (CZ-US), using liver tissue extract, presented evidence for the enzyme which forms the one to six glycosidic linkages in amylopectin (549).

Walter Norman Haworth (GB), Stanley Peat (GB), Edward J. Bourne (GB), Alan Macey (GB), and S.A. Barker (GB) presented evidence for this same enzyme in higher plants (262, 263, 1189, 2063).

David Nachmansohn (RU-DE-US), Richard Threlkeld Cox (US), Christopher W. Coates (US), and Adao L. Machado (BR) found that the production of very strong currents by electric eels is connected with the breakdown of phosphocreatine (1953).

David Nachmansohn (RU-DE-US) and Adao L. Machado (BR) proved that electric tissue contains enzymes capable of utilizing the energy of ATP for the acetylation of choline by choline acetylase (1954). This was the first time ATP had been shown to drive a synthetic reaction other than phosphorylation.

Juan M. Muñoz (AR) and Luis Federico Leloir (AR) demonstrated fatty acid oxidation in cell-free liver systems (1624, 1946).

Albert Lester Lehninger (US) showed that ATP is required for the oxidation of fatty acids and gave evidence that the fatty acid is enzymatically activated at the carboxyl group. He also found that fatty acids are oxidized to yield two-carbon units that can enter the tricarboxylic acid cycle (1621).

Donald Dexter van Slyke (US), Robert A. Phillips (US), Paul B. Hamilton (US), Reginald M. Archibald (US), Palmer H. Futcher (US), and Alma Hiller (US) identified glutamine as source material for urinary ammonia (2790).

Alfred Ezra Mirsky (US) and Arthur Wagg Pollister (US) demonstrated that histones are common to all somatic nuclei (1898).

Salvador Edward Luria (IT-US) Max Ludwig Henning Delbrück (DE-US), and Thomas Foxen Anderson (US) were the first to see bacterial ribosomes. They did not, at the time, know what they were (1729).

Salvador Edward Luria (IT-US) and Max Ludwig Henning Delbrück (DE-US) published a paper entitled Mutations of Bacteria from Virus Sensitivity to Virus Resistance. This paper represents the birth of bacterial genetics. With their paper, Luria and Delbrück did for bacterial genetics what Mendel had done for general genetics—namely, to show for the first time what kind of experimental arrangements, what kind of data treatment, and, above all, what kind of sophistication are required for obtaining meaningful and unambiguous results (1728).

Bacteriophages (phages) are subcellular parasites that infect, multiply within, and kill bacteria. The T1 (T one) phage active on Escherichia coli—with which Luria and Delbrück were working— has a head and a tail and occupies about one-thousandth the volume of its Escherichia coli host. It is too small to be seen with a light microscope. Upon collision of such a T1 phage particle with an Escherichia coli cell, the particle is fixed to the cell surface by interaction with a T1-phage receptor site; such sites form part of the Escherichia coli cell wall. The interaction of a phage particle with its phage receptor site has the same high degree of specificity as the interaction of the active site of an enzyme with its substrate. Once fixed to the receptor site, the T1 phage particle invades the Escherichia coli cell and destroys it. Imagine an experiment in which about 105 Escherichia coli cells are spread on the surface of a nutrient agar plate containing 1010 T1 phage particles. Upon incubation of that plate, the agar surface will most likely remain completely blank: not a single Escherichia coli colony can be expected to appear on that plate, since every bacterium of the inoculum will be infected, and hence killed, by one or more of the 1010 phage particles on the plate. 

The point of departure of Luria and Delbrück’s paper was the observation that, upon spreading about109, rather than only about 105, Escherichia coli cells upon agar containing an excess of T1 phage particles, the chances are rather good that a few Escherichia coli colonies will appear on the agar surface. If one of these few surviving colonies is picked, and a sample of the cells making up the colony replated on agar containing T1 phage, it will be found that all of these cells grow into colonies. That is to say, all of the bacteria in one of the few surviving colonies are T1-resistant or Tonr. By convention of genetic nomenclature, Ton designates the infectious agent and the superscripts r or s designate resistance or sensitivity of the host. The T1 resistant bacteria retain their Tonr character upon further cultivation in the absence of any T1 phage, as can be demonstrated by spreading samples of the Tonr culture growing in the T1-free medium on T1-containing agar. Thus the Tonr bacteria perpetuate and pass on to their descendants the property of resistance to the phage, in contrast to the T1 sensitivity passed on by the normal Tons Escherichia coli cells. The physiological basis of the T1 resistance resides in the structure of the bacterial cell wall, in that the cell wall of Tonr bacteria does not feature the T1 receptor sites, to which the phage particles attach before they infect and kill the Tons cell. Hence the T1 phage particles cannot attach to, and, therefore, cannot kill the Tonr cells. Since the few Tonr cells isolated by plating the original Escherichia coli culture on the T1-containing agar have clearly descended from the Tons ancestors that make up the bulk of the population, they must represent stable variants of the normal Tons type. That is, an element of the bacterium that controls the synthesis of the T1 receptor sites in the cell wall of the normal Tons cell has changed in some way in the Tonr variant so that these receptor sites are no longer formed.

Such instances of the appearance of stable bacterial variants resistant to one or another antibacterial agent had been well known to bacteriologists for many years when Luria and Delbrück designed an experiment that was to enable them to decide between the following two fundamentally different views of the origin of stable Tonr variants in cultures on Tons Escherichia coli: 1) the Tonr character is induced as a consequence of the exposure of the Tons bacterial culture to T1 phage, 2) the Tonr character pre-exists in a few cells before exposure of the bacterial culture to T1 phage  (1728). This great experiment is often referred to as the fluctuation test. It gave proof that mutations are usually not induced by the environment.

Luria and Delbrück’s statistical proof of the spontaneous nature of bacterial mutation and measurement of mutation rate represents not only the beginning of bacterial genetics, but also the first of several fortunate choices of experimental material that were to aid the further development of this field. Their finding of spontaneous mutation to phage resistance turns out to have depended on their use of the T1 phage, a phage that is a virulent bacteriophage. Had they happened to have picked one of the phage types that came to be known as temperate bacteriophages, they would have had to conclude (wrongly) that the bacterial variants acquire their resistant character by contact with the antibacterial agent  (1728).

Carl Clarence Lindegren (US) and Gertrude Lindegren (US) discovered heterothallism with two mating types in Saccharomyces (1678). 

Frederick Kroeber Sparrow (US) authored Aquatic Phycomycetes Exclusive of the Saprolegniaceae and Pythium, the first comprehensive systematic treatment of the aquatic Phycomycetes (2574).

Jacob S. Light (US) and Horace L. Hode (US) were probably the first to report clinical cases of rotaviral gastroenteritis (1668, 1669).

Curt Stern (DE-US) and Elizabeth White Schaeffer (US), using the recessive cubitus interruptus (ci) allele in Drosophila, demonstrated isoalleles (2631).

J. Bruce Hamilton (GB) clearly showed from clinical and laboratory observations that keratitis can be due to the herpes simplex virus (1137). Keratitis has multiple causes, one of which is an infection of a present or previous herpes simplex virus secondary to an upper respiratory infection, involving cold sores.

Samuel N. Key, 3rd. (US), W. Richard Green (US), Eddy Willaert (US), Ann R. Stevens (US), and Samuel N. Key, Jr. (US) reported keratitis due to the protozoan, Acanthamoeba castellani (1437). Amoebic infection of the cornea is the most serious corneal infection, usually affecting contact lens wearers. It is usually caused by Acanthamoeba.

Bacterial infection of the cornea can follow from an injury or from wearing contact lenses. The bacteria involved are Staphylococcus aureus and for contact lens wearers, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Pseudomonas aeruginosa contains enzymes that can digest the cornea. 

Ragnar Granit (FI-SE) proposed a physiological theory of color perception. “The mechanism of color reception is organized by the peripheral visual apparatus, the number of color-sensitive elements is relatively limited, and these elements represent widely different regions of the visible spectrum (1066).” He also made the first ganglion cell recordings from a mammalian retina, the cat retina (1067).

Paul R. Dumke (US), Carl Frederic Schmidt (US), and Harry H. Pennes (US) made the first quantitative measurements of the cerebral blood flow in lightly anesthetized macaque monkeys and determined cerebral oxygen consumption in the same state and under deeper anesthesia as well as convulsive activity (750, 2390).

Seymour Solomon Kety (US) and Schmidt described a quantitative method for measuring cerebral blood flow in humans using nitrous oxide (Kety-Schmidt technique) (1435, 1436, 2389). The method is based upon the uptake by the brain of the diffusible nitrous oxide supplied by way of the arterial blood. These works led directly or indirectly to the development of current methods for the measurement of regional blood flow, metabolism, and the visualization of functional activity throughout the human brain.

Albert Claude (BE-US) used differential centrifugation to isolate a mitochondrial fraction from liver (476). 

H. Nakamura (JP) and H. Tsumagari (JP) were the first to describe the tobacco stunt disease (1965).

Victor Assad Najjar (LB-US) and L. Emmett Holt, Jr. (US) discovered that bacteria in the bowl of man are synthesizing thiamine (vitamin B1) which is being absorbed into the blood stream (1963).

Robert Edward Hungate (US) described an anaerobic cellulose digesting bacterium from the rumen of cattle (1324). 

Frank Baker (GB), S.T. Harris (GB), R.M. Pearson (GB), and J.A.B. Smith (GB) used histochemical and histophysical methods to identify cellulose cleaving microorganisms in the rumen of cattle and sheep, and in the caeca of the horse, guinea pig, rabbit, and hen. They observed that each host species tends to harbor a characteristic microbiota (107, 108, 2059-2061).

Robert Williams (GB), G.J. Harper (GB), and Arnold Ashley Miles (GB) developed a slide agglutination reaction using human plasma to identify coagulase positive staphylococci (3014).

Wilson Smith (GB) and J.H. Hale (GB) determined that pathogenic strains of Staphylococcus aureus and also of the albus variety regularly produce coagulase while nonpathogenic strains do not (2541).

Tracy Morton Sonneborn (US) showed that various cases of non-Mendelian inheritance could be classified into distinct groups, most involving interactions between nuclear genes and the cytoplasm (2567, 2568). 

Maxwell E. Power (US) began his very important contribution to insect neuroanatomy by studying the distribution of nerve tracts and specific fibers in the brain of Drosophila as well as its thoracico-abdominal nervous system (2127-2129).

Carroll Milton Williams (US), and Muriel Voter Williams (US) demonstrated the neuromuscular network in the thorax that controls the wing-beat in Drosophila (3012).

Wilton R. Earle (US), Emma Shelton (US), Edward L. Schilling (US), Thomas H. Stark (US), Nancy P. Straus (US), Mary F. Brown (US), and Anderson Nettleslip (US) were the first to establish a permanent mammalian cell line in vitro. The cells were originally derived from an explant of subcutaneous tissue from the C3H strain of mice and after many subculturings designated the L strain. They found they could alter the morphology and growth characteristics of these cells by treatment with a carcinogen. When these altered cells were injected into healthy mice, tumors were produced. Earle and Nettleship (US) noted that all of these normal cells maintained in vitro, even those not treated with a carcinogen, eventually became malignant and reverted (transformed) to a more primitive morphology (759-763, 1974, 2463).

Paul Bruce Beeson (US) published the classic description of transfusion-transmitted hepatitis. He linked the occurrence of jaundice in seven cases to blood or plasma transfusions the patients had received a few months prior, providing the quintessential description of transfusion-transmitted hepatitis (161).

Clinton Nathan Woolsey (US) discovered a second somatic sensory receiving area in the cortex of the cat, dog, and monkey (3076).

Edgar Douglas Adrian (GB) independently made the same discovery at a slightly later time in the Shetland pony (13). 

Min Chueh Chang (CN-US) discovered that applying ice to the scrotum of sheep causes severe disintegration of sperm from the lower end of the epididymis. He referred to this as cold shock (436).

Paul Hahn (US) observed that within 1 minute after injection of 250 units of the anticoagulant heparin into lipemic dogs, the lipemia (due principally to chylomicrons, the lowest density lipoproteins in blood) had totally cleared, as observed visually in samples of drawn blood (1125).

Norman Gulack Anderson (US) and Blake Fawcett (US) found that heparin injection causes the appearance in plasma of a "lipemia clearing factor" or "antichylomicronemic substance" that can clear lipemic plasma in vitro (55).

Edward David Korn (US) found that the “clearing factor” is, in fact, a heparin-activated lipoprotein lipase that occurs in and is released by heparin from heart and adipose tissues. It hydrolyzes the triacylglycerols of lipoproteins but not simple oil emulsions; the latter could, however, be converted to substrate by complexing with a high-density lipoprotein (1491-1493).

Jan Gosta Waldenström (SE) described three patients with an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) who had hyperproteinemia and petechiae of their lower extremities without evidence of malignancy (2877). Although he coined the term purpura hyperglobulinaemica, this entity is now recognized as benign hypergammaglobulinemic purpura of Waldenström (BHPW).

James Purdon Martin (GB) and Julia Bell (GB) were the first to describe the fragile X syndrome (Martin-Bell syndrome) (1787).

Herbert A. Lubs (US) reported the fragile site on the X chromosome (1714).

Annemiske J.M.H. Verkerk (NL), Maura Pieretti (US), James S. Sutcliffe (US), Ying-Hui Fu (US), Derek P. Kuhl (US), Antonio Pizzuti (US), Orly Reiner (US), Stephen Richards (US), Maureen F. Victoria (US), Fuping Zhang (US), Bert E. Eussen (NL), Gert-Jan B. van Ommen (NL), Lau A.J. Blonden (NL), Gregory J. Riggins (US), Jane L. Chastain (US), Catherine B. Kunst (NL), Hans Galjaard (NL), Charles Thomas Caskey (US), David L. Nelson (US), Ben A. Oostra (NL), and Stephen T. Warren (US) identified a gene for fragile X syndrome (FMR-1) containing a CGG repeat coincident with a breakpoint cluster region and determined that its transcriptional silence is due to heavy methylation (2098, 2802).

Eric J. Kremer (AU), Melanie A. Pritchard (AU), Michael Lynch (AU), Sui Yu (AU), Katherine Holman (AU), Elizabeth Baker (AU), Stephen T. Warren (AU), David Schlessinger (AU), Grant R. Sutherland (AU), and Robert I. Richards (AU) determined that fragile X syndrome is caused by a massive expansion and concomitant methylation of a CCG repeat located in the 5’-untranslated region of the FMR1 gene, which results in transcriptional silencing of the gene (1525, 2237). Fragile X syndrome is one of the most common forms of inherited mental retardation.

John Freeman Loutit (GB) and Patrick Loudon Mollison (GB) devised a disodium-citrate-glucose mixture as a blood preservative, which made possible the storage of whole blood for up to three weeks (1712).

Thomas Gibson (GB) and Peter Brian Medawar (GB) defined the immunologic nature of skin allograft rejection in humans, confirmed subsequently with controlled rabbit experiments (1026, 1837).

Kenelm Digby (GB), and M.A. Hupka (), and Josephus Wolff () provided evidence of a skin graft rejection on a patient's nose in the year 1661 (691). 

F. Gerard Allison (CA) described restless legs syndrome and offered a treatment (39).

Edwin Bennett Astwood (US) found that hyperthyroidism could be successfully treated with thiourea and thiouracil (84).

Clarence Crafoord (SE) and Gustav Nylin (SE) surgically repaired congenital coarctation of the aorta in a human (563).

Robert Edward Gross (US) and Charles A. Hufnagel (US) performed the successful corrective surgery of coarctation of the aorta. In infants this narrowing of the aorta is typically proximal to its junction with the ductus arteriosus. The adult type is at or distal to the junction. This condition is usually fatal (1090, 1091, 1093).

Jay Tepperman (US), John Raymond Brobeck (US), and Cyril Norman Hugh Long (US) described hypothalamic hyperphagia in the albino rat (2699).

David Lambert Lack (GB) wrote The Galapagos Finches (Geospizinae) a Study in Variation; Darwin’s Finches; The Life of the Robin; and Swifts in a Tower, all important contributions to ornithology and an introduction of competition theory into animal ecology, stressing the importance of ecological isolation in speciation, and providing a cogent model for adaptive radiation (1556-1559).


“From Type III pneumococcus a biologically active fraction has been isolated…which in exceedingly minute amounts is capable…of inducing the transformation of unencapsulated R variants of Pneumococcus Type II into fully encapsulated cells of the same specific type as that of the heat-killed microorganisms from which the inducing material was recovered…. The active fraction…consists principally…of a highly polymerized, viscous form of desoxyribonucleic acid.” Oswald Theodore Avery (90).

Joseph Erlanger (US) and Herbert Spencer Gasser (US) shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their determination of how different nerve fibers (cells) conducted their impulses at different rates. All else being equal, the velocity of the impulse varies directly with the thickness of fiber.

Raphael Consden (GB), Arthur Hugh Gordon (GB), and Archer John Porter Martin (GB) developed the technique of paper chromatography and stated that, “the separation depends on the differences in partition coefficient between the mobile phase and the water-saturated cellulose, instead of differences in adsorption by the cellulose” (526).

Lyman Creighton Craig (US) developed liquid-liquid countercurrent distribution as a separation and purification technique (564).

Charles M. Brewer (US) reported that the phenol coefficient technique is unsatisfactory for evaluating quaternary ammonium compounds because the results are to inconsistent (291).

George A. Buntin (US) produced the first samples of toxaphene, a potent insecticide that could kill a wide range of cotton (Gossypium spp.) insect pests. Pilot plant production began in 1945 (2113).

Vincent du Vigneaud (US), Glen W. Kilmer (US), Julian R. Rachele (US), and Mildred Cohn (US) determined that all the sulfur and none of the carbon in newly formed cysteine originates from methionine (742).

Robert Burns Woodward (US) and William von Eggers Doering (US) performed the total synthesis of quinine from very simple molecules (3068, 3069). 

Stanton A. Harris (US), Donald E. Wolf (US), Ralph Mozingo (US), R. Christian Anderson (US), Glen E. Arth (US), Nelson R. Easton (US), Dorothea Heyl (US), Andrew N. Wilson (US), and Karl August Folkers (US) achieved the first synthesis of biotin (1166).

Henry Arnold Lardy (US), Richard L. Potter (US), and Conrad Arnold Elvehjem (US) found that the function of biotin is to fix carbon dioxide in heterotrophic organisms (1595). 

Pat N. Confalone (US), Giacomo Pizzolato (US), Enrico G. Baggiolini (US), Dianne Lollar (US), and Milan R. Uskokovic (US) carried out a total synthesis of biotin, an essential vitamin that functions as an indispensable coenzyme in a range of biocarboxylation reactions related to crucial physiological processes such as glucogenesis and fatty acid synthesis (519, 520).

Albert Schatz (US), Elizabeth Bugie (US), and Selman Abraham Waksman (RU-US) isolated a new antibacterial substance they designated streptomycin. It was isolated from two strains of an actinomycetes related to an organism described as Actinomyces griseus (2380, 2855). It was first used on humans May 12, 1945. Waksman is credited with coining the word antibiotic (against life) (2853). See, Papacostas, 1928. Streptomycin prevents the transition from initiation complex to chain elongating ribosome and also causes miscoding in prokaryotes only.

Frederick A. Kuehl, Jr. (US), Karl August Folkers (US), Robert L. Peck (US), Alphonse Walti (US), and Charles E. Hoffhine, Jr. (US) crystallized then determined the structure of streptomycin (1532, 1533).

Oswald Theodore Avery (CA-US), Colin Munro MacLeod (US), and MacLyn McCarty (US) discovered that genetic information is contained in, and transmitted by DNA (90). Avery was 67 years old when this paper appeared. It is a mystery to many that he was never awarded the Nobel Prize. Erwin Chargaff (AT-US) commented, “the ever rarer instance of an old man making a great scientific discovery. It had not been his first. He was a quiet man; and it would have honored the world more, had it honored him more” (441).

Bernice E. Eddy (US) reported that based on serological typing reactions seventy-five varieties of pneumococcal capsules had been discovered (780, 781).

Eugene F. Jansen (US), and Doris J. Hirschmann (US) discovered the antibiotic subtilin, produced by Bacillus subtilis. It was later shown by others to be antagonistic chiefly to gram-positive bacteria. It also inhibits Mycobacterium spp. and a number of pathogenic higher fungi (1358).

Albert Edward Oxford (GB) isolated the antibiotic diplococcin from milk streptococci (2022).

Maud Leonora Menten (CA), Josephine Junge (US), and Mary H. Green (US) coined the phrase active site as it refers to the site of enzyme activity (1851).

Fritz Kubowitz (DE) and Paul Ott (DE) reported isolating pyruvate kinase from human muscle (1531).

David Rockwell Goddard (US) demonstrated that cytochrome oxidase operates with the cytochrome c from plants (1035).

Allen H. Brown (US) and David Rockwell Goddard (US) had shown that cytochrome oxidase is photoreversibly inhibited by carbon monoxide (310).

Sidney Weinhouse (US), Grace S. Medes (US), and Norman F. Floyd (US) proved the correctness of Knoop's hypothesis that ketone bodies are synthesized from two carbon fragments that are generated by the oxidation of fatty acids in the liver (2933).

Grace S. Medes (US), Sidney Weinhouse (US), and Norman F. Floyd (US) proved decisively that beta-oxidation of a fatty acid occurs with some of the product undergoing oxidation via the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and the residue condensing into ketone bodies, acetoacetic acid and beta-hydroxybutyric acid (1841). 

See, Knoop, 1904.

Folke Karl Skoog (SE-US) produced in vitro cultures of tobacco tissue to study adventitious shoot formation (2518).

Folke Karl Skoog (SE-US) and Cheng Tsui (US) achieved the formation of adventitious shoots and roots with in vitro cultures of tobacco tissue (2519). 

Reginald Ernest Balch (GB-CA) and Frederick Theodore Bird (CA) provided one of the first reports on the use of a virus to control an arthropod pest, i.e., the European spruce sawfly (110).

Charles H. Gray (US), Edward Lawrie Tatum (US), Raymond R. Roepke (US), Raymond L. Libby (US), and Margaret H. Small (US) described bacterial mutants in Escherichia coli which they characterized as auxotrophs, from the Greek aux-, increase (not from the Latin auxi-, help), and trophe, food. The normal or wild-type cells he called prototrophs, from protos, first, or minimal.

In order to isolate rare bacterial mutants that have a nutritional requirement for their growth with which the parent Escherichia coli can dispense, they followed essentially the same procedure that had yielded the Neurospora mutants in 1940. For this procedure large numbers of Escherichia coli cells were plated on nutrient agar—that is, on complete medium. The colonies, which appeared after overnight incubation on the complete medium, were then picked, and part of each bacterial clone was tested to ascertain whether it would grow on a minimal medium—that is, agar containing a synthetic medium deficient in all components except the minimum necessary to grow the prototroph. In this way Gray and Tatum found that, whereas the overwhelming majority of colonies consisted of bacterial clones capable of growing on both media, about 1% of the colonies that grew on the complete medium were made up of bacteria that were unable to grow on the minimal medium. That is, these rare colonies were made up of clones of nutritional Escherichia coli mutants, which require for their growth some factor present in the complete medium but absent from the minimal medium.

The exact nature of the growth requirement of any particular auxotrophic mutant strain could be established by placing samples of the auxotrophic bacterial clone into a series of minimal media to which various putative growth factors, such as amino acids, vitamins, purines, and pyrimidines, had been added. The growth requirement is then inferred to be that substance whose addition to the minimal medium is necessary and sufficient to allow growth of the auxotroph.

Gray and Tatum established that many of their Escherichia coli auxotrophs responded to the addition of just one single factor to the minimal medium. (By convention the auxotrophic mutants are designated with a minus sign and a three letter abbreviation for the specific synthetic deficiency, e.g., Thr -, Pro -,Trp -. The prototrophic condition carries a plus sign , e.g., Thr +, Pro +, Trp +. It is noted that the minus or plus superscripts affixed to these symbols mean inability or ability to synthesize the substances represented by the three-letter abbreviation, and not, as with sugar-fermentation mutants, inability or ability to utilize the substance as a source of carbon and energy) (1071, 2272).

Victor Assad Najjar (LB-US), George A. Johns (US), George C. Medairy (US), Gertrude Fleischmann (US), and L. Emmett Holt, Jr. (US) discovered that bacteria in the large intestine of man are synthesizing riboflavin (vitamin B2) which is being absorbed into the blood stream (1964).

Roger Buvat (FR) noted that in vitro plant tissue would, with time, tend toward dedifferentiation (380).

Lothar Szidat (CL) found eggs of the fish tapeworm, Diphyllobothrium latum, in the intestines of two human bodies preserved in a peat bog in East Prussia since the early glacial period, i.e., Weichselian at 10- 110 Ka (2683).

J. Zed Young (GB), Paul Alfred Weiss (AT-US), and Helen B. Hiscoe (US) discovered that axoplasm of neurons is continuously flowing down nerve fibers at the rate of 0.2 mm per day (2936, 3089). 

William Hugh Feldman (US) and Horton Corwin Hinshaw (US) were the first to demonstrate successful in vivo treatment of tuberculosis with streptomycin (867, 1240).

Peter Brian Medawar (GB), Leslie Brent (GB), Rupert Everett Billingham (GB-US), and Elizabeth M. Sparrow (GB) established the immunological basis of the allograft reaction including an explanation of the second-stage phenomenon, i.e., an animal which has been grafted with foreign skin from the same donor on two successive occasions will reject the second graft more rapidly than the first (290, 1837-1840).

Peter Brian Medawar (GB) observed that presensitization of a recipient with leucocytes from the graft donor accelerated skin graft rejection, whereas erythrocytes had no effect. He therefore concluded that the search for histocompatibility antigens (coined in 1948) should be focused on the white cells, not the red cells, of the blood (1839).

William Christopher Stadie (US), Benjamin C. Riggs (US), and Niels Haugaard (US) wrote a series of papers on the oxygen poisoning of enzymes and tissues at hyperbaric pressures (2588-2596).

Aristides Azevedo Pacheco Leão (BR), while studying the epileptiform after discharge response of the cerebral cortex to electric stimulation in rabbits, discovered the spreading depression reaction—a response of the dorsolateral neocortex to electric or mechanical stimuli applied to its surface. This visible aura frequently precedes migraine headaches (1607-1609).

John Friend Mahoney (US), Richard C. Arnold (US), Burton L. Sterner (US), Ad Harris (US), Margaret R. Zwally (US) described the use of penicillin to treat syphilis (1756). One long-term result of this discovery was the virtual elimination of tertiary syphilis of the brain, once a leading cause of insanity throughout the world.

Theodore B. Steinhausen (US), Clarence E. Dungan (US), Joseph B. Fürst (US), John T. Plati (US), S. Willard Smith (US), A. Perry Darling (US), E. Clinton Wolcott, Jr. (US), Stafford L. Warren (US), and William H. Strain (US) introduced the use of ethyl iodophenylundecylate (Pantopaque) compounds as contrast media to perform radiographic diagnosis (2623).

John McMichael (GB), Edward P. Sharpey-Schafer (GB), Rajane M. Harvey (US), M. Irené Ferrer (US), Richard T. Cathcart (US), Dickinson Woodruff Richards (US), André Frédéric Cournand (FR-US), Richard A. Bloomfield (US), Bernard Rapoport (US), J. Pervis Milnor (US), Walter K. Long (US), J. Gilmer Mebane (US), Laurence B. Ellis (US), and M. Rita Lavin (US) established that digitalis glucosides act favorably only upon ventricles over-dilated, with excessive filling pressures and inadequate emptying; that in such hearts it acts rapidly to increase the energy of contraction, increase stroke volume, and promote adequate emptying, thus relieving the congestive state; that it performs with regular as well as irregular cardiac rhythms (236, 1179, 1835).

Arnold Rice Rich (US) clarified the pathogenesis of the spread of the tubercle bacilli in the body (2229).

James Gray (GB) in his studies of the mechanics of the tetrapod skeleton points out among other things that, in locomotion, limbs can function either as struts, providing force along their long axis, or as levers, providing a moment of force to supply torque around the attachment point (1075).

Roger Wolcott Sperry (US) severed optic axons in adult and immature anurans then noted that they reconnected to the optic tectum (the principal visual center) and visual function eventually returned, indicating that reflex relations in the brain had been correctly restored. To test how the restored vision had come about, regeneration was combined with a perturbation of the visual field produced by rotation of the eye. Control animals that had undergone regeneration of the optic nerve without rotation of the eye always showed correct responses when tested. Incorrect responses by those in which the eye had been rotated could not be attributed to any inherent defect in the regeneration process itself, and they could not be corrected by any functional process such as learning, even if they were of a maladaptive nature. Sperry inferred from these experiments that “the ingrowing optic fibers must possess specific properties of some sort by which they are differentially distinguished in the [brain] according to their respective retinal origins” (2576).

Roger Wolcott Sperry (US) created various experimental environments in test subjects: 1) excising the optic chiasma and rerouting the optic nerves (which are usually completely crossed in the amphibians that he used) to connect each eye to the ipsilateral lobe of the optic tectum, 2) transplant one eye to the opposite side, thus reversing its dorsal-ventral orientation without changing its nasal-temporal orientation, or vice versa. In these animals, the visuomotor responses were altered from normal in the direction that would have been predicted from their eye orientations. Histological studies showed a disorderly progression of the optic axons along the nerve, with almost all of them crossing to the contralateral tectum and only a scattering selecting the route to the side to which they would originally have connected. Thus it was evident that the regenerating axons were not passively following their old trajectories, and hence their final orderly reconnection to the optic tectum must have been determined by an intrinsic property reflecting the specific location of their cell bodies in the retina. Sperry inferred that the specific local properties would have been produced originally in the embryo “through a field differentiation of the retina” (2577).

Jan Gosta Waldenström (SE) described two patients with oronasal bleeding, lymphadenopathy, normochromic anemia, increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate, thrombocytopenia, hypoalbuminemia, low serum fibrinogen, and increased numbers of lymphoid cells in the bone marrow. Prolonged bleeding after lymph node biopsy and bone marrow aspiration, lobar pneumonia, and retinal hemorrhages were observed. His initial description remains to this day characteristic of the clinical presentation and laboratory abnormalities of Waldenström's macroglobulinemia related to excess IgM (2878).

John Rock (US) and Miriam Menkin (US) announced the first successful human in vitro fertilization (IVF) experiment (2270).

Grantly Dick-Read (GB) developed the concept of natural childbirth: that by elimination of fear and tension, labor pain could be minimized and anesthetics, which can be hazardous to both mother and child, rendered unnecessary (685).

David H. Rosenberg (US) and Philip A. Arling (US) were the first to successfully treat meningitis with intravenous and intrathecal penicillin (2297). Since then, penicillin has remained the drug of choice for the treatment of meningococcal meningitis.

Paul Jackson Kramer (US) and John P. Decker (US) determined that the eventual transformation of pine forests to hardwood forests results from the inability of pine seedlings to grow in the low light intensities under deciduous trees (1499). This work is one of the first explanations of the succession of plant species in natural communities.


Artturi Ilmari Virtanen (FI) was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his research and inventions in agricultural and nutrition chemistry, especially for his fodder preservation method.

Alexander Fleming (GB), Ernst Boris Chain (DE-GB), and Howard Walter Florey (AU-GB) were awarded the Nobel Prize for physiology and medicine for the discovery of penicillin and its curative effect in various infectious diseases.

Erwin Schrödinger (AT) wrote his little book What is Life ?, which had a profound effect on physical scientists. Since many of these physical scientists were suffering from a general professional malaise in the immediate post-war period, they were eager to direct their efforts toward a new frontier, which according to Schrödinger, was ready for some exciting developments. He tantalized physicists by suggesting that while the study of the gene would not elude the laws of physics, as established up to that date, it was likely to involve other laws of physics hitherto unknown. Their knowledge of biology was generally confined to stale botanical and zoological lore, and having one of the founding fathers of the new physics put the question, what is life? Provided for them an authoritative confrontation with a fundamental problem worthy of their mettle. Schrödinger’s book became a kind of catalyst of the revolution in biology that, when the dust had cleared, left molecular biology as its legacy. It is in this book that Schrödinger proposes the existence of an aperiodic solid polymer with potential as a miniature code containing information which is transmitted from one generation to the next (2422).

Robley Cook Williams (US) working with the electron microscopist Ralph Walter Greystone Wyckoff (US) developed the technique of metal shadow casting. This allows tiny objects to take on a three dimensional quality when viewed through the electron microscope (3015).

Gösta Karpe (DK) made electroretinography a useful clinical method (1405).

Gordon R. Baldock (GB) and William Grey Walter (GB-US) developed automated spectral analysis of EEG traces. A standard method for EEG analysis since its discovery has been to measure the power in various frequency bands, including alpha and delta, also beta (15-30 Hz), and theta (3-7 Hz). Walter used his skills in analog electronics to build a device that displayed the frequency content in an EEG trace, even as the trace was displayed with an ink-writing oscillograph, a pen whose fluctuations left a trace on moving paper that became the mainstay of electroencephalographers (111, 112).

Gerhard Schmidt (US) and Siegfried Joseph Thannhauser (US) presented a method for the determination of desoxyribonucleic acid, ribonucleic acid, and phosphoproteins in animal tissues (2391).

Willard A. Krehl (US), Lester J. Teply (US), Padman S. Sarma (US), and Conrad Arnold Elvehjem (US) presented evidence that tryptophan is very likely a metabolic precursor to niacin (vitamin B3) (1523, 1524).

Harland Goff Wood (US), Nathan Lifson (US), and Victor Lorber (US) demonstrated the pathway of carbon dioxide incorporation into specific carbon atoms of glucose derived from rat hepatic glycogen (3052).

Percy Wragg Brian (GB), Harold George Hemming (GB), and J.C. McGowan (GB) reported that griseofulvin is antifungal because it inhibits Botryti allii and produces distortions in its germ tubes (292).

Albert Edward Oxford (GB), Harold Raistrick (GB), and Paul Simonart (GB) discovered griseofulvin as a product of Penicillium griseofulvum (2023).

James C. Gentles (GB) reported the successful treatment of dermatophytosis in guinea pigs with griseofulvin (1008). It was introduced for clinical use in 1959.

Alastair Campbell Frazer (GB) and Herbert G. Sammons (GB) demonstrated that the formation of mono- and diglycerides from triglycerides results from the action of pancreatic lipase (pancreatic triacylglycerol lipase) both in vitro and in vivo, with no free glycerol appearing during the first five hours of the reaction (940).

Clause Silbert Hudson (US), Nelson K. Richtmyer (US), and James W. Pratt (US) elucidated the structure of sedoheptulose (1315, 2130, 2238).

Linus Carl Pauling (US) speculated that the biological action of a protein is related to the shape of the surface into which the polypeptide folds (2051).

Erwin Brand (US), Leo J. Saidel (US), William H. Goldwater (US), Beatrice Kaseel (US), and Francis J. Ryan (US) reported the first complete amino acid analysis of a protein by chemical and microbiological methods. The protein was beta-lactoglobulin (277). Beta-lactoglobulin is the major whey protein in the milk of ruminants and some non-ruminants.

Choh Hao Li (CN-US), Herbert McLean Evans (US), Miriam E. Simpson (US), and Kai O. Pederson (US) isolated and determined the properties of anterior hypophyseal growth hormone known as somatotropin or growth hormone (GH) from the ox (1659, 1662).

Choh Hao Li (CN-US) and Harold Papkoff (US) prepared and tested the properties of growth hormone from human and monkey pituitary glands (1661).

Frederick Sanger (GB), Hans Tuppy (GB), Edward Owen Paul Thompson (GB), Andrew P. Ryle (GB), Leslie F. Smith (GB), Ruth Kitai (GB), and Henry Brown (GB) developed a method for determining the nature and amount of the amino-terminal amino acid residues in a protein by using dinitrofluorobenzene. When they applied this methodology to insulin they concluded that each 12,000 molecular weight unit contained two amino-terminal glycine residues and two amino-terminal phenylalanine residues. Sanger postulated that, “The presence of four alpha amino groups suggests that the submolecule is built up of four open polypeptide chains bound together by cross-linkages, presumably chiefly disulfide linkages. It is, of course, possible that other chains may be present in the form of a ring structure with no free amino groups”. They later found that insulin was likely to be composed of two polypeptide chains, succeeding in determining the exact amino acid sequences for both chains of bovine insulin. This was the first demonstration that proteins contain a precise amino acid sequence (313, 2337, 2356-2363).

Donald Frederick Steiner (US), Ronald E. Chance (US), Robert M. Ellis (US), William W. Bromer (US), Ole Hallund (DK), Arthur Harold Rubenstein (US), Sooja Cho (US), Claudia Bayliss (US), Jeffrey L. Clark (US), Chris Nolan (US), Emanuel Margoliash (IL), Bradley Aten (US), Philip E. Oyer (US), James D. Peterson (US), and Franco Melani (US) found that insulin is synthesized first in the islet cells as a single-chained precursor, proinsulin. In the pancreatic duct proinsulin is subsequently converted to the two-chained form by the enzymatic removal of a segment from its middle after the formation of the three disulfide bonds (434, 1846, 1991, 2618-2621). This represents the first evidence for the existence of a novel family of endoproteolytic processing enzymes called proprotein convertases. See Roebroek, 1986.  

Otto Fritz Meyerhof (DE-US) demonstrated the need for ATPase during glycolysis (1866).

Walter C. Schneider (US) described methodology by which DNA, RNA, and cellular protein can be separated from one another (2397, 2398).

Fritz Albert Lipmann (DE-US) discovered how pyruvate is oxidized to the intermediate formation of a reactive two-carbon fragment (active acetate) by studying a model system. He showed that pigeon-liver extracts, in the presence of added ATP, also affected the acetylation of the amino group of the drug sulfanilamide with acetate as the source of potential active acetate. He found that this reaction required—in addition to thiamine pyrophosphate—the presence of a heat-stable dialyzable factor, which he named cofactor coenzyme A (A for acetylation) (1687).

Fritz Albert Lipmann (DE-US), Nathan Oram Kaplan (US), G. David Novelli (US), L. Constance Tuttle (US), and Beverly M. Guirard (US) tested coenzyme A for vitamin activity and indeed found that it contains pantothenic acid (Greek, pantothen, from every side) (1688).

Joseph Richard Stern (US), Severo Ochoa (ES-US-ES), G. David Novelli (US), Fritz Albert Lipmann (DE-US), Willard B. Elliott (US), George Kalnitsky (US), and Feodor Felix Konrad Lynen  (DE) reported the synthesis of citrate from acetate, ATP, CoA, and oxaloacetate in pigeon liver, yeast, Escherichia coli, and kidney tissue. It was shown that citrate rather than cis-aconitate or isocitrate is the product of the "acetate"-oxaloacetate condensation (814, 1999, 2632-2634). This is citrate synthase.

Fritz Albert Lipmann (DE-US), Nathan Oram Kaplan (US), G. David Novelli (US), L. Constance Tuttle (US), and Beverly M. Guirard (US) isolated coenzyme A (1689).

G. David Novelli (US) and Fritz Albert Lipmann (DE-US) confirmed the catalytic function of coenzyme A in citric acid synthesis using cell-free extracts of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli (1999).

Seymour Korkes (US), Joseph Richard Stern (DE-US), Irwin Clyde Gunsalus (US) and Severo Ochoa (ES-US-ES) elucidated the enzymatic synthesis of citrate from pyruvate and oxalacetate in Escherichia coli (1490).

Fritz Albert Lipmann (DE-US), Nathan Oram Kaplan (US), G. David Novelli (US), L. Constance Tuttle (US), and Beverly M. Guirard (US) isolated coenzyme A (1689).

Feodor Felix Konrad Lynen (DE), Ernestine Reichert (DE), and Luistraud Kröplin-Rueff (DE) established the precise chemical mechanism by which coenzyme A carries acyl groups. They isolated an active form of acetate from yeast and showed it to consist of a thioester of acetic acid with the thiol or sulfhydral group of coenzyme A. The function of coenzyme A is to serve as a carrier of acyl groups in enzymatic reactions involved in fatty acid oxidation, fatty acid synthesis, pyruvate oxidation, and biological acetylations (1736-1738).

James Baddiley (GB), Eric M. Thain (), G. David Novelli (US), and Fritz Albert Lipmann (DE-US) worked out the structure of coenzyme A (95).

Severo Ochoa (ES-US-ES), Joseph Richard Stern (DE-US), Morton C. Schneider (US), and Feodor Felix Konrad Lynen  (DE) demonstrated that acetyl-CoA is the substance that reacts with oxaloacetate to form citrate in the presence of the condensing enzyme crystallized by Severo Ochoa’s laboratory (2004, 2634).

Horace Albert Barker (US) and Earl Reece Stadtman (US) found that coenzyme A participates in the metabolism of fatty acids (126).

Roscoe O. Brady (US) and Earl Reece Stadtman (US) detected three distinctly different thioltransacetylases in pigeon liver extracts; namely, thioltransacetylase A which catalyzes the transfer of the acetyl group of acetyl-CoA to reduced lipoic acid, 2-mercaptoethanol, and to a lesser extent to some other mercaptans, thioltransacetylase B which catalyzes the acetylation of 2-mercaptoethanol and 2-mercaptoethylamine, and a hydrogen sulfide thioltransacetylase that catalyzes the acetylation of hydrogen sulfide with the formation of thioacetic acid (275).

John Gilbert Moffatt (US) and Har Gobind Khorana (IN-US) synthesized coenzyme A (1901). NAD and lipoic acid were found to be requirements for coenzyme A activity. See, Lester J. Reed.

Herman Moritz Kalckar (DK-US) and Manya Shafran (US) discovered that phosphorolytic cleavage of nucleosides is similar to that of glycogen, e.g. ribose-hypoxanthine + Pi is converted to ribose-1-P + hypoxanthine. The equilibrium of this reaction lies to the left. This was the first demonstration of enzymatic synthesis of a nucleoside (1396, 1398).

Gerty Theresa Cori, née Radnitz (CZ-US), Milton Wilbur Slein (US), and Carl Ferdinand Cori (CZ-US) crystallized glyceraldehyde-3-dehydrogenase from skeletal muscle (551).

Winston H. Price (US), Carl Ferdinand Cori (CZ-US), and Sidney P. Colowick (US) demonstrated that hexokinase activity is promoted by insulin but checked by another hormone in extracts from the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland, i.e., the hypophysis (2134). This first demonstration of a regulatory effect of hormone on enzyme opened a whole new field of investigation.

David Shemin (US) and David Rittenberg (US) observed that if 15N-labelled glycine molecules are given to human subjects it leads to hemin (ferriprotoporphyrin) molecules in which all four nitrogens are 15N. Serendipitously they found that the data allowed them to calculate the average life span of a human erythrocyte at 127 days (2466-2468).

David Shemin (US), Irving M. London (US), David Rittenberg (US), Jonathan B. Wittenberg (US), Kenneth D. Gibson (US), William Graeme Laver (AU), Albert Neuberger (DE-GB), Helen M. Muir (GB), John C. Wriston, Jr. (US), Leon Lack (US), Charlotte S. Russell (US), and Tessa Abramsky (US) elucidated the basic aspects of heme (pyrrole ring) biosynthesis and showed that glycine and succinyl-CoA are the source of all the heme (1025, 1700, 1701, 1931, 2464, 2465, 2470, 2471, 3042, 3085).

Roland G. Westall (GB), Gerry H. Cookson (GB) and Claude Rimington (NO) found that a patient suffering from acute intermittent porphyria was excreting a monopyrrole (porphobilinogen). Porphobilinogen was postulated to be a "pyrrolic intermediate" in the synthesis of a group of organic pigments, which includes hemoglobin and chlorophyll (530, 531, 2952).

Samuel I. Beale (US), Simon P. Gough (US), and S. Granick (US) discovered the C5 pathway in which the first pyrrole ring of the four pyrrole rings in chlorophyll can be made by an alternative route for the synthesis of 5-aminolevulinate which starts from glutamate (in contrast to the synthesis from glycine and succinyl-CoA) (152).

Gunnar Östergren (SE) formulated the concept of selfish DNA. Speaking of non-coding B chromosomes, he stated that: “I think reasonable support may be given to the view that in many cases these chromosomes have no useful function at all to the species carrying them, but they often lead an exclusively parasitic existence” (2015).

Norman Harold Horowitz (US) and Jerry S. Hubbard (US) postulated how complex sequential metabolic pathways may have arisen as the result of selective pressure, i.e., the retrograde model.

Suppose that a contemporary cellular pathway makes a required substance such as an amino acid through the sequence A to B to C to D to E, in which A is a simple inorganic substance and E is the final organic product. Initially E was plentiful in the environment and was absorbed directly by primitive aggregates. Later, as E became scarce because of use, chemical selection favored pre-cells that could make E from D, a slightly less complex organic substance still found in abundance in the environment. As D became exhausted, selection favored assemblies that developed the pathway C to D, in which the even simpler substance C could be absorbed and used as raw material to make D. This process continued until the entire synthetic pathway, based on an essentially inexhaustible inorganic substance, was established (1281, 1283).

Milislav L. Demerec (Yugoslavian -US) and Ugo Fano (US) collected the group of seven bacteriophages later to be called the T-set. Their host is E. coli strain B. They were numbered consecutively as they were collected (most likely from sewage or feces) (646, 1378). Of the seven, the so-called T-even strains (T2, T4, and T6), which are similar structurally, antigenically, and genetically, proved the most useful for biochemical and genetic studies.

Alan Lloyd Hodgkin (GB) and Andrew Fielding Huxley (GB) were able to measure the resting and action potentials in single nerve fibers (cells) (1250).

Keith Roberts Porter (US), Albert Claude (BE-US), and Ernest F. Fullam (US) produced the first electron micrograph of an intact eukaryotic cell. The cell was a cultured fibroblast originating from a chick embryo, which was grown by Porter on polyvinyl film, then peeled off and transferred to a wire specimen grid. The cell was fixed with osmium tetroxide, washed and then dried in order to prevent evaporation in the electron microscope's vacuum chamber. Magnified 1600 times, this first electron micrograph of a cell reveals mitochondria, the Golgi apparatus and a lace-like reticulum which Porter later named the endoplasmic reticulum. The electron microscope used for this historic image was an RCA EMB model, operated by Fullam at the Interchemical Corporation in New York City (2122).

George Emil Palade (RO-US), Keith Roberts Porter (US), Frances Kallman (US) and Fritiof Stig Sjöstrand (SE) developed methods for fixation and thin sectioning that enabled many intracellular structures to be seen for the first time (2029, 2030, 2123, 2510).

Keith Roberts Porter (US), working with Albert Claude (BE-US), named the endoplasmic reticulum (2120).

H. Stanley Bennett (US), Keith Roberts Porter (US), and George Emil Palade (RO-US) identified the sarcoplasmic reticulum (180, 2124). Porter and Palade described the transverse channels so vital to conduction.

Keith Roberts Porter (US) and Joseph Blum (US) developed the ultramicrotome. The invention took place in 1952 (2121).

Fritiof Stig Sjostrand (SE), Leonard G. Worley (US), Ernest Fischbein (US), and Jennie E. Shapiro (US) discovered the ciliary rootlet as an anatomical structure (2511, 3083). The cross-linking between the rootlets and other cytoskeletal elements indicate its important role as an anchor and support structure for the cilia.

Hermann Joseph Muller, Jr. (US) made an exceptionally farsighted interpretation of Oswald Theodore Avery’s work on the transformation of pneumococci (90). Muller stated, “There were, in effect, still viable bacterial ‘chromosomes’ or parts of chromosomes floating free in the medium used. These might, in my opinion, have penetrated the capsuleless bacteria and in part at least have taken root there.

A method appears to be provided whereby the gene constitution of these forms can be analyzed, much as in the crossbreeding tests on the higher organisms. However, unlike what has so far been possible in higher organisms, viable chromosome threads could also be obtained from these lower forms for in vitro observation, chemical analysis, and determination of the genetic effects of treatment” (1939). Note: Given as a Pilgrim's Trust Lecture before the Royal Society of London 1 November 1945.

Max Ludwig Henning Delbrück (DE-US) organized the first annual summer phage course at Cold Spring Harbor, New York. This course persuaded many young scientists to adopt phage as a tool for solving problems of a biological nature, especially the problem of defining a gene and its relationship to DNA.

Michael Doudoroff (RU-US) proposed that the utilization of sugars is controlled by permeability mechanisms involving sugar-specific carrier proteins (723, 724).

Salvador Edward Luria (IT-US) discovered that bacteriophages could sport host-range mutants. These host-range mutants are able to overcome the resistance of phage-resistant mutant bacteria because the structure of the attachment organs of the mutant phage differs in some subtle way from that of the wild-type phage  (1726).

Alfred Day Hershey (US) reported the isolation of r (rapid lysis) and h (host-range) phage mutants. This along with Luria’s work demonstrated to existence of various mutant forms (1223).

Max Ludwig Henning Delbrück (DE-US) developed a technique permitting the assay of the relative proportion of h and h plus types in a single plating of a bacteriophage suspension. h is a mutant T2 phage that can infect and grow on cells normally resistant to the T2 phage. The wild-type T2 phage is h plus which is capable of infecting normal cells but not Tto resistant cells. Ref

Edward B. Lewis (US) designated that in genetics there are two different types of position effects, S-type (stable) and V-type (variegated) (1648).

Josef Fried (US) and Oscar Paul Wintersteiner (US) isolated the antibiotic streptothricin from Actinomyces lavendulae (953).

Henry Mcllwain (GB) found that iodinin produced by Chromobacterium iodinum (Brevibacterium iodinum) is antimicrobial (1825).

Herman C. Lichstein (US) and Virginia F. van de Sand (US) isolated the antibiotic violacein from Chromobacterium violaceum (1666).

Balbina A. Johnson (US), Herbert Anker (US) and Frank L. Meleney (US) first described the antibiotic bacitracin, which they isolated from Bacillus licheniformis. It was found to be to toxic for internal use (1363).

André Félix Boivin (FR), Albert Delauney (FR), Roger Vendrely (FR), and Yvonne Lehoult (FR) reported a transformation phenomenon in Escherichia coli which was very similar to Oswald Theodore Avery’s 1944 transformation in pneumococcus (244, 246).

Barbara McClintock (US) determined that the chromosomes of Neurospora and their behavior in the ascus are typically eukaryotic. She outlined the details of meiosis and described the seven chromosomes, noting that despite their small size they are individually recognizable by their distinctive morphology at pachytene. Pachytene pairing in a translocation heterozygote with the ascus types resulting from different modes of segregation when the translocation was heterozygous were described (1820).  

Donald Frederick Poulson (US) studied embryonic development in Drosophila melanogaster by using deficiencies involving the entire X chromosome or reasonably large portions thereof. The results of one such deficiency, known as Notch-8, were detailed. “The most striking feature of such eggs is that they contain very little or no endoderm or mesoderm... the process of germ layer formation has been interfered with seriously... The ectoderm proliferates especially along the ventral mid-line and produces what appears to be a semblance of the early nervous system” (2125).

Donald Frederick Poulson (US) clearly demonstrated that the closely coordinated yet separate developmental steps involved in Drosophila embryogenesis are under the control of specific genes (2126).

Christopher Q. Doe (US) and Corey S. Goodman (US) studying the neural ectoderm of grasshoppers suggested a mechanism that we now know as lateral inhibition. Using laser micro beams to ablate one or more ectodermal cells in a group, they found that neuroblasts are specified by cell interactions. Initially, each undifferentiated cell within a sheet of neural ectodermal cells has an equal chance of becoming a neuroblast, but only one cell within a group takes on this role. Interactions between the cells of a group allow this one cell to enlarge into the neuroblast, which somehow prevents its neighboring cells from taking on the same identity; these cells instead become support cells or die (711).

Kristi A. Wharton (US), Kristen M. Johansen (US), Tian Xu (US) and Spyros Artavanis-Tsakonas (US) presented the primary structure of the major embryonic Notch transcript, which shows homology to the epidermal growth factor (EGF) and other proteins containing EGF-like repeats. Hydropathy plots suggest that the putative Notch protein may span the membrane. They relate these findings to the developmental action of Notch and speculate that the locus may be involved in a cell-cell interaction mechanism that is essential for the differentiation of the ectoderm into neural and epidermal precursors (2958).

Philippe l'Héritier (FR) and Georges Teissier (FR) reported the symptoms exhibited by Drosophila when infected with sigma virus (1554).

Mikhail Petrovich Chumakov (RU), in 1944, was the first to identify and establish the viral etiology of the disease the Soviets called Crimean Hemorrhagic Fever. He passed the virus through human volunteers but was unable to isolate it (462).

David I. H. Simpson (IE), E.M. Knight (), Ghislaine Courtois (BE), Miles C. Williams (GB), M. Paul Weinbren (ZA), and John W. Kibukamusoke (AU) isolated and named Congo virus from several Congolese and Ugandan patients exhibiting a severe febrile illness (2505). The virus was eventually named Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHF), a member of the genus Nairovirus, family Bunyaviridae.

Jordi Casals (ES-US) found the Crimean virus indistinguishable from Congo virus, which was isolated in 1956 from a febrile child in Stanleyville (now Kisangani, Democratic Republic of the Congo), leading to the current designation, CCHF virus (406). CCHF produces high mortalities, up to 60%, and has been found in over 30 countries.

Kenneth Bryan Raper (US) and Charles Thom (US) wrote their monograph, Manual of the Aspergilli (2195).

Georgiana B. Deevey (US) and Edward Smith Deevey, Jr. (US) wrote a paper on the hematology of the black widow spider. This paper was the first to use life table analysis in the study of an arachnid (640).

Colin Munro MacLeod (US), Richard G. Hodges (US), Michael Heidelberger (US), and William G. Bernhard (US) conceived, produced, and field tested a type-specific pneumococcal vaccine (1750).

Charles H. Rammelkamp, Jr. (US), with the Commission on Acute Respiratory Diseases and the New York State Department of Health, helped determine the relationship between epidemics of acute bacterial pneumonia and influenza (1193). This is the basis for the influenza surveillance by the Centers for Disease Control, which follows pneumonia prevalence as a surrogate for influenza.

Robert Royston Amos Coombs (GB), Arthur Ernest Mourant (GB), and Robert Russell Race (GB) found that erythrocytes which had been sensitized with incomplete anti-Rh antibodies and then washed free of unbound human globulin could be agglutinated by an anti-human globulin serum prepared by immunizing a rabbit with human gamma globulin or whole human serum (534, 535). Erythrocytes sensitized by nonagglutinating incomplete anti-Rh antibodies will agglutinate when mixed with anti-globulin antibodies, i.e., the Direct Coombs Test. Suspected cases of erythroblastosis fetalis may be tested in this manner.

Ray David Owen (US) was the first to apply the term tolerance to an immunological phenomenon. He used it to describe results in his studies on binovular twin cattle sharing a common placenta (freemartin cattle). Owen noted that “erythrocyte precursors from each twin fetus had become established in the other and had conferred on their new host a tolerance towards … foreign cells that lasted a lifetime.” These twins of different sex were in fact red-cell chimeras or genetic mosaics (2017, 2018).

Michael Francis Addison Woodruff (GB) and Bernard Lennox (GB) confirmed the freemartin concept in man when they found a pair of twins, one male the other female, who shared elements of different red cell types. Postulating a shared placental circulation between the two, they cross skin grafted them successfully (3063).

Sheila Callender (GB), Robert Russell Race (GB), and Zafer V. Paykoc (GB) discovered the lutheran blood group antigen in humans (389).

Robert Franklin Pitts (US) and Robert S. Alexander (US) showed that the hydrogen ion secreted by the renal tubules is responsible for acidifying the urine of mammals (2112).

Robert Franklin Pitts (US), William D. Lotspeich (US), Martha Barrett (US), and Ilse Langer (US) defined the properties of renal bicarbonate transport by examining the relationship between bicarbonate reabsorption and excretion at varying plasma bicarbonate levels. A renal threshold for bicarbonate excretion was defined at 24mM. They established the kidney’s ability to generate significant transepithelial carbon dioxide gradients, which were explained by a lack of effective carbonic anhydrase activity in the lumen of distal nephron segments. They noted a relationship between bicarbonate transport and excretion of acid, based on the observation that during acidosis the excretion of titratable acid varied inversely with the amount of bicarbonate administered (2108).

George H. Chambers (US), Eleanor V. Melville (US), Ruth S. Hare (US), and Kendrick Hare (US) found that in conscious dogs the secretion of the antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin) depends on the osmotic pressure of the blood plasma (432).

George Washington Corner (US), Carl G. Hartman (US), and George W. Bartelmez (US) described the development, organization, and breakdown of the corpus luteum in the rhesus monkey (Macacus rhesus) (554).

George Gaylord Simpson (US) placed all apes in one family, the Pongidae and all members of the genus Homo, extinct and extant, in a separate family, the Hominidae (2507).

Gordon R. Baldock (GB) and William Grey Walter (GB-US) developed automated spectral analysis of EEG traces. A standard method for EEG analysis since its discovery has been to measure the power in various frequency bands, including alpha and delta, also beta (15-30 Hz), and theta (3-7 Hz). Walter used his skills in analog electronics to build a device that displayed the frequency content in an EEG trace, even as the trace was displayed with an ink-writing oscillograph, a pen whose fluctuations left a trace on moving paper that became the mainstay of electroencephalographers (111, 112).

Anthonie van Harreveld (US) produced experimental evidence that after removal of part of the innervation of a muscle, the remaining motor units grow by adopting muscle fibers, which originally belonged to the dennervated motor units (2779).

H. Hoffman (GB) provided histopathological evidence of local reinnervation in partially dennervated muscle (1253).

Clinton Nathan Woolsey (US), John L. Hampson (US), and C.R. Harrison (US) mapped the somatic sensory projections to the cerebellar cortex and the organization of projections from the cerebral cortex to the cerebellar cortex in the cat and dog (1147, 3078).

Stanley E. Bradley (US), Franz J. Ingelfinger (US), Geraldine P. Bradley (US), and John J. Curry (US) developed a method for measuring hepatic blood flow (274).

Derek Ernst Denny-Brown (NZ-GB-US) and Daniel Sciarra (US) described nervous system changes associated with porphyria (649).

Cecil James Watson (US), Samuel Schwartz (US), Violet Hawkinson (US), Moisés Grinstein (US), and Robert A. Aldrich (US) revealed that in most cases of porphyria the excreted porphyrins are derived from the liver, suggesting a defect in heme synthesis within this organ (1088, 2920).

Cecil James Watson (US), Rudi Schmid (US), Samuel Schwartz (US), Robert A. Aldrich (US), Violet Hawkinson (US), and Moisés Grinstein (US) noted the exception, a rare condition resulting from a defect in hemoglobin synthesis in maturing normoblasts of the bone marrow (28, 2387, 2388).

Cecil James Watson (US), Victor Perman (US), Francis A. Spurrell (US), Harvey H. Hoyt (US), and Samuel Schwartz (US) named the rare condition congenital erythropoietic porphyria (2918).

Alfred Blalock (US), Helen Brooke Taussig (US), and Vivien Theodore Thomas (US) perfected what became known as the blue baby operation (Blalock-Taussig shunt)—subclavian artery attached to the pulmonary artery— to correct a defect of the large artery that supplies blood to the lungs. This defect allows so little blood to be pumped through the narrow passage that the oxygen intake is painfully curtailed. Blalock performed the operation on a human for the first time in 1946. Prior to this Vivien Theodore Thomas had performed this operation many times on dogs. Dr. Blalock, in collaboration with Dr. Taussig, developed procedures for the correction of a number of congenital heart lesions or anomalies of the great vessels of the heart, leading to morbus ciruleus, among them patent ductus arteriosis, tetrology of Fallot (blue baby syndrome), tricuspic atresia, and coarctation of the aorta (220, 2201).

Hunter H. Comly (US) reported on cyanosis in infants caused by nitrates in well-water (514).

Carl F. Vilter (US), Tom D. Spies (US), and Muiv B. Koch (US) reported that cases of sprue (celiac disease or gluten-sensitive enteropathy) and nutritional macrocytic anemia respond to treatment with pteroylglutamic acid (PGA, vitamin M, folic acid, or folate) (2809).

Robert Edward Gross (US), in 1945, reported the first successful case of surgical relief for tracheal obstruction from a vascular ring (1089).

Paul H. Leslie (GB) showed how one simple mathematical technique can be used to make all the important demographic projections and how this technique can be applied to basic life table data of the sort that a laboratory or field ecologist usually obtains (1631).


“Adapt or perish, now as ever, is Nature’s inexorable imperative.” Herbert George Wells (2944).

“Essential to a great discoverer in any field of nature would seem an intuitive flair for raising the right question…to ask something which the time is not yet ripe to answer is of little avail.” Charles Scott Sherrington (2475). 

James Batcheller Sumner (US) for his discovery that enzymes can be crystallized and John Howard Northrop (US) and Wendell Meredith Stanley (US) for their preparation of enzymes and virus proteins in a pure form were awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry.

Hermann Joseph Muller, Jr. (US) was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for the discovery of the production of mutations by means of x-ray irradiation.

Edward Mills Purcell (US), Henry C. Torrey (US), Robert V. Pound (US), Felix Bloch (CH-US), William Webster Hansen (US), and Martin Packard (US) found that when certain nuclei were placed in a magnetic field they absorbed energy in the radiofrequency range of the electromagnetic spectrum, and re-emitted this energy when the nuclei transferred to their original state. This is nuclear magnetic resonant absorption (NMR) (222, 223, 2142, 2143).

Richard R. Ernst (CH) and Hans Primas (CH) designed and built advanced electronic equipment for improved nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometers. In parallel, they developed the theoretical background for the optimum performance of the instruments (846).

Albert Claude (BE-US) developed differential centrifugation for isolating and purifying cell parts. He and others would use this technique to separate ribosomes, mitochondria, lysosomes, peroxisomes, and the Golgi complex into distinct fractions. This paper contains the first full explanation of the fractionation of mammalian cells by differential centrifugation (477).

George Hall Hogeboom (US), Walter Carl Schneider (US), and George Emil Palade (RO-US) significantly improved this methodology by carrying out the centrifugation in a concentrated solution of sucrose. This technique was considered to have made the method of isolating mitochondria complete (1257).

Erwin Brand (US) proposed that the first three letters in the name of an amino acid be used as an abbreviation for that acid, there being a few exceptions (276).

George Hall Hogeboom (US), Albert Claude (BE-US), and Rollin Douglas Hotchkiss (US) showed that the site of intracellular respiration is the mitochondrion (1256).

George Emil Palade (RO-US) produced the first electron photomicrographs of mitochondria, which revealed their cristae and outer membrane. He postulated that their structure was related to the function of such enzymes as succinic acid dehydrogenase and cytochrome c oxidase. These photomicrographs revealed that the enzymes of respiration reside within the inner membrane of the mitochondrion (2029).

Kenneth Bailey (GB) discovered tropomyosin (97).

Setsuro Ebashi (JP), Fumiko Ebashi (JP), Ayako Kodama (JP), Makato Endo (JP), Iwao Ohtsuki (JP) and Takeyuki Wakabayashi (JP) isolated troponin (native tropomyosin) and found that when skeletal muscle is stimulated by depolarization of the muscle membrane the level of calcium ions in the muscle increases and this increases the amount of calcium ions bound to troponin. The sensitivity of calcium ion binding to calcium ion concentration, together with the observation that at low calcium ion levels the actin-myosin interaction is inhibited but that this inhibition is reversed at higher calcium ion levels, clearly indicated that regulation of actin-myosin activity must relate to the binding of calcium ions by troponin (765-768, 771, 772).

Setsuro Ebashi (JP), Ayako Kodama (JP), Makato Endo (JP), Iwao Ohtsuki (JP), Marion L. Greaser (US), John Gergely (US), James A. Spudich (GB-US), Hugh Esmor Huxley (GB-US), and John T. Finch (GB) proposed a mechanism to explain how the interaction of calcium with troponin and tropomyosin modulates the interaction of actin and myosin during skeletal muscle contraction (769, 770, 1076, 2585).

Setsuro Ebashi (JP) and Makoto Endo (JP) used biochemical data to estimate the relative numbers of actin, tropomyosin, and troponin molecules in the F-actin filament (768).

Philip Pacy Cohen (US) and Mika Hayano (US) were the first to successfully set up a cell-free system for urea synthesis (496).

Lindsay H. Briggs (NZ), Harry T. Openshaw (GB), and Robert Robinson (GB) determined the structure of strychnine (300, 2262).

Cornelis Bokhoven (DE), Jean Chaques Schoone (DE), and Johannes Martin Bijvoet (DE) used crystallographic techniques to solve the structure of strychnine (248).

Jörgen Lehmann (SE) discovered the anti-tubercular agent para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS) (1620). This drug when used along with streptomycin—discovered by Waksman—provided the first effective treatment of tuberculosis.

Harry Most (US), Irving M. London (US), Charles A. Kane (US), Paul H. Lavietes (US), Edmund F. Schroeder (US), and Joseph M. Hayman, Jr. (US) successfully used chloroquine for treatment of acute attacks of vivax malaria (1924).

Otto A. Bessey (US), Oliver H. Lowry (US), and Mary Jane Brock (US) described a method for determining alkaline phosphatase in blood serum (201).

Alma Joslyn Whiffen (US), J. Nestor Bohonos (US), and Robert L. Emerson (US) isolated the antifungal/antiprotozoal/antimammalian antibiotic cycloheximide (actidione) from Streptomyces griseus (2959). Cycloheximide blocks the translocation reaction on ribosomes.

John C. Sonne (US), John Machlin Buchanan (US), and Adelaide M. Delluva (US) determined that during the in vivo synthesis of inosinic acid (a purine) carbon dioxide is the precursor of carbon atom 6; formate, of carbon atoms 2 and 8; and the carboxyl carbon of glycine, of carbon atom 4 (330, 331, 2557, 2558).

Jon L. Karlsson (IS), Horace Albert Barker (US), David Shemin (US), and David Rittenberg (US) determined that carbon atom 5 and nitrogen atom 7 of inosinic acid are derived from the alpha carbon and nitrogen of glycine (1404, 2469).

John C. Sonne (US), I. Lin (US), and John Machlin Buchanan (US), demonstrated that two nitrogen atoms are derived from the amide nitrogen of glutamine and that aspartic acid (or glutamic acid) contributes one nitrogen to the synthesis of the purine ring (2559, 2560). 

Bruce Levenberg (US), Standish C. Hartman (US), and John Machlin Buchanan (US) demonstrated that within purines nitrogen 1 is derived from aspartic acid nitrogen and nitrogen atoms 3 and 9 from the amide nitrogen of glutamine (1636). 

Robert Allan Phillips (US), A. Yeomans (US), Vincent P. Dole (US), Lee E. Farr (US), Donald Dexter van Slyke (US), and David Hogan (US) developed a simple method, based on specific gravity, for determining erythrocyte concentration in whole blood and protein concentration in blood plasma (2092).

Solomon Spiegelman (US) and Martin D. Kamen (US) suggested that copies of the information encoded within DNA are transmitted into the cell’s cytoplasm for protein synthesis (2578, 2579). This had great significance for future research into messenger RNA.

Maclyn McCarty (US) isolated, purified, and described for the first time the existence and properties of bovine pancreatic deoxyribonuclease (1812).

Johann Salnikow (US), Ta-Hsiu Liao (US), Stanford Moore (US), and William Howard Stein (US) isolated, and then determined the composition and amino acid sequences of the tryptic and chymotryptic peptides of bovine pancreatic deoxyribonuclease A (1664, 2350).

Carroll Milton Williams (US) began a series of experiments with the silkworm, Hyalophra (Platysamia) cecropia, which led to discoveries that at low temperatures the pupal brain becomes competent to secrete hormone. At high temperatures, which typically follow low temperatures in the seasons, specialized cells in the competent brain secrete a hormone, which reacts with the prothoracic glands causing them to secrete a growth, and differentiation hormone. This growth and differentiation hormone reacts with the pupal tissues to terminate diapause thus leading to development of an adult. 

He also found that a brain hormone produced by larvae early in the spinning process promotes the secretion of the prothoracic gland growth and differentiation hormone which promotes pupation (3003-3011). 

Philip Rodney White (US) was the first to attempt the production of a defined medium for the culturing of eukaryotic cells. The cells survived but did not multiply (2971, 2972).

Max Rubin (US) and Herbert R. Bird (US) discovered that an acid precipitate of a water extract of dried cow manure stimulates the growth of chicks. This would later be known as vitamin B12 (2320-2322).

Georgi Frantsevitch Gause (RU) isolated the antibiotic litmocidin from Proactinomyces cyaneus antibioticus (1001).

Selman Abraham Waksman (RU-US), Albert Schatz (US), and H. Christine Reilly (US) isolated the antibiotic grisein from Streptomyces griseus (2854, 2856).

Herman C. Lichstein (US) and Virginia F. van de Sand (US) isolated the antibiotic prodigiosin from Serratia mercescens (1667).

Karl Sune Detlof Bergström (SE), Axel Hugo Theodor Theorell (SE), and Hans Davide (SE) isolated the antibiotic pyolipic acid from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (191).

Georgi Frantsevitch Gause (RU) isolated the antibiotic colistatin from a yellow, aerobic, sporulating bacillus (1000).

Gaston Ramon (FR) and Rémy Richou (FR) isolated the antibiotic subtiline from Bacillus subtilis (2162).

Louis de Saint-Rat (FR) and Henri R. Olivier (FR) isolated the antibiotic endosubtilysin from Bacillus subtilis (630).

Jackson W. Foster (US) and Harold Boyd Woodruff (US) isolated the antibiotic bacillin from Bacillus subtilis (929).

Edwin A. Johnson (US) and Kenneth L. Burdon (US) isolated the antibiotic eumycin from Bacillus subtilis (Marburg strain) (1365).

Robert K. Callow (GB) and Philip Montagu d’Arcy Hart (GB) isolated the antibiotic licheniform from Bacillus licheniformis Weigmann emend. Gibson. It is especially effective against species of myxobacteria (390).

Edgar S. McFadden (US) and Ernest Robert Sears (US) discovered that the amphiploid between Triticum turgidum (wheat) and Aegilops squarrosa (goat-grass) is phenotypically very close to Triticum spelta (wheat). This confirmed earlier inference from hybrids involving Aegilops cylindrica (goat-grass) that the seven pairs of chromosomes (genome) in hexaploid but absent in tetraploid wheat had been derived from Aegilops squarrosa (goat-grass) (1823).

Carl Lamanna (US), Henning W. Eklund (US), Olive E. McElroy (US), Adolph Abrams (US), Gerson Kegeles (US), and George A. Hottle (US) crystallized the exotoxin of Clostridium botulinum Type A and characterized it as a protein of the globulin type (7, 1564).

Carl Lamanna (US) and Harold N. Glassman (US) isolated type B botulinus toxin in amorphous form (1563). 

Jean Louis Auguste Brachet (BE) hypothesized that proteins are synthesized on ribonucleoprotein granules within the cytoplasm (272).

Linus Carl Pauling (US) proposed that enzymes might work by causing their substrate to assume the configuration of a transition form (2055).

J.D. Green () and G.W. Harris () postulated the existence of growth-hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) (1080).

Jean Rivier (US), Joachim Spiess (US), Michel Thorner (US), Wylie W. Vale (US), Roger Guillemin (US), Paul Brazeau (US), Peter Bohlen (US), Frederick Esch (US), Nicholas Ling (US), and William B. Wehrenberg (US) isolated, sequenced, and synthesized GHRH. They found that the full biological activity of GHRH peptides resides in the 29 residues ending at the amino terminus (1099, 2255).

Michael J. Cronin (US), Alan D. Rogol (US), Robert M. MacLeod (US), Donald A. Keefer (US), Ivan S. Login (US), Joao L.C. Borges (US), Michael O. Thorner (US), Louise M. Belezikjian (US), and Wylie W. Vale (US) determined that the stimulatory effect of GHRH on GH release occurs via stimulation of cyclic AMP production (169, 570). 

André Gratia (BE) and Pierre Frédéricq (BE) discovered colicine, a killer substance, produced by some strains of Escherichia coli (942, 1070).

Pierre Frédéricq (BE) and M. Betz-Bareau (BE) showed that colicines behave as genetic factors independent of the chromosome (943-945).

James P. Duguid (GB) suggested that penicillin acts by interfering with the formation of a normal bacterial cell wall (748).

Joshua Lederberg (US) used penicillin to induce the formation of bacterial protoplasts (1613).

Ian M. Dawson (GB) presented electron photomicrographs illustrating the physical appearance of the cell wall of Staphylococcus aureus (620).

Milton R.J. Salton (US) and Robert W. Horne (GB) isolated and purified bacterial cell walls for chemical analysis and characterization (2352, 2353).

Milton R.J. Salton (US) demonstrated that the substrate for the lysis of Micrococcus lysodeikticus by lysozyme is the cell wall (2351).

Claes Weibull (US) observed that cells of Bacillus megaterium are transformed into wall-less, fragile, protoplasts when treated with lysozyme (2931).

Jean-Marie Ghuysen (BE) recounted how the molecular structure of bacterial cell walls was elucidated through a series of experiments utilizing various bacteriolytic enzymes, which attack specific molecular structures (1613).

Mary Lynne Perille Collins (US) and Milton R.J. Salton (US) were among the first to utilize detergents to solubilize bacterial membrane proteins (509).

Joshua Lederberg (US) and Edward Lawrie Tatum (US) demonstrated sexual recombination in Escherichia coli strain K-12. This recombination behavior strongly suggested that bacteria, like higher organisms, contain genes. Up to this point in time no bacterium of any sort had been shown to have genes. Lederberg was to name this phenomenon conjugation (1612, 1614, 2694).

Max Ludwig Henning Delbrück (DE-US), Alfred Day Hershey (US), Raquel Rotman (US), and William T. Bailey, Jr. (US) presented evidence suggesting that when bacteria are simultaneously infected by two different varieties of bacteriophage the burst of daughter phage shows characteristics derived from both parents, as though phage genes have recombined inside the host bacterium. This represents the discovery of genetic recombination in bacteriophage and the birth of phage genetics (644, 1223, 1224).

Kenneth M. Smith (GB) reported that two distinct viruses, tobacco vein distorting and tobacco mottle, when co-infecting tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants, caused the tobacco rosette disease. This is considered the discovery of the first luteovirus-associated aphid-transmitted virus complex (2535, 2536).

Kenneth C. Smithburn (US), Alexander John Haddow (GB), and Alexander Francis Mahaffy (CA) isolated the Bunyamwera (BUN) virus from Aedes mosquitoes in 1943 at the Enteebe East Africa Research Institute in Uganda. It would become the type virus for the Bunyaviridae family (2542). 

Jacques Lucien Monod (FR) and Alice Audureau (FR) demonstrated that Escherichia coli mutabile possesses the genetic information to produce the enzymes which allow utilization of lactose, whether lactose is present or not (1908).

Edward Lawrie Tatum (US) was the first to intentionally produce mutations in bacteria. He exposed Acetobacter and Escherichia coli to x-rays (2691).

Carl Clarence Lindegren (US) and Gertrude Lindegren (US) discovered that haplophase cultures of Sacharomyces cerevisiae contain two mating types which they designated a and alpha (1679).

Marcus Morton Rhoades (US) discovered the nuclear gene, iojap, a mutator gene that affects plastids. This is one of the first known cases of nuclear-cytoplasmic interaction. These alterations are heritable via the cytoplasm (2222).

Harold H. McKinney (US) was the first to report that oat mosaic disease has a viral etiology (1824).

A. Orlando (BR) and Karl Martin Silberschmidt (BR) demonstrated that the whitefly, Bemisis tabaci, serves as a vector for abutilon mosaic virus (2014).

Louis Pillemer (US), Ruth Wittler (US), and Donald B. Grossberg (US) crystallized the toxin of Clostridium tetani and characterized it as a protein (2101).

M.T. Dyar (US) and Erling J. Ordal (US) found that bacteria die rapidly when the negative charge on their surface is neutralized by the positive charge on a quaternary ammonium compound. This suggests a relationship between surface charge and disinfecting power (755).

Ernest Aubrey Ball (US) excised Nasturtium and Tropaeolum shoot tips and grew them in a test tube. He excised the shoot tips with scalpels made of razor blade corners spot-welded onto sewing needles, which could be inserted into wooden holders. He also regenerated plantations of lupin (Lupinus) by culturing their shoot tips with leaf primordia (113, 114).

George Henry Hepting (US) and Elmer R. Roth (US) discovered the pitch canker disease of southern pines and identified the specific causal fungi (1219).

George Henry Hepting (US) found that pines inoculated with pitch canker fungus produced oleoresin flow with desirable results (1217).

Otto Rahn (DE-US) showed that agents, which adsorb them, diminish the germicidal efficiency of quaternary ammonium compounds (quats). Examples are, filter paper, charcoal, bentonite, and agar. He further showed that fatty surfaces cause quats to orient themselves in a specific direction as they are adsorbed. The hydrophobic end of the molecule is directed toward the fatty material while the germicidal N—OH group faces the aqueous phase  (2157).

Emery I. Valko (US) demonstrated that proteins combine with quaternary ammonium compounds, frequently producing a precipitate (2774).

Robert A. Quisno (US) and Milton J. Foter (US) reported that an increase in temperature increases the germicidal efficiency of quaternary ammonium compounds, the temperature coefficient between 20°C and 37°C, being less than 2. They also reported that somewhat larger doses are required to kill gram-negative enterobacteria than streptococci and staphylococci, but rarely more than double the amount. A striking exception is Pseudomonas aeruginosa for which ten to twenty times as much is needed as for staphylococci. Mycobacterium spp. are even more resistant (2151).

Frank Macfarlane Burnet (AU), and Joyce D. Stone (AU) reported on how Vibrio cholerae damages the epithelial lining of the gastrointestinal tract (356, 357).

O. Magalhäes (BR) reported much experience with pulmonary geotrichosis (1754).

D. Smith (US), in 1934, reported five non-fatal infections due to Geotrichum and gave the essential cultural characteristics necessary for identification of the fungus (2524).

Ralph H. Kunstadter (US), Robert C. Pendergrass (US), and Joseph H. Schubert (US) reported a bronchopulmonary infection in humans caused by Geotrichum. sp (1550). The etiological agent is the fungus Geotrichum candidum.

James Craigie (CA) discovered that typhoid bacilli could be grouped according to sensitivity to certain phages (565).

Robert Joseph Huebner (US), Charles Pomerantz (US), William L. Jellison (US), and Peggy Stamps (US) isolated and named the etiological agent of rickettsialpox, Rickettsia akari, then determined the cycle of infection as mouse-mite-mouse, with man an occasional host (1316-1318).

Sydney Arthur Asdell (US) authored Patterns of Mammalian Reproduction in which he collected data bearing on reproductive behavior of wild as well as domestic mammals (77).

William Barry Wood, Jr. (US), Mary Ruth Smith (US), and Barbara Watson (US) studied the lungs of animals infected with encapsulated pneumococci early in the course of the disease, before antibody was produced. They discovered surface phagocytosis. On smooth surfaces the phagocytes were unable to engulf bacteria, whereas on rough surfaces they were often able to wedge the slippery bacteria into a corner where they could be phagocytized (3059, 3060).

Paul D. MacLean (US), Averill A. Liebow (US), and Arthur A. Rosenberg (US) first described Arcanobacterium hemolyticum infection in U.S. servicemen and peoples of the South Pacific suffering from sore throat (1749). Due to its resemblance to another type of bacteria, Corynebacterium, A. haemolyticum was initially classified as C. pyogenes subspecies hominus. Controversies regarding classification were resolved in 1982 when a new genus, Arcanobacterium (enigmatic bacterium) was created based on its peptidoglycan, fatty acid, and DNA characteristics.

Since its initial description, the spectrum of diseases caused by A. haemolyticum has been expanded to include sepsis and osteomyelitis.

Robert Royston Amos Coombs (GB), Arthur Ernest Mourant (GB), and Robert Russell Race (GB) discovered the Kell blood group antigen in man (536).

Arthur Ernest Mourant (GB) discovered the Lewis blood group antigen in man. It is named for a Mrs. Lewis in which anti-Le was made (1926).

Eric A. Beet (GB), working in Northern Rhodesia, now Zimbabwe, suggested that sickle cell trait is caused by a mutant recessive gene, inherited in a Mendelian pattern  (162-165).

James van Gundia Neel (US) proved that from the incidence of sickle cell disease and the trait in American Negro families that it is caused by a mutant recessive gene, inherited in a Mendelian pattern (1969).

Anthony Clifford Allison (GB-KE) performed an epidemiological study from which he concluded that the sickle cell trait protects carriers against malarial infection (37). This balance of advantage and disadvantage helped to explain why the sickle cell allele had been preserved in certain communities rather than being eliminated by natural selection.

Charles C. Macklin (CA) determined that there is no difference at all between positive and negative pressure inflation of the lung, as long as one is careful to reference airway and vascular pressures to the pleural pressure (1744).

Solbert Permutt (US), Jack B.L. Howell (GB), Donald F. Proctor (US), and Richard L. Riley (US) rediscovered Macklin’s findings (2073). In their companion paper they found that the pulmonary vascular bed could be functionally separated into two parts—alveolar and extra-alveolar vessels— that have opposite responses to lung inflation (1299).

Ulf Svante Hansson von Euler-Chelpin (SE) and Göran Liljestrand (SE) discovered what is now called the Euler-Liljestrand mechanism. This describes the connection between ventilation and blood circulation (perfusion) of the lung. If the ventilation in a part of the lung decreases it leads to local hypoxia. The local hypoxia leads to pulmonary vasoconstriction. This adaptive mechanism is beneficial, because it diminishes the amount of blood that passes the lung without being oxygenated (2835).

Robert J. Porcelli (US), Anna T. Viau (US), Margaret Demeny (US), Nosrat E. Naftchi (US) and Edward H. Bergofsky (US) reported that the molecular mechanism seems to be mediated by oxygen-sensitive potassium ion channels in the cell membrane of pulmonary smooth muscle. With a low partial pressure of oxygen, these channels are blocked, leading to the depolarization of the cell membrane. Calcium channels are activated and cause the influx of Ca2+ ions over the membrane and to the release of calcium from the endoplasmic reticulum. The rise of calcium concentration causes contraction of the blood vessels smooth muscle fibers and the resulting vasoconstriction  (2119).

Kathleen Ethel Boorman (GB), Barbara Edith Dodd (GB), and John Freeman Loutit (GB) demonstrated the presence of autoantibodies on the erythrocytes of patients with acquired hemolytic anemia and the absence of rbc-bound antibodies in patients with congenital hemolytic anemia (255). This test to detect antibodies that had sensitized rbcs in vivo became known as the Direct Antiglobulin Test (DAT). A positive DAT is generally caused by the attachment of immunoglobulin (IgG, IgM, IgA) and / or components of complement (C3d, C3, C4 etc.) to the red cell surface.

Dwight Joyce Ingle (US) showed that characteristic damaging effects of stress are produced when adrenal steroids are supplied to adrenalectomized animals at a constant but not excessive rate of administration. He deduced that the role of the adrenal cortex in the stressed state appears to be a subtle “permissive” or supporting role rather than as the primary mediator of the stress reaction (1333).

Clinton Nathan Woolsey (US), Samuel A. Talbot (US), and J.M. Thompson (US) mapped the primary visual area of the rabbit cortex, demonstrated the detailed retinotopic organization, and mapped a second visual area (3080, 3081).

Wallace Osgood Fenn (US), Hermann Rahn (DE-US), Arthur B. Otis (US), and Leigh E. Chadwick (US) developed the pressure-volume diagram of the lung and thorax. Hermann Rahn (DE-US) and William Osgood Fenn (US) wrote, A Graphical Analysis of the Respiratory Gas Exchange: The O2-CO2 Diagram in which they were able to represent all variables of the alveolar gas ventilation equations in diagrammatic form. With the O2-CO2 diagram they could represent all possible compositions of alveolar gas and the arterial blood under any specified set of conditions. Although F. Rohrer (?) preceded them on the pressure-volume diagram they conceived it independently, elaborated it further, and distilled into it some ten years of work and thought. It defined the limiting values for muscle forces and the corresponding volumes of gas and blood (886, 2154-2156). This work laid the foundation for respiratory mechanics.

Richard L. Riley (US) and André Frédéric Cournand (US) developed a three-compartment model of pulmonary gas exchange. This model was the standard for assessing ventilation-perfusion inequality in patients with lung disease until the introduction of the multiple inert gas elimination technique (2247, 2248).

Peter D. Wagner (US), Herbert A. Saltzman (US), and John B. West (US) introduced the multiple inert gas elimination technique which allowed VA/Q distributions to be described (2852).

John B. West (US) applied computer analysis to the solution of VA/Q distributions (2951).

Charlotte Auerbach (GB), John Michael Robson (GB), and John Gardner (GB) determined that nitrogen mustard gas, the chemical warfare agent, produces a high mutation rate in the fruit fly, Drosophila (85-87).

Gunnar Biörck (SE) and Clarence Crafoord (SE), in 1946, repaired an arteriovenous aneurysm on the pulmonary artery simulating patent ductus arteriosus botalli (207).

Cecil James Watson (US) and Frederick William Hoffbauer (US) described cholangiolithic cirrhosis. Today it is known as primary biliary cirrhosis (2917).

Paul D. Keller (US) described a clinical syndrome following exposure to atomic bomb explosions (1424).

William E. Adams (US), in 1946, performed a lobectomy for carcinoma of the lung on Thomas Mann who authored the tuberculosis saga The Magic Mountain (1955).

Errol Ivor White (GB) discovered a fossil of Jamoytius kerwoodi in deposits of Silurian rock in Scotland. It is probably the most primitive chordate known and may throw some light on the early ancestry of vertebrates (2967).


Robert Robinson (GB) was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for investigations on plant products of biological importance, especially the alkaloids.

Carl Ferdinand Cori (CZ-US) and Gerty Theresa Cori, née Radnitz (CZ-US), for their discovery of the course of the catalytic conversion of glycogen, and Bernardo Alberto Houssay (AR), for his discovery of the part played by the hormone of the anterior pituitary lobe in the metabolism of sugar, shared the Nobel Prize in physiology and medicine.

Immanuel Broser (DE) and Hartmut Kallman (DE) discovered that certain organic compounds called scintillators fluoresce when exposed to ionizing radiation. Each fluorescence event is proportional to a radioactive decay event, and the frequency of these events is directly proportional to the number of 14C atoms present in the sample (308). This discovery led to the development of liquid scintillation counters.

Norbert Weiner (US) conceived and developed a new kind of mathematics that he called cybernetics (negative feedback control). It was originally intended for the purpose of designing aiming devices for anti-aircraft guns and then later for guided missiles (2981). This concept quickly found acceptance in explaining the control of various biological phenomena. G. Evelyn Hutchinson (US) applied Weiner's cybernetics to Tansley's ecosystem leading to our modern concept of the ecosystem. Endocrinologists gradually realized that the language of feedback control provided an effective way of describing and thinking about endocrine interactions. Biochemists found that many metabolic pathways are controlled by feedback mechanisms.

Henry J. Buehler (US), Edward J. Schantz (US), and Carl Lamanna (US) determined the complete amino acid analysis of crystalline botulinus toxin, type A (335).

Maurice M. Rapport (US), Arda Alden Green (US), and Irvine Heinly Page (US) isolated the vasoconstrictor, serotonin, from serum (2197, 2198).

Betty M. Twarog (US), Irvine Heinly Page (US) A.H. Amin (GB), T.B.B. Crawford (GB), and John Henry Gaddum (GB) assigned roles in the central nervous system to serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) (49, 2758).

A. Michael Michelson (GB), James Baddiley (GB), and Alexander Robertus Todd (GB) prepared ribonucleoside-5’-phosphates (AMP, ADP and ATP) (94, 96, 1888, 1889).

A. Michael Michelson (GB), Alexander Robertus Todd (GB), R.H. Hall (GB), and R.F. Webb (GB) were the first to successfully synthesize oligonucleotides as found in DNA—thymidine dinucleotide—thus confirming DNA’s chemical structure (1133, 1889).

A. Michael Michelson (GB) and Alexander Robertus Todd (GB) discovered that RNA like DNA has a highly regular backbone of 5’-3’ phosphodiester linkages between nucleotides. ref

Herbert E. Carter (US), William J. Haines (US), W.E. Ledyard (US) and William P. Norris (US) proposed the term sphingolipid as a convenient designation for lipids containing sphingosine (cerebrosides, sphingomyelin, gangliosides…) (405).

Ronald Scarisbrick (GB) and Robert Hill (GB) discovered cytochrome f (1230, 2376).

Donald J. Hanahan (US) and Israel Lyon Chaikoff (CA-US) suggested that plant tissues contain an enzyme—later called phospholipase D—which produces phosphatidic acid from various phospholipids (1149).

Sam G. Wildman (US) and James Bonner (US) isolated fraction I protein from spinach leaves (2997).

Robert W. Dorner (US), Albert Kahn (US), and Sam G. Wildman (US) would declare this fraction I protein to be the enzyme ribulose-1, 5-biphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (Rubisco), arguably the world’s most abundant and important single species of soluble protein (719). See, Weissbach, 1956.

Melvin Calvin (US), Andrew Alm Benson (US), and associates provided an important clue to the nature of the pathway from CO2 to hexose in photosynthetic organisms. They illuminated green algae in the presence of radioactive carbon dioxide (14CO2) for very short intervals (only a few seconds) and then quickly killed the cells, extracted them, and with the aid of chromatographic methods searched for those metabolites in which the labeled carbon was incorporated earliest. Melvin Calvin (US) and Andrew Alm Benson (US) determined that one of the compounds that became labeled very early in photosynthesis is 3-phosphoglyceric acid, a known intermediate of glycolysis; the carbon isotope was found predominantly in the carboxyl carbon atom. This carbon atom, which corresponds to the carboxyl carbon atom of pyruvate, is not labeled rapidly in animal tissues incubated with radioactive CO2 (182, 392-394).

Melvin Calvin (US) and Peter Massini (US) were the first to postulate that the carboxylation of a molecule of ribulose-1, 5-diphosphate (RuDP) produces two molecules of 3-phosphoglyceric acid (PGA) (395).

Alexander T. Wilson (NZ) and Melvin Calvin (US) gathered evidence that indeed ribulose 1,5-biphosphate is the first substance to react with carbon dioxide in the dark reactions of photosynthesis (391, 3024).

James Al Bassham (US), Andrew Alm Benson (US), Lori D. Kay (US), Anne Z. Harris (US), Alexander T. Wilson (NZ), Martha R. Kirk (US), Melvin Calvin (US), Kazuo Shibata (JP), Kjell Steenberg (NO), and Jean Bourbon (?) proposed, then supported, the concept that the fixation of carbon dioxide is part of a carbon reduction cycle occurring during photosynthesis (now called the Calvin-Benson or C3 cycle) (131-134).

Arthur Weissbach (US), Pauline Z. Smyrniotis (US), and Bernard Leonard Horecker (US) were able to show that with crude extracts from spinach leaves ribose 5-phosphate was a unique substrate for the formation of phosphoglyceric acid, and they purified a kinase from spinach leaves that they used to prepare the barium salt of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate (RUDP) (2939).

Bernard Leonard Horecker (US), Arthur Weissbach (US), Pauline Z. Smyrniotis (US) and Jerard Hurwitz (US) isolated spinach phosphoribulokinase, performed the enzymatic synthesis of ribulose 1,5-diphosphate, and the enzymatic formation of phosphoglyceric acid from ribulose diphosphate and carbon dioxide (1276, 1325, 2938). The Weissbach article in 1956 represents the first purification of the enzyme ribulose-1, 5-biphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (Rubisco), arguably the world’s most abundant and important single species of soluble protein. 

William B. Jakoby (US), Dewey O. Brummond (US), and Severo Ochoa (ES-US-ES) showed that 3-phosphoglyceric acid forms as the result of carbon dioxide fixation in spinach leaves (1351).

William A. Laing (NZ), William L. Ogren (US), and Richard H. Hageman (US) derived enzyme kinetic equations for a dual substrate enzyme and meticulously showed that the kinetic properties of the isolated Rubisco enzyme could explain the effects of both oxygen and temperature on photosynthesis and photorespiration (1562).

Chris R. Somerville (US), Archie R. Portis, Jr. (US), and William L. Ogren (US) while screening Arabidopsis thaliana for photorespiratory mutants discovered Rubisco activase, which releases RuBP and other tight binding inhibitors from Rubisco sites (2554). 

R. Weismann (CH) reported the H. Speich of Geigy Chemicals observed insect (housefly) resistance to dichloro-diphenyl-trichloro-ethane (DDT) or 2,2-di (4-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane in northern Sweden—a mere five years after it was first used there (2935).

Daniel Bovet (CH-FR-IT), France Depierre (FR), and Yvonne de Lestrange (FR) while searching for a synthetic substitute for curare (a muscle relaxant), discovered gallamine (Flaxedil) and other muscle relaxants (265).

Pierre Huguenard (FR) and A. Boue (FR) were the first to use gallamine in clinical trials (1323).

Emily W. Emmart (US) isolated the antibiotic nocardine from Nocardia coeliaca (832).

Robert G. Benedict (US), Asgar F. Langlykke (US), Philip G. Stansly (US), Robert G. Shepherd (US), Harry James White (US), Geoffrey Clough Ainsworth (GB), Annie M. Brown (GB), and George G. Brownlee (GB) isolated the family of antibiotics called polymyxins (aerosporin in England) from Bacillus polymyxa (17, 179, 2612). Renal damage is a serious side effect of their administration to humans.

John Ehrlich (US), Quentin R. Bartz (US), Robert M. Smith (US), Dwight A. Joslyn (US), and Paul Rufus Burkholder (US) isolated the antibiotic chloromycetin (Chloramphenicol) from the actinomycete Streptomyces venezuelae, recovered from soil obtained near Caracas, Venezuela (796, 797). Chloramphenicol blocks the peptidyl transferase reaction on ribosomes of prokaryotes only. To this point in time chemists were convinced that nature could neither chlorinate nor nitrate its products. Chloramphenicol proved them wrong on both counts.

Otto Fritz Meyerhof (DE-US) and Peter Oesper (US) provided further proof that during glycolysis a diphosphoglyceric aldehyde intermediate does not exist. They also altered the equation for this step of glycolysis to reflect the fact that the reduction of cozymase is accompanied by the formation of an H+ ion (1881).

Theodor Bücher (DE) isolated and crystallized phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) then demonstrated that it catalyzes the reversible reaction: d-1, 3-diphosphoglyceric acid + adenosinediphosphate ↖ d-3-phosphoglyceric acid + adenosinetriphosphate (333). Phosphoglycerate kinase or phosphoglycerokinase (PGK) is a metabolic enzyme functioning in the Embden–Meyerhof-Parnas pathway.

A.P. Kraus (US), M.F. Langston, Jr. (US), and B.L. Lynch (US) reported that PGK-1 deficiency is associated with hemolytic anemia (1502). 

Shi-Han Chen (US), L.A. Malcolm (PG), Akira Yoshida (US), Eloise R. Giblett (US), John L. VandeBerg (US), Desmond W. Cooper (US), and P.J. Close (US) noted two functional loci for the production of PGK in the mammalian genome. PGK-1 is an X-linked gene expressed constitutively in all somatic cells and premeitotic germ cells. PGK-2 is an autosomal gene expressed in a tissue-specific manner exclusively in the late stages of spermatogenesis (447, 2793).  

Edgar Stedman (GB), and Ellen Stedman (GB) hypothesized that histones, basic proteins of cell nuclei, may act as regulators of gene activity and exhibit a cell specificity (2614, 2615).

James Frederick Bonner (US), Ru-Chih Huang (US), and Nirmala Maheshwari (US) discovered the synthesis of RNA from DNA in plants. They found that RNA transcription is inhibited by histones (253, 1306).

Ru-chih C. Huang (US) and James Frederick Bonner (US) reported that histones influence the ability of DNA to function as primer for RNA synthesis in vitro (1305).

James Frederick Bonner (US), Ru-chih C. Huang (US), and Ray Guilden (US) provided experimental evidence that the inhibition of RNA synthesis by histones is specific (252). This was experimental confirmation of the hypothesis by Stedman & Stedman in 1947. 

Derek Michael Phillips Phillips (GB) discovered that the amino-terminal tails of the four histones (H2A, H2B, H3, and H4) are post-transcriptionally modified by the addition of an acetyl group to the epsilon amino group of specific lysine side chains (2091).

Vincent George Allfrey (US), Robert D. Faulkner (US), and Alfred Ezra Mirsky (US) suggested that such a seemingly minor modification to histones could be involved in the control of gene expression via its “effect on the capacity of the histones to inhibit ribonucleic acid synthesis” (36).

Giorgio Vidali (US), Lidia C. Boffa (US), Vincent George Allfrey (US), Edwin Morton Bradbury (US), and Gloria Lorick Pleger (US), Josephine Bowen Keevert (US), Carol A. Johmann (US), and Martin A. Gorovsky (US) demonstrated a positive correlation between addition of acetyl groups to core histones and transcriptional activity (1058, 2807).

James E. Brownell (US), Jianxin Zhou (US), Tamara Ranalli (US), Ryuji Kobayashi (US), Diane G. Edmondson (US), Sharon Y. Roth (US), C. David Allis (US), Jack Taunton (US), Christian A. Hassig (US), and Stuart L. Schreiber (US) showed that histone acetylases and deacetylases are, in fact, transcriptional regulators. These studies provided the first clear connection between histone acetylation and transcriptional regulation (320, 321, 2697).

Stephen Rea (AT), Frank Elsenhaber (AT), Donal O'Carroll (AT), Brian D. Strahl (US), Zu-Wen Sun (US), Manfred Schmid (AT), Susanne Opravil (AT), Karl Mechtler (AT), Chris P. Ponting (GB), C. David Allis (US), and Thomas Jenuwein (AT) provided a functional link between histone methylation and chromatin structure (2202).

John Masson Gulland (GB) reported that undegraded calf thymus DNA contains large polynucleotide chains held together by hydrogen bonds (1100).

André Félix Boivin (FR) and Roger Vendrely (FR) were the first to express, in print, that DNA makes RNA makes protein (247).

Michael Doudoroff (RU-US), Horace Albert Barker (US), and William Zev Hassid (RU-GB-US) studied the action of bacterial sucrose phosphorylase in what represents an outstanding early example of the use of radioisotopes for the study of enzyme mechanisms  (725).

Theodor Bücher (DE) discovered that during glycolysis when glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate is oxidized the immediate product is 1,3-diphosphoglycerate, which donates its phosphoryl group to ADP in the presence of 3-phosphoglycerate kinase (333).

Milislav L. Demerec (Yugoslavian -US) explained how bacteria can mutate to resist higher and higher concentrations of an antibiotic. Resistance to penicillin is a step-wise phenomenon due to mutants at three different genes being selected as the concentration of antibiotic rises. The probability of all three mutations appearing in the same cell is 10-7 X 10-7 X 10-7 =10-21. Mutation to various levels of streptomycin resistance occurs even at low levels of the antibiotic.

These discoveries taught lessons for the clinical application of antibiotics such as penicillin and streptomycin. If a patient afflicted with a bacterial infection is to be treated with penicillin, the physician must employ the highest possible concentration of the drug at the very outset; for in that way the chance that all the pathogenic bacteria are killed is maximized, and the chance that high-level resistant mutants are selected is minimized. The avoidance of stepwise mutants is less important in streptomycin treatment, since mutants with high resistance to that drug are selected even in the presence of low concentrations, and little can be done to avoid their appearance. The surest way to avoid the appearance of drug-resistant strains is to administer simultaneously two or more kinds of antibiotics, since the chance that a multiple-resistant mutant will appear is given by the product of the individual mutation rates (645).

H. Christine Reilly (US), Dale A. Harris (US), and Selman Abraham Waksman (RU-US) discovered a virus (actinophage) which parasitizes some streptomycetes (2214).

Gernot Bergold (DE) demonstrated that many-sided crystalline polyhedra, characteristic of many insect virus diseases called polyhedroses, consist of virus particles (188).

John Franklin Enders (US) succeeded in transmitting primary atypical pneumonia to human volunteers by means of filtered secretions from the respiratory tract. This strongly suggested a viral etiology for this disease (835).

Joshua Lederberg (US) established the Lac locus in Escherichia coli (1612).

Edgar G. Anderson (US) and William Lacy Brown (US) published landmark monographs on the two ancestral maize types (Southern Dents and Northern Flints) that, when hybridized, gave rise to the North American race (Corn Belt Dent). Corn Belt Dent is the genetic foundation for all hybrid maize of the temperate zones (317-319).

Lemuel Roscoe Cleveland (US) gave accounts of how molting in Cryptocercus (a wood cockroach) affected the sexual cycles of its intestinal flagellates (482, 483).

Frederick E. J. Fry (CA) developed a model for the way fish respond to their physical and chemical environment. He divided all environmental effects on fish into five classes, controlling, limiting, lethal, masking and directive, increasing understanding of how environmental factors interact to affect performance of individual fish and their populations at any given time (968).

Min Chueh Chang (CN-US) disproved the need for large amounts of hyaluronidase at the site of fertilization and the claim that phosphorylated hesperidin, a hyaluronidase inhibitor, had man antifertility action when given orally (437, 438).

Frederick O. MacCallum (GB), using human volunteers, differentiated hepatitis A, which is spread by contaminated food and water, from hepatitis B, which is spread by blood (1739).

Robert John Walsh (GB) and Carmel M. Montgomery (GB) discovered the Ss blood group antigen (2890).

Paul A. Owren (NO) discovered the activated form of factor V (Va) of the blood clotting mechanism (2019, 2020). This factor has also been called proaccelerin.

Paul A. Owren (NO) described a hemorrhagic disease in a young woman lacking a plasma protein that was called proaccelerin. This disease is referred to as parahemophilia (factor V deficiency) (2021).

Thomas Francis, Jr. (US) discovered a non-antibody serum factor which prevents the agglutination of erythrocytes by myxoviruses. It is referred to as the Francis’ inhibitor (equivalent to alpha-inhibitor) (939).

C.M. Chu (GB) observed a similar factor, now called Chu’s inhibitor (equivalent to beta-inhibitor) (461).

H. Shimojo (JP), A. Sugiura (JP), J. Akao (JP), and C. Enomoto (JP) discovered gamma inhibitor, which is also a non-antibody serum factor capable of preventing the agglutination of erythrocytes by myxoviruses, specifically the A2 strain of influenza virus (2478).

Hurley L. Motley (US), Andre Cournand (US), Lars Werko (US), Aaron Himmelstein (US), and David Dresdale (US) found that short periods of induced anoxia (breathing 10% oxygen) in man rapidly induced pulmonary hypertension in subjects with normal blood pressure. Cardiac output was decreased slightly during anoxia, with a marked decrease in stroke volume. Pulmonary vascular resistance was almost doubled (1925).

Robert B. Howard (US) and Cecil James Watson (US) discovered that patients with evolving cirrhosis of the liver often have an antecedent transient episode of jaundice (1298).

Aaron Bunsen Lerner (US) and Cecil James Watson (US) discovered cryoglobulins in the sera of some patients with purpura (1630).

Isaac Berenblum (IL) and Philippe Shubik (GB) discovered that cancer caused by chemicals involves two distinct steps, initiation and promotion. The first step, initiation, was theorized to be a rapid mutational effect on the cellular DNA. The second step, promotion, was believed to be caused by a promoting agent, which altered cellular metabolism, growth, and transport (185, 186).

Robert James Morton (US), Malcolm McCallum Hargraves (US), and Helen Robinson (US) discovered a mature neutrophilic polymorphonuclear leucocyte containing the phagocytosed nucleus of another cell and recognized it as a diagnostic aid in acute disseminated lupus erythematosus (1158, 1923). The L.E. (lupus erythematosus) cell discovery was the first clear sign that systemic lupus erythematosus could be an autoimmune disease, i.e., Hargraves’ cells.

Thomas Holmes Sellers (GB), in 1947, performed the first successful pulmonary valvulotomy. A systemic pulmonary artery shunt was planned on the left side, but the attempt was abandoned in this patient with severe tetralogy of Fallot and advanced bilateral pulmonary tuberculosis. The pericardium was opened. Dr. Sellers could feel the stenotic valve each time it pushed through the pulmonary trunk during ventricular systole. Sellers used a tenotomy knife, which he passed through the right ventricle to perform the valvulotomy. The patient made a good recovery and was markedly improved (2436).

Jean-Pierre Soulier (FR) and Jean Gueguen (FR) discovered the anticoagulant phenylidane-dione and the first successful preparation of a therapeutic fraction from blood to treat factor IX and prothrombin complex deficiencies (2571).

Ludwig Guttman (DE-GB) established clean intermittent self-catheterization (1113, 1114, 1589).

Derek Ernest Denny-Brown (NZ-GB-US), E. Harry Botterell (CA), Thomas E. Twitchell (US), Luis Saenz-Arroyo (MX), John S. Meyer (US), Simon Horenstein (US), Betty Q. Banker (US), Geoffrey Rushworth (GB), Sid Gilman (US), Joseph P. van der Meulen (US), Nobuo Yanagisawa (JP), and Edwin J. Kirk (US) between 1947 and 1972, conducted central nervous system (CNS) lesion experiments on about 450 monkeys and made films of the animals post-operatively. The result of this effort is 67,000 m (220,000 ft) of film depicting monkeys with lesions in virtually every major CNS structure (659-669, 676, 677, 1031, 1453, 2325, 2778, 2808).

Alexander Brunschwig (US), in 1946, performed a total pelvic exenteration (surgical removal of the pelvic organs and nearby structures) on a patient with recurrent carcinoma of the cervix (328, 329).

Gerhardt von Bonin (US) and Percival Bailey (US) were the first to define with precision the cytoarchitecture of the human brain cortex (106, 2825).

Jens Christian Clausen (DK-US), David D. Keck (US), and William M. Heisey (US) used variation in the sticky cinquefoil (Potentilla glandulosa) and the yarrow (Achillea lanulosa) to perform the first documented experimental analysis of genetic differentiation in adjacent populations. During these experiments they introduced transplant experiments as an appropriate technique for distinguishing genetic from environmental effects (478, 479). These experiments clarified for certain species and under certain condition the question of heredity versus environment. 

Edward Smith Deevey, Jr. (US) introduced the concept of the life table to ecology (639).

Reginald Claude Sprigg (AU) discovered Precambrian metazoan fossils in the Pound Quartzite at Ediacara Hills and in the Flinders Ranges of South Australia (2583, 2584). This represents the dawn of visible life forms.

Edwin H. Colbert (US), curator of the American Museum of Natural History, found a massive quarry of Coelophysis dinosaurs in New Mexico and concluded from their skeletons that these Triassic dinosaurs were swift runners with a bird-like posture (501).

Alexander S. Watt (GB) related mosaic conditions of plant community growth to dynamic cyclic processes in the environment (2923).

The journal Biochimica et Biophysica Acta was founded.

English country names and code elements taken from the International Organization for Standardization:

DZ = Algerian; US = American; AR = Argentinian; AU = Australian; AT = Austrian; AT/HU = Austro/Hungarian; BA = Bosnian-Herzegovinian; BE = Belgian; BR = Brazilian; GB = British; BG = Bulgarian; CM = Cameroonian; CA = Canadian; TD = Chadian; CL = Chilean; CN = Chinese; CO = Colombian; CR = Costa Rican; HR = Croatian; CU = Cuban; CY = Cypriot; CZ = Czechoslovakian; DK = Danish; NL = Dutch; EC = Ecuadorian; EG = Egyptian; EE = Estonian; ET = Ethiopian; FI = Finnish; FR = French; DE = German; GR = Greek; GT = Guatemalan; GU = Guamanian; HU = Hungarian; IS = Icelander; IN = Indian; ID = Indonesian; IR = Iranian; IQ = Iraqi; IL = Israeli; IE = Irish; IT = Italian; JP = Japanese; KE = Kenyan; KR = South Korean; KW = Kuwaiti ; LV = Latvian; LB = Lebanese; LT = Lithuanian; LU = Luxembourgian; MK= Macedonian; MG = Malagasy; MT = Maltese; MY = Malaysian; MX = Mexican; NA = Namibian; NZ = New Zealander; NG = Nigerian; NO = Norwegian; PK = Pakistani; PA = Panamanian; PE = Peruvian; PH = Filipino; PL = Polish; PT = Portuguese; PR = Puerto Rican; RO = Romanian; RU = Russian; SA = Saudi Arabian; SN = Senegalese; CS = Serbian-Montenegrin; SK = Slovakian; ZA = South African; ES = Spanish; LK = Sri Lankan; SE = Swedish; CH = Swiss; SY = Syrian; TW = Taiwanese; TH = Thai; TN = Tunisian; TR = Turkish; UG = Ugandan; UA = Ukrainian; UY = Uruguayan; VE = Venezuelan; ZW = Zimbabwean

1. 1934. “’Ghost’” Fathers: Children Provided for the Childless. In Newsweek

2. 2002. The Official Lascaux Site. 

3. Abbott WS. 1925. A method for computing the effectiveness of an insecticide. Journal of Economic Entomology 18: 265-67

4. Abel JJ. 1926. Crystalline insulin. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 12: 132-36

5. Abraham EP, Chain EB. 1940. An enzyme from bacteria able to destroy penicillin. Nature 146: 837

6. Abraham EP, Chain EB, Fletcher CM, Gardner AD, Heatley NG, et al. 1941. Further observations on penicillin. The Lancet 238: 177-88

7. Abrams A, Kegeles G, Hottle GA. 1946. The purification of toxin from Clostridium botulinum type A. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 164: 63-79

8. Adams R. 1941-1942. Marihuana. Harvey Lectures 37: 168-97

9. Ades HW. 1943. A secondary acoustic area in the cerebral cortex of the cat. Journal of Neurophysiology 6: 59-63

10. Adler A. 1934. Zur topik des verlaufes der geschmackssinnfasern und anderer afferenter bahnen im thalamus [The topic of the course of the taste fibers and other afferent pathways in the thalamus]. Zeitschrift für Gesamte Neurologie und Psychiatrie 149: 208-20

11. Adler E, von Euler H, Günther G, Plass M. 1939. Isocitric dehydrogenase and glutamic acid synthesis in animal tissues. Biochemical Journal 33: 1028-45

12. Adrian ED. 1931. Potential changes in the isolated nervous system of Dytiscus marginalis. The Journal of Physiology 72: 132-51

13. Adrian ED. 1946. The somatic receiving area in the brain of the Shetland pony. Brain 69: 1-8

14. Adrian ED, Bronk DW. 1929. The discharge of impulses in motor nerve fibres. II. The frequency of discharge in reflex and voluntary contractions. The Journal of Physiology 67: 119-51

15. Adrian ED, Buytendijk F. 1931. Potential changes in the isolated brain stem of the goldfish. The Journal of Physiology 71: 121-35

16. Adrian ED, Zotterman Y. 1926. The impulses produced by sensory nerve-endings. Part 2. The response of a single end-organ. The Journal of Physiology 61: 151-71

17. Ainsworth GC, Brown AM, Brownlee GG. 1947. 'Aerosporin,' an antibiotic produced by Bacillus aerosporus Greer. Nature 160: 263

18. Akutsu T, Kolff WJ. 1958. Permanent substitutes for valves and hearts. ASAIO journal (American Society for Artificial Internal Organs: 1992) 4: 230-34

19. Al-Hajj M, Wicha MS, Benito-Hernandez A, Morrison SJ, Clarke MF. 2003. Prospective identification of tumorigenic breast cancer cells. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 100: 3983-88

20. Alberts HW. 1926. A method for calculating linkage values. Genetics 11: 235-48

21. Albright F, Aub JC, Bauer W. 1934b. Hyperparathyroidism: a common and polymorphic condition as illustrated by seventeen proven cases from one clinic. Journal of the American Medical Association 102: 1276-87

22. Albright F, Bauer W, Ropes M, Aub JC. 1929. Studies of calcium and phosphorus metabolism. Part IV: The effect of the parathyroid hormone. The Journal of Clinical Investigation 7: 139-81

23. Albright F, Bloomberg E, Castleman B, Churchill ED. 1934a. Hyperparathyroidism due to diffuse hyperplasia of all parathyroid glands rather than adenoma of one. Archives of Internal Medicine 54: 315-29

24. Albright F, Burnett CH, Smith PH, Parson W. 1942. Pseudo-hypoparathyroidism: an example of "Seabright-Bantam Syndrome": report of three cases. Endocrinology 30: 922-32

25. Albright F, Butler AM, Hampton AO, Smith PH. 1937. Syndrome characterized by osteitis fibrosa disseminata, areas of pigmentation and endocrine dysfunction, with precocious puberty in females. The New England Journal of Medicine 216: 727-46

26. Albright F, Smith PH, Richardson AM. 1941a. Postmenopausal osteoporosis. Journal of the American Medical Association 116: 2465-73

27. Albright F, Stewart JD. 1940. Hypovitaminosis of all fat-soluble vitamins due to steatorrhea. The New England Journal of Medicine 223: 239-41

28. Aldrich RA, Hawkinson V, Grinstein M, Watson CJ. 1951. Photosensitive or congenital porphyria with hemolytic anemia: I. Clinical and fundamental studies before and after splenectomy. Blood 6: 685-98

29. Aldrich RA, Steinberg AG, Campbell DC. 1954. Pedigree demonstrating a sex-linked recessive condition characterized by draining ears, eczematoid dermatitis and bloody diarrhea. Pediatrics 13: 133-39

30. Algire GH. 1943a. An adaptation of the transparent-chamber technique to the mouse. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 4: 1-11

31. Algire GH. 1943b. Microscopic studies of the early growth of a transplantable melanoma of the mouse, using the transparent-chamber technique Journal of the National Cancer Institute 4: 13-20

32. Algire GH, Chalkley HW, Legallais FY, Park HD. 1945. Vascular reactions of normal and malignant tissues in vivo. I. Vascular reactions of mice to wounds and to normal and neoplastic transplants. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 6: 73-85

33. Allen E, Pratt JP, Newell QU, Bland LJ. 1928. Recovery of human ova from the uterine tubes: time of ovulation in the menstrual cycle. Journal of the American Medical Association 91: 1018-20

34. Allen WM. 1935. The isolation of crystalline progestin. Science 82: 89-93

35. Allen WM, Wintersteiner O. 1934. Crystalline progestin. Science 80: 190-91

36. Allfrey VG, Faulkner RD, Mirsky AE. 1964. Acetylation and methylation of histone and their possible role in the regulation of RNA synthesis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 51: 786-94

37. Allison AC. 1954. Protection afforded by sickle-cell trait against subtertian malarial infection. British Medical Journal 1: 290-94

38. Allison FE, Hoover SR, Burk D. 1933. A respiration enzyme. Science 78: 217-18

39. Allison FG. 1943. Obscure pains in chest, back or limbs. Canadian Medical Association Journal 48: 36-38

40. Alloway JL. 1932. The transformation in vitro of R. pneumococci into S forms of different specific types by the use of filtered pneumococcus extracts. The Journal of Experimental Medicine 55: 91-99

41. Almquist HJ. 1936c. Purification of the antihemorrhagic vitamin. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 114: 241-45

42. Almquist HJ. 1936d. Purification of the antihemorrhagic vitamin by distillation. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 115: 589-91

43. Almquist HJ, Stockstad ELR. 1935. Hemorrhagic chick disease of dietary origin. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 111: 105-13

44. Almquist HJ, Stockstad ELR. 1936a. A nutritional deficiency causing gizzard erosions in chicks. Nature 137: 581-82

45. Almquist HJ, Stockstad ELR. 1936b. Factors influencing the incidence of dietary hemorrhagic disease in chicks: Two figures. Journal of Nutrition 12: 329-35

46. Alper T, Cramp WA, Haig DA, Clarke MC. 1967. Does the agent of scrapie replicate without nucleic acid? Nature 214: 764-66

47. Alsever JB, Ainslie RB. 1941. A new method for the preparation of dilute blood plasma and the operation of a complete transfusion service. New York State Journal of Medicine 41: 126-35

48. Altenburg E, Muller HJ. 1920. The genetic basis of truncate wing, —an inconstant and modifiable character in Drosophila. Genetics 5: 1-59

49. Amin AH, Crawford TBB, Gaddum JH. 1954. The distribution of substance P and 5-hydroxytryptamine in the central nervous system of the dog. The Journal of Physiology 126: 596-618

50. Amos J, Hatton RG, Knight RC, Massee AM. 1927. Experiments in the Transmission of Reversion of Black Currants, East Malling Research Station, Maidstone, Kent

51. Andersag H. 1934. The isoquinoline series. Medizin Und Chemie. Abhandlungen Aus Den Medizinisch-Chemischen Forschungsstätten Der I.G. Farbenindustrie Aktiengesellschaft 2: 377-83

52. Anderson EG, Hubricht L. 1938. The American sugar maples I. Phylogenetic relationships, as deduced from a study of leaf variation. Botanical Gazette 100: 312-23

53. Anderson EM, Collip JB. 1933. Thyrotropic hormone of anterior pituitary. Experimental Biology and Medicine 30: 680-83

54. Anderson JS, Happold FC, McLeod JW, Thomson JG. 1931. On the existence of two forms of diphtheria bacillus—B. diphtheriae gravis and B. diphtheriae mitis—and a new medium for their differentiation and for the bacteriological diagnosis of diphtheria. The Journal of Pathology and Bacteriology 34: 667-81

55. Anderson NG, Fawcett B. 1950. An antichylomicronemic substance produced by heparin injection. Experimental Biology and Medicine 74: 768-71

56. Anderson PW, Jr., Johnston RB, Jr., Smith DH. 1972. Human serum activities against Hemophilus influenzae, type b. The Journal of Clinical Investigation 51: 31-38

57. Anderson PW, Jr., Pichichero ME, Insel RA, Betts RF, Eby RJ, Smith DH. 1986. Vaccines consisting of periodate-cleaved oligosaccharides from the capsule of Haemophilus influenzae type b coupled to a protein carrier: Structural and temporal requirements for priming in the human infant. The Journal of Immunology 137: 1181-86

58. Anderson RJ. 1927. The separation of lipoid fractions from tubercle bacilli. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 74: 525-35

59. Anderson RJ. 1930. The chemistry of the lipoids of tubercle bacilli. XIV. The occurrence of inosite in the phosphatide of human tubercle bacilli. Journal of the American Chemical Society 52: 1607-08

60. Anderson RJ. 1933. The chemistry of the lipids of tubercle bacilli. XXXV. The constitution of phthiocol, the pigment isolated from the human tubercle bacillus. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 103: 197-201

61. Andersson B. 1933. Über co-zymaseaktivierung einiger dehydrogenasen [About co-zymase activation of some dehydrogenases]. Hoppe-Seyler's Zeitschrift für Physiologische Chemie 217: 186-90

62. Andersson B. 1934. Die co-zymase als co-enzym bei enzymatischen dehydrierungen [The co-zymase as co-enzyme in enzymatic dehydrogenation]. Hoppe-Seyler's Zeitschrift für Physiologische Chemie 225: 57-68

63. Andervont HB. 1929. Activity of herpetic virus in mice. The Journal of Infectious Diseases 44: 383-93

64. Andres AH, Zhivago P. 1933. Karyologische studien an myeloidischer leukämie des menschen [Karyological studies of myeloid leukemia of man]. Folia Haematologica: Internationales Zentralorgan für Blut- und Serumforschung 49: 1-20

65. Angier RB. 1946. The structure and synthesis of the liver L. casei factor. Science 103: 667-69

66. Angier RB, Boothe JH, Hutchings BL, Mowat JH, Semb J, et al. 1945. Synthesis of a compound identical with the L. casei factor isolated from liver. Science 102: 227-28

67. Anson ML. 1937. Carboxypeptidase: I. The preparation of crystalline carboxypeptidase. The Journal of General Physiology 20: 663-69

68. Arber AR. 1925. Monocotyledons; a Morphological Study. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 258 pp.

69. Archer JR, Self SJ, Winchester BG. 1978. Mechanism of infertility in t-complex mice. Genetical Research 32: 79-84

70. Armstrong C, Lillie RD. 1934. Experimental lymphocytic choriomeningitis of monkeys and mice produced by a virus encountered in studies of the 1933 St. Louis encephalitis epidemic. Public Health Reports 49: 1019-27

71. Arnold FA, Jr., Dean HT, Jay P, Knutson JW. 1956. Effect of fluoridated public water supplies on dental caries prevalence. Public Health Reports 71: 652-58

72. Arnon DI, Stout PR. 1939. Molybdenum as an essential element for higher plants. Plant Physiology 14: 599-602

73. Aron M. 1929. Action de la préhypophyse sur le thyroïde chez le cobaye [Action of the préhypophysis on the thyroid in guinea pigs. Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances et Memoires de la Societe de Biologie et des ses Filiales 102: 682-84

74. Aschheim S. 1930. Schwangerschaftsdiagnose aus dem harn (durch hormonnachweis) "Aschheim-Zondek-Reaktion" [Pregnancy diagnosis from the urine (by hormone-proof) "Aschheim-Zondek reaction"]. Berlin: S. Karger. 62 pp.

75. Aschheim S, Zondek B. 1928a. Die schwangerschaftsdiagnose aus dem harn durch nachweis des hypophysenvorderlappenhormones [The pregnancy diagnosis from the urine by detecting the anterior pituitary lobe hormones]. Klinische Wochenschrift 7: 8-9, 1404-11, 53-57

76. Aschheim S, Zondek B. 1928b. Das hormon des hypophysenvorderlappens. II [The hormone of the anterior pituitary. II]. Klinische Wochenschrift 7: 831-35

77. Asdell SA. 1946. Patterns of Mammalian Reproduction. Ithaca, NY: Comstock. 437 pp.

78. Astbury WT. 1947. X-ray studies of nucleic acids. In Symposia of the Society for Experimental Biology [ Nucleic Acids], pp. 67-76. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

79. Astbury WT, Bell FO. 1938a. X-ray study of thymonucleic acid. Nature 141: 747-48

80. Astbury WT, Bell FO. 1938b. Some recent developments in the X-ray study of proteins and related structures. Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology 6: 109-21

81. Astbury WT, Street A. 1930b. X-ray studies of the structure of hair, wool, and related fibres. I.—General. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B, Containing Papers of a Biological Character 230: 75-101

82. Astbury WT, Woods HJ. 1930a. The x-ray interpretation of the structure and elastic proterties of hair keratin. Nature 126: 913-14

83. Astbury WT, Woods HJ. 1933. X-ray studies of the structure of hair, wool and related fibres (part II). Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B, Containing Papers of a Biological Character 232: 333-94

84. Astwood EB. 1943. Treatment of hyperthyroidism with thiourea and thiouracil. Journal of the American Medical Association 122: 78-81

85. Auerbach C. 1951. Problems in chemical mutagenesis. Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology 16: 199-213

86. Auerbach C, Robson JM. 1946. Chemical production of mutations. Nature 157: 302

87. Auerbach C, Robson JM, Carr JG. 1947. The chemical production of mutations. Science 105: 243-47

88. Ault RG, Baird DK, Carrington HC, Haworth WN, Herbert RW, et al. 1933. Synthesis of d- and L- ascorbic acid and of analogous substances. Journal of the Chemical Society: 1419-23

89. Avery GS, Jr., Burkholder PR, Creighton H. 1937. Avena coleoptile curvature in relation to different concentrations of certain synthetic substances. American Journal of Botany 24: 226-32

90. Avery OT, MacLeod CM, McCarty M. 1944. Studies on the chemical nature of the substance inducing transformation of pneumococcal types. Induction of transformation by a desoxyribonucleic acid fraction isolated from Pneumococcus Type III. The Journal of Experimental Medicine 79: 137-57

91. Ax P. 1956. Die gnathostomulida, eine rätselhafte wurmgruppe aus dem meeressand [The Gnathostomulid, an enigmatic group of worms from the sea sand]. Akademie der Wissenschaften und der Literatur in Mainz, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse, Abhand- lungen 8: 1-32

92. Ax P. 1965. Zur morphologie und systematik der gnathostomulida. Untersuchungen an Gnathostomula paradoxa [The morphology and systematics of Gnathostomulida . Investigations on Gnathostomula paradoxa]. Zeitschrift für Zoologische Systamik Evolutionsforschung 3: 259-76

93. Bachmann WE, Cole JW, Wilds AL. 1939. The total synthesis of the sex hormone equilenein. Journal of the American Chemical Society 61: 974-75

94. Baddiley J, Michelson AM, Todd AR. 1949. Nucleotides, Part 11. A synthesis of adenosine triphosphate. Journal of the Chemical Society: 582-86

95. Baddiley J, Thain EM, Novelli GD, Lipmann FA. 1953. Structure of coenzyme A. Nature 171: 76

96. Baddiley J, Todd AR. 1947. Nucleotides. Part I. Muscle adenylic acid and adenosine diphosphate. Journal of the Chemical Society: 648-51

97. Bailey K. 1946. Tropomyosin: A new asymmetric protein component of muscle. Nature 157: 368-69

98. Bailey P. 1927a. Further remarks concerning tumors of the glioma group. Bulletin of the Johns Hopkins Hospital 40: 354-89

99. Bailey P. 1927b. Histological atlas of gliomas. Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine 4: 871-921

100. Bailey P. 1948. Intracranial Tumors. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas. 478 pp.

101. Bailey P, Buchanan DN, Bucy PC. 1939. Intracranial Tumors of Infancy and Childhood. Chicago: The University of Chicago. 598 pp.

102. Bailey P, Bucy PC. 1929. Oligodendrogliomas of the brain The Journal of Pathology and Bacteriology 32: 735-51

103. Bailey P, Cushing HW. 1925. Medulloblastoma cerebelli: a common type of midcerebellar glioma of childhood. Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry 14: 192-223

104. Bailey P, Cushing HW. 1926. A Classification of the Tumors of the Glioma Group on a Histogenetic Basis With a Correlated Study of Prognosis. Philadelphia: Lippincott. 175 pp.

105. Bailey P, Cushing HW. 1928. The microscopic structure of the adenomas in acromegalic dyspituitarism (fugitive acromegaly). The American Journal of Pathology 4: 545-63

106. Bailey P, von Bonin G. 1951. The Isocortex of Man. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press. 301 pp.

107. Baker F. 1943. Direct microscopical observations upon the rumen population of the ox: I. Qualitative characteristics of the rumen population. Annals of Applied Biology 30: 230-39

108. Baker F, Harris ST. 1947. The role of the microflora of the alimentary tract of herbivora with special reference to ruminants. 2. Microbial digestion in the rumen (and caecum), with special reference to the decomposition of structural cellulose. Nutrition Abstracts and Reviews 17: 3-12

109. Baker Z, Harrison RW, Miller BF. 1941. The bactericidal action of synthetic detergents. The Journal of Experimental Medicine 74: 611-21

110. Balch RE, Bird FT. 1944. A disease of the European spruce sawfly, Galpinia hercyniae (Htg.), and its place in natural control. Scientific Agriculture. Ottawa 25: 65-80

111. Baldock GR, Walter WG. 1945. Low frequency photomechanical oscillators. Electronic Engineering 17: 326-28

112. Baldock GR, Walter WG. 1946. A new electronic analyser. Electronic Engineering 18: 339-44

113. Ball EA. 1946. Development in sterile culture of stem tips and subjacent regions of Tropaeolum majus L. and of Lupinus albus L. American Journal of Botany 33: 301-18

114. Ball EA. 1952. Morphogenesis of shoots after isolation of the shoot apex of Lupinus albus. American Journal of Botany 39: 167-91

115. Ball S, Goodwin TW, Morton RA. 1948. Studies on vitamin A: 5. The preparation of retinene1—vitamin A aldehyde. Biochemical Journal 42: 516-23

116. Ballantine HT, Jr., Bolt RH, Hueter TF, Ludwig GD. 1950b. On the detection of intracranial pathology by ultrasound. Science 112: 525-28

117. Ballantine HT, Jr., Ludwig GD, Bolt RH, Hueter TF. 1950a. Ultrasonic localization of the cerebral ventricles. Transactions of the American Neurological Association: 38-41

118. Baló J. 1924. Über nekrosen des hypophysenvorderlappens und ihre folgen [Necrosis of the anterior pituitary and its consequences]. Beiträge zur Pathologischen Anatomie und zur Allgemeinen Pathologie 72: 599

119. Banga I, Erdös T, Gerendás M, Mommaerts WFHM, Straub FB, Szent-Györgyi AI. 1942. Myosin and Muscular Contraction. Budapest: R. Gergely. 72 pp.

120. Barcroft J, Stephens JG. 1927. Observations upon the size of the spleen. The Journal of Physiology 64: 1-22

121. Bard AP. 1928. A diencephalic mechanism for the expression of rage with special reference to the sympathetic nervous system. The American Journal of Physiology 84: 490-515

122. Bard AP. 1929a. Emotion. I. The neuro-humoral basis of emotional reactions. In The Foundations of Experimental Psychology, ed. C Murchison, pp. 449-87. Worcester, MA: Clark University Press

123. Bard AP. 1929b. The central representation of the sympathetic nervous system as indicated by certain physiologic findings. Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry 22: 230-46

124. Bard AP. 1930. The Central Representation of the Sympathetic Nervous System as Indicated by Certain Physiologic Findings, Association for Research in Nervous and Mental Disease

125. Barger G, Bergel F, Todd AR. 1935. A crystalline fluorescent dehydrogenation product of vitamin B1. Nature 136: 259

126. Barker HA, Stadtman ER. 1951. Recent investigations of the formation and utilization of active acetate. In Phosphorus Metabolism, a Symposium on the Role of Phosphorus in the Metabolism of Plants and Animals, ed. WD McElroy, HB Glass, pp. 204-45. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press

127. Barker SB, Summerson WH. 1941. The colorimetric determination of lactic acid in biological material. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 138: 535-54

128. Barnes FW, Jr., Schoenheimer R. 1943. On the biological synthesis of purines and pyrimidines. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 151: 123-39

129. Barthel C, von Euler HKAS, Myrbäck K. 1929. Gärung und wachstum in getrockneten hefezellen II [Fermentation and growth in dried yeast cells]. Hoppe-Seyler's Zeitschrift für Physiologische Chemie 183: 237-43

130. Bartlett S, Cotton AG. 1938. Urea as a protein substitute in the diet of young cattle. The Journal of Dairy Research 9: 263-72

131. Bassham JA. 1971. The control of photosynthetic carbon metabolism. Science 172: 526-34

132. Bassham JA, Benson AA, Kay LD, Harris AZ, Wilson AT, Calvin M. 1954. The path of carbon in photosynthesis XXI. The cyclic generation of carbon dioxide acceptor. Journal of the American Chemical Society 76: 1760-70

133. Bassham JA, Kirk MR. 1960. Dynamics of the photosynthesis of carbon compounds. I. Carboxylation reactions. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 43: 447-64

134. Bassham JA, Shibata K, Steenberg K, Bourbon J, Calvin M. 1956. The photosynthetic cycle and respiration: Light-dark transients. Journal of the American Chemical Society 78: 4120-24

135. Bastin ES. 1926. The problem of the natural reduction of sulphates. Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists 10: 1270-99

136. Batson OV. 1940. The function of the vertebral veins and their role in the spread of the metastases. Annals of Surgery 112: 138-49

137. Bausor SC. 1939. A new growth substance, beta naphthoxyacetic acid. American Journal of Botany 26: 415-18

138. Bawden FC. 1943. Plant Viruses and Virus Diseases. Waltham, MA: Chronica Botanica Co. 155-63 pp.

139. Bawden FC, Pirie NW. 1937a. The isolation and some properties of liquid crystalline substances from solaneous plants infected with three strains of tobacco mosaic virus. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B, Biological Sciences 123: 274-320

140. Bawden FC, Pirie NW. 1937b. The relationship between liquid crystalline preparations of cucumber viruses 3 and 4 and strains of tobacco mosaic virus. British Journal of Experimental Pathology 18: 275-90

141. Bawden FC, Pirie NW, Bernal JD, Fankuchen I. 1936. Liquid crystalline substances from virus-infected plants. Nature 138: 1051-52

142. Beadle GW. 1935a. Crossing over near the spindle attachment of X chromosomes in attached-X triploids of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics 20: 179-91

143. Beadle GW. 1937. Development of eye colors in Drosophila: fat bodies and Malpighian tubes in relation to diffusible substances. Genetics 22: 587-611

144. Beadle GW. 1939. Teosinte and the origin of maize. The Journal of Heredity 30: 245-47

145. Beadle GW. 1946. Genes and the chemistry of the organism. American Scientist 34: 31-53

146. Beadle GW. 1966. Biochemical genetics: some recollections. In Phage and the Origins of Molecular Biology, ed. J Cairns, GS Stent, JD Watson, pp. 23-32. Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press

147. Beadle GW, Emerson SH. 1935b. Further studies on crossing over in attached-X chromosomes of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics 20: 192-206

148. Beadle GW, Ephrussi B. 1935. Transplantation in Drosophila. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 21: 642-46

149. Beadle GW, Ephrussi B. 1936a. The differentiation of eye pigments in Drosophila as studied by transplantation. Genetics 21: 225-47

150. Beadle GW, Tatum EL. 1941. Genetic control of biochemical reactions in Neurospora. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 27: 499-506

151. Beal MF, Matson WR, Swartz KJ, Gamache PH, Bird ED. 1990. Kynurenine pathway measurements in Huntington’s disease striatum: evidence for reduced formation of kynurenic acid. Journal of Neurochemistry 55

152. Beale SI, Gough SP, Granick S. 1975. Biosynthesis of delta-aminolevulinic acid from the intact carbon skeleton of glutamic acid in greening barley. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 72: 2719-23

153. Beard JW, Finkelstein H. 1937. Immunization against equine encephalomyelitis with chick embryo vaccines. Science 87: 490

154. Beaudette FR, Hudson CB. 1937. Cultivation of the virus of infectious bronchitis. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 90: 51-60

155. Beck CE, Wyckoff RWG. 1938. Venezuelan equine encephalitis. Science 88: 530

156. Beck CS. 1935. The development of a new blood supply to the heart by operation. Annals of Surgery 102: 801-13

157. Becker FE. 1930. Tick-borne infections in Colorado. II. A survey of occurence of infections transmitted by the wood tick. Colorado Medicine 27: 87-95

158. Bedson SP, Bland JOW. 1932. Morphological study of psittacosis virus, with the description of a developmental cycle. British Journal of Experimental Pathology 13: 461-66

159. Bedson SP, Western GT, Simpson SL. 1930. Observation an the etiology of psittacosis. The Lancet 215: 235-36

160. Beebe CW, Tee-Van J, Hollister G, Crane J, Barton O. 1934. A Half Mile Down. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company/Cadmus Books, E.M. Hale and Company. 344 pp.

161. Beeson PB. 1943. Jaundice occurring after transfusion of blood or plasma. Journal of the American Medical Association 121: 1332-34

162. Beet EA. 1946. Sickle cell disease in the Balovale District of Northern Rhodesia. East African Medical Journal 23: 75-86

163. Beet EA. 1947. Sickle cell disease in Northern Rhodesia. East African Medical Journal 24: 212-22

164. Beet EA. 1949a. The genetics of sickle cell trait in a Bantu tribe. Annals of Eugenics 14: 279-82

165. Beet EA. 1949b. Primary splenic abscess and sickle cell disease. East African Medical Journal 26: 180-86

166. Befeler B, Berkovits BV, Aranda JM, Jr., Sung RJ, Moleiro F, Castellanos A, Jr. 1979. Programmed simultaneous biventricular stimulation in man, with special reference to its use in the evaluation of intraventricular reentry. European Journal of Cardiology 9: 369-78

167. Behrens MG. 1932. Untersuchungen an isolierten zell- und gewebsbestandteilen. I. Mitteilung: Isolierung von zellkernen des kalbsherzmuskels [Studies on isolated cell and tissue components . I. Communication : isolation of cell nuclei of veal heart muscle]. Hoppe-Seyler's Zeitschrift für Physiologische Chemie 209: 59-74

168. Behrens MG. 1939. Über die verteilung der lipase und arginase zwischen zellkern und protoplasma der leber [On the distribution of lipase and arginase between cell nuclei and protoplasm in the liver]. Hoppe-Seyler's Zeitschrift für Physiologische Chemie 258: 27-32

169. Belezikjian LM, Vale WW. 1983. Stimulation of adenosine 3’,5’. monophosphate production by growth hormone-releasing factor and its inhibition by somatostatun in anterior pituitary cells in vitro. Endocrinology 113: 1726-31

170. Belitzer VA, Tsibakova ET. 1939. The mechanism of phosphorylation associated with respiration. Biokhimiya 4: 516-35

171. Bell J, Haldane JBS. 1937. The linkage between the genes for colour blindness and haemophilia in man. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B, Biological Sciences 123: 119-50

172. Bell PH. 1954. Purification and structure of 3-corticotropin. Journal of the American Chemical Society 76: 5565-66

173. Belling J. 1926. The iron-acetocarmine method of fixing and staining chromosomes. The Biological Bulletin 50: 160-62

174. Belling J. 1933. Crossing over and gene rearrangement in flowering plants. Genetics 18: 388-413

175. Belozersky AN. 1940. [On the quantitative content of P proteins and nucleic acids in a bacterial cell]. Mikrobiologiya 9: 107-13

176. Belozersky AN, Dubrovskaya II. 1936. [Proteins and thymonucleic acid in horse-chestnut seeds]. Biokhimiya 1: 665-75

177. Benazzi S, Douka K, Fornal C, Bauer CC, Kullmer O, et al. 2011. Early dispersal of modern humans in Europe and implications for Neanderthal behaviour. Nature 479: 525-28

178. Bender H. 1935. United States of America Patent No. 2,010,841

179. Benedict RG, Langlykke AF. 1947. Antibiotic activity of Bacillus polymyxa. Journal of Bacteriology 54: 24-25

180. Bennett HS, Porter KR. 1953. An electron microscope study of sectioned brest muscle of the domestic fowl. The American Journal of Anatomy 93: 61-106

181. Bensley RR, Hoerr NL. 1934. Studies on cell structure by the freeze-drying method.  VI. The preparation and properties of mitochondria. Anatomical Record 60: 449-55

182. Benson AA, Calvin M. 1947. The dark reductions of photosynthesis. Science 105: 648-49

183. Berckhemer F. 1925. Eine riesenhirschstange aus den diluvialen Schottern von Steinheim an der Murr [A giant deer bone from the Pleistocene gravels of Steinheim at the Murr]    Jahreshefte des Vereins für Vaterlandische Naturkunde in Wurttemberg 81: 99-108

184. Berckhemer F. 1933. Ein menschen-schädel aus den diluvialen schottern von Steinheim an der Murr [A human skull from the diluvial gravel from Steinheim at the Murr]. Anthropologischer Anzeiger; Bericht über die Biologisch-Anthropologische Literatur 10: 318-21

185. Berenblum I, Shubik P. 1947. A new quantitative approach to the study of the stages of chemical carcinogenesis in the mouse's skin. British Journal of Cancer 1: 384-91

186. Berenblum I, Shubik P. 1949. The persistence of latent tumor cells induced in the mouse's skin by a single application of 9:10 dimethyl-1:2-benzanthracene. British Journal of Cancer 3: 384-86

187. Bergmann M, Zervas L. 1932. Über ein allgemeines verfahren der peptidsynthese [About a general method of peptide synthesis]. Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft 65: 1192-201

188. Bergold G. 1947. Die isolierung des polyeder-virus und die natur der polyeder [Isolation of the polyhedron virus and the nature of the polyhedrons]. Zeitschrift für Naturforschung 2b: 122-43

189. Bergström KSD, Dunér H, von Euler-Chelpin USH, Pernow B, Sjövall J. 1959. Observations on the effects of infusion of prostaglandin E in man. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 45: 145-51

190. Bergström KSD, Eliasson R, von Euler-Chelpin USH, Sjövall J. 1939. Some biological effects of two crystalline prostaglandin factors. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 45: 133-44

191. Bergström KSD, Theorell AHT, Davide H. 1946. Pyolipic acid, a metabolic product of Pseudomonas pyocyanea, active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Archives of Biochemistry 10: 165-66

192. Berkovits BV, Castellanos A, Jr., Lemberg L, Callard G, Jude JR. 1971. Bifocal demand pacing. Chest 59: 360-64

193. Bernal JD, Fankuchen I. 1941. X-ray and crystallographic studies of plant virus preparations: I. Introduction and preparation of specimens II. Modes of aggregation of the virus particles. The Journal of General Physiology 25: 111-46

194. Bernal JD, Fankuchen I, Perutz MF. 1938. An X-ray study of chymotrypsin and haemoglobin. Nature 141: 523-24

195. Bernal JD, Fowlerr R. 1933. A theory of water and ionic solution, with particular reference to hydrogen and hydroxyl ions. The Journal of Chemical Physics 1: 515-48

196. Bernal JD, Hodgkin DMC. 1934. X-ray photographs of crystalline pepsin. Nature 133: 794-95

197. Bernal JD, Megaw HD. 1935. The function of hydrogen in intermolecular forces. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series A, Mathematical & Physical Sciences 151: 384-420

198. Bernstein F. 1925. Zusammenfassende betrachtungenuber die erblichen blutstrukturen des menschen [Summary consideration about the hereditary blood structures of man]. Zeitschrift für Induktive Abstammungs- und Vererbungslehre 37: 237-70

199. Berry GP, Dedrick HM. 1936. A method for changing the virus of rabbit fibroma (Shope) into that of infectious myxomatosis (Sanarelli). Journal of Bacteriology 31: 50-51

200. Besser GM, Parke L, Edwards CRW, Forsyth IA, McNeilly AS. 1972. Galactorrhoea: Successful treatment with reduction of plasma prolactin levels by brom-ergocryptine. British Medical Journal 3: 669-72

201. Bessey OA, Lowry OH, Brock MJ. 1946. A method for the rapid determination of alkaline phosphatase with five cubic millimeters of serum. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 164: 321-29

202. Best CH, Huntsman ME. 1935. Effect of choline on liver fat of rats in various states of nutrition. The Journal of Physiology 83: 255-74

203. Beston H. 1928. The Outermost House; A Year of Life on the Great Beach of Cape Cod. Garden City: Doubleday, Doran and Company, Inc. 222 pp.

204. Bethe VA. 1932. Vernachlaessigen hormone [Neglected hormone]. Die Naturwissenschaften 20: 177-81

205. Bielschowsky A. 1932. Die Lähmungen der Augenmuskeln [The paralysis of the eye muscles]. Berlin: Springer. 557 pp.

206. Bigelow WG, Callaghan JC, Hopps JA. 1950a. General hypothermia for experimental intracardiac surgery: The use of electrophrenic respirations, an artificial pacemaker for cardiac standstill and the radio-frequency rewarming in general hypothermia. Annals of Surgery 132: 531-37

207. Biörck G, Crafoord C. 1947. Arteriovenous aneurysm on the pulmonary artery simulating patent ductus arteriosus botalli. Thorax 2: 65-90

208. Birch TW, György P. 1936. A study of the chemical nature of vitamin B6 and methods for its preparation in a concentrated state. Biochemical Journal 30: 304-15

209. Birch TW, György P. 1939. Physicochemical properties of the factor (vitamin H) curative of egg white injury. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 131: 761-66

210. Birnberg TL. 1933. Raw apple diet in the treatment of diarrheal conditions in children. American Journal of Diseases of Children 45: 18-24

211. Bittner JJ. 1936. Some possible effects of nursing on the mammary gland tumor incidence in mice. Science 84: 162

212. Bittner JJ. 1939a. "Influences" of breast-cancer development in mice. Public Health Reports 54: 1590-97

213. Bittner JJ. 1939b. Breast cancer in breeding and virgin "A" and "B" stock female mice and their hybrids. Public Health Reports 54: 1113-18

214. Black RE, Jackson RJ, Tsai TF, Medvesky M, Shayegani M, et al. 1978. Epidemic Yersinia enterocolitica infection due to contaminated chocolate milk. The New England Journal of Medicine 298: 76-79

215. Black S, Overman RS, Elvehjem CA, Link KPG. 1942. The effect of sulfaguanidine on rat growth and plasma prothrombin. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 145: 137-43

216. Blake SF, Atwood AC. 1942. Geographical Guide to Floras of the World; An Annotated List with Special Reference to Useful Plants and Common Plant Names. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office

217. Blakely LM, Steward FC. 1964. Growth and organized development of cultured cells. V. The growth of colonies from free cells on nutrient agar. American Journal of Botany 51: 780-91

218. Blakeslee AF. 1931. Genetics of sensory thresholds: Taste for phenylthiocarbamide. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 18: 120-30

219. Blakeslee AF, Avery AG. 1937. Methods of inducing doubling of chromosomes in plants: by Tteatment with colchicine. The Journal of Heredity 28: 393-411

220. Blalock A, Taussig HB. 1945. The surgical treatment of malformations of the heart in which there Is pulmonary stenosis or pulmonary atresia. Journal of the American Medical Association 128: 189-202

221. Blaschko HKF. 1939. Proceedings of the Physiological Society: July 8, 1939: The specific action of 1-dopa decarboxylase. The Journal of Physiology 96: 50P-51P

222. Bloch F. 1946b. Nuclear induction. Physical Review Series II 70: 460-74

223. Bloch F, Hansen WW, Packard M. 1946a. Nuclear induction. Physical Review Series II 69: 127

224. Bloch KE. 1946. The metabolism of / (+)-arginine and synthesis of creatine in the pigeon. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 165: 477-84

225. Bloch KE, Rittenberg D. 1942. The utilization of acetic acid for cholesterol formation. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 145: 625-36

226. Bloch KE, Rittenberg D. 1944. Sources of acetic acid in the animal body. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 155: 243-54

227. Bloch KE, Rittenberg D. 1945a. An estimation of acetic acid formation in the rat. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 159: 45-58

228. Bloch KE, Schoenheimer R. 1941. The biological precursors of creatine. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 138: 167-94

229. Bloom W. 1926a. The embryogenesis of human bile capillaries and ducts. The American Journal of Anatomy 36: 451-65

230. Bloom W. 1926b. The hemopoietic potency of the small lymphocyte. Folia Haematologica. Internationales Magazin für Blutforschung 33: 122-31

231. Bloom W, Bloom MA, Domm LV, McLean FC. 1940. Changes in avian bone due to injected estrogen and during the reproductive cycle. Anatomical Record 78: 249-

232. Bloom W, Bloom MA, McLean FC. 1941a. Calcification and ossification. Medullary bone changes in the reproductive cycle of female pigeons. Anatomical Record 81: 443-66

233. Bloom W, Domm LV. 1941b. Medullary bone formation in baby chicks following injection of gonadogen. Anatomical Record 81: 19

234. Bloom W, Domm LV. 1941c. Cyclic changes in the medullary bone of laying hens. Anatomical Record 81: 19

235. Bloom W, McLean FC, Bloom MA. 1942. Calcification and ossification. The formation of medullary bone in male and castrate pigeons under the influence of sex hormones. Anatomical Record 83: 99-120

236. Bloomfield RA, Rapoport B, Milnor JP, Long WK, Mebane JG, et al. 1948. The effects of the cardiac glycosides upon the dynamics of the circulation in congestive heart failure: I. Oubain. The Journal of Clinical Investigation 27: 588-99

237. Blumgart HL, Yens OC. 1927. Studies on the velocity of blood flow: I. The method utilized. The Journal of Clinical Investigation 4: 1-13

238. Bodansky A, Hallman LF, Bonoff K. 1933. Phosphatase studies. 2. Determination of serum phosphatase; factors influencing the accuracy of determination. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 101: 93-104

239. Bodenstein DHFA. 1933. [Leg transplantations in Lepidopterous caterpillars. I. Larval and pupal molting analyzed by means of transplants]. Wilhelm Roux' Archiv für Entwicklungsmechanik der Organismen 3: 565-83

240. Bodian D. 1936. A new method for staining nerve fibers and nerve endings in mounted paraffin sections. Anatomical Record 65: 89-97

241. Boeck WC, Drbohlav J. 1925. The cultivation of Endamoeba histolytica. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 11: 235-38

242. Bohr NHD. 1933. Light and life. Nature 131: 421-23, 57-59

243. Boivin AF. 1946. Traveaux récents sur la constitution chimique et sur les propriétés biologiques des antigènes bactériens [Recent work needed on the chemical structure and biological properties of bacterial antigens]. Schweizerische Zeitschrift für Pathologie und Bakteriologie 9: 505-41

244. Boivin AF, Delauney A, Vendrely R, Lehoult Y. 1945. L'acide thymonucléique polymérisé, principe paraissant susceptible de déterminer la spécificité sérologique et l'équipement enzymatique des bactéries: signification pour la biochimie de l'héréditaires des bactéries [The polymerized thymonucleic acid principle seemed likely to determine the serological specificity and enzymatic equipment of bacteria: meaning for the biochemistry of hereditary bacteria]. Experientia 1: 334-35

245. Boivin AF, Mesrobeanu I, Mesrobeanu L. 1933. Technique pour la préparation des polysaccharides microbiens spécifiques [Technique for preparing specific microbial polysaccharides]. Comptes Rendus de la Societe de Biologie 113: 490-92

246. Boivin AF, Vendrely R. 1946. Rôle de l'acide désoxy-ribonucléique hautement polymérisé dans le déterminisme des caractéres héréditaires des bactéries. Signification pour la biochimie générale de l'hérédité [Role of highly polymerized deoxyribonucleic acid in the determinism of hereditary characters of bacteria. Meaning for the biochemistry of heredity]. Helvetica Chimica Acta 29: 1338-44

247. Boivin AF, Vendrely R. 1947. Sur le role possible des deux acides nucléiques dans la cellule vivante [On the possible role of two nucleic acids in living cells]. Experientia 3: 32-34

248. Bokhoven C, Schoone JC, Bijvoet JM. 1951. The fourier synthesis of the crystal structure of strychnine sulphate pentahydrate. Acta Crystallographica 4: 275-80

249. Bolton DC, McKinley M, Prusiner SB. 1982. Identification of a protein that purifies with the scrapie prion. Science 218: 1309-11

250. Bonner JF. 1937. Vitamin B1, a growth factor for higher plants. Science 85: 183-84

251. Bonner JF, English J, Jr. 1937. Purification of traumatin, a plant wound hormone. Science 86: 352-53

252. Bonner JF, Huang R-c, Guilden R. 1963. Chromosomally directed protein synthesis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 50: 893-900

253. Bonner JF, Huang R-C, Maheshwari N. 1961. The physical state of newly synthesized RNA. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 47: 1548-54

254. Bonnet D, Dick JE. 1997. Human acute myeloid leukemia is organized as a hierarchy that originates from a primitive hematopoietic cell. Nature Medicine 3: 730-37

255. Boorman KE, Dodd BE, Loutit JF. 1946. Haemolytic icterus (acholuric jaundice) congenital and acquired The Lancet 247: 812-14

256. Borgström G. 1939. Theoretical suggestions regarding the ethylene responses of plants and observations on the influence of apple-emanations. Kungl Fsiografiska Sallskapets 1 Lund. Forhandlingar 9: 135-74

257. Borsook H, Keighley GL. 1935. The "continuing" metabolism of nitrogen in animals. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B, Biological Sciences 118: 488-521

258. Bortels H. 1930. Molybdän als katalysator bei der biologischen stickstoffbindung [Molybdenum as a catalyst in the biological nitrogen binding]. Archiv für Mikrobiologie 1: 333

259. Bosak PJ, Reed LM, Crans WJ. 2001. Habitat preference of host-seeking Coquillettidia perturbans (Walker) in relation to birds and eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus in New Jersey. Journal of Vector Ecology : Journal of the Society for Vector Ecology 26: 103-09

260. Bostian CH. 1939. Multiple alleles and sex determination in Habrobracon. Genetics 24: 770-76

261. Bounhiol J-J. 1938. Recherches experimentales sur le determinisme de la metamorphose chez les Lepidopteres [Experimental research on the determinism of metamorphosis in Lepidoptera]. Bulletin Biologique de la France et de la Belgique Suppl. 24: 1-199

262. Bourne EJ, Macey A, Peat S. 1945b. The enzymatic synthesis and degradation of starch. Part II. The amylolytic function of the  Q-enzyme of the potato. Journal of the Chemical Society: 882-88

263. Bourne EJ, Peat S. 1945a. The enzymatic synthesis and degradation of starch. Part I. The synthesis of amylopectin. Journal of the Chemical Society: 877-82

264. Bouvrain Y, Zacouto FI. 1961. L'entrainement électrosystolique du coeur [The electrosystolic training of the heart]. La Presse Medicale 69: 525-29

265. Bovet D, Depierre F, de Lestrange Y. 1947. Propriétés curarisantes des éthers phénoliques à fonctions ammonium quaternaires [Curare-like properties of quaternary ammonium phenolic ether functions]. Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances de l'Academie des Sciences, Paris 225: 74-76

266. Bovet D, Staub AM. 1936. Action protectrice des éthers phénoliques au cours de l'intoxication histaminique. Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances et Memoires de la Societe de Biologie et des ses Filiales et Associees 124: 547-49

267. Boxer GE, Stetten D, Jr. 1944. The role of thiamine in the synthesis of fatty acids from carbohydrate precursors. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 153: 607-16

268. Boyer PD, Lardy HA, Phillips PH. 1942. The role of potassium in muscle phosphorylations. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 146: 673-82

269. Boyer PD, Lardy HA, Phillips PH. 1943. Further syudies on the role of potassium and other ions in the phosphorylation of the adenylic system. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 149: 529-41

270. Bozler E. 1927. Untersuchungen über das nervensystem der coelenteraten. I. Teil: Kontinuitaet oder kontakt zwischen den nervenzellen [Studies on the nervous system of the coelenterates. Part I: Continuity or contact between nerve cells]. Zeitschrift für Zellforschung und Mikroskopische Anatomie 5: 244-62

271. Brachet JLA. 1942. La localisation des acides pentosenucléiques dans les tissus animaux et les oeufs d'amphibiens en voie de développment [Project of locating pentose nucleic acids in animal tissues and amphibian eggs undergoing development]. Archives de Biologie (Belgique) 53: 207-57

272. Brachet JLA. 1946. Nucleic acids in the cell and the embryo. In Society for Experimental Biology. Symposium, pp. 213-15, 22. London: Cambridge University Press

273. Brachet JLA, Kuusi T, Gothie S. 1952. Une étude comparative du pouvoir inducteur en implantation et en microinjection des acides nucléiques et des constituants cellulaires nucléoprotéiques [A comparative study of power inductor layout and microinjection of nucleic acids and cellular nucleoprotein constituents]. Archives de Biologie (Belgique) 63: 429-40

274. Bradley SE, Ingelfinger FJ, Bradley GP, Curry JJ. 1945. The estimation of hepatic blood flow in man. The Journal of Clinical Investigation 24: 890-97

275. Brady RO, Stadtman ER. 1954. Enzymatic thioltransacetylation. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 621

276. Brand E. 1946. Amino acid composition of simple proteins. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 47: 187-228

277. Brand E, Saidel LJ, Goldwater WH, Kaseel B, Ryan FJ. 1945. The empirical formula of beta-lactoglobulin. Journal of the American Chemical Society 67: 1524-32

278. Brandt TE. 1936. Dermatitis in children with disturbances of the general conditions and the absorption of food elements. Acta Dermato-Venereologica 17: 513-46

279. Branham SE. 1932. Serological diversity among memingococci. The Journal of Immunology 23: 49-61

280. Branham SE, Taft CE, Carlin SA. 1931. Studies on meningococci isolated in the United States, 1928-1930. Serological classification and geographic distribution. Public Health Reports 46: 897-916

281. Bratton AC, Marshall EK, Jr. 1939. A new coupling component for sulfanilamide determination. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 128: 537-50

282. Braun AC. 1941. Crown gall production by bacteria-free tumor tissue. Science 94: 239-41

283. Braun AC. 1947. Thermal studies on the factors responsible for tumour initiation in crown gall. American Journal of Botany 34: 234-40

284. Braun AC. 1959. A demonstration of the recovery of the crown-gall tumor cell with the use of complex tumors of single-cell origin. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 45: 932-38

285. Braun AC, White PR. 1943. Bacteriological sterility of tissues derived from secondary crown-gall tumors. Phytopathology 33: 85-100

286. Braun-Menéndez E, Fasciolo JC, Leloir LF, Muñoz JM. 1939. La substancia hipertensora de la sangre del riñón isquemiado [The pressor substance of the blood in the ischemic kidney]. Revista de la Sociedad Argentina de Biologia 15: 420-25

287. Braunstein AE, Kritzmann MG. 1937. Über den ab- und aufbau von aminosäuren durch umaminierung [About the dismantling and reassembly of amino acids by transamination]. Enzymologia 2: 129-46

288. Breinl F, Haurowitz F. 1930. Untersuchungen des präzipitates aus hämoglobin und anti-hämoglobin-. Serum und bemerkungen über die natur der antikörper [Investigations of the precipitate from hemoglobin and anti-hemoglobin. Serum and observations on the nature of the antibody]. Hoppe-Seyler's Zeitschrift für Physiologische Chemie 192: 45-57

289. Brenner S, Roberts LJ. 1943. Effects of vitamin A depletion in young adults. Archives of Internal Medicine 71: 474-82

290. Brent L, Billingham RE, Sparrow EM. 1954. Quantitative studies on tissue transplantation immunity. I. The survival times of skin homografts exchanged between members of different inbred strains of mice. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B, Biological Sciences 143: 43-58

291. Brewer CM. 1944. Report on the analysis of disinfectants. Journal of the Association of Official Agricultural Chemists 27: 554-56

292. Brian PW, Hemming HG, McGowan JC. 1945. Origin of a toxicity to mycorrhiza in Wareham Heath soil. Nature 155: 637-38

293. Bridges CB. 1935. Salivary chromosome maps: with a key to the banding of the chromosomes of Drosophila melanogaster. The Journal of Heredity 26: 60-64

294. Bridges CB. 1938a. A revised map of the salivary gland X-chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. The Journal of Heredity 29: 11-13

295. Bridges CB, Bridges PN. 1938b. Salivary analysis of inversion-3r-payne in the "venation" stock of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics 23: 111-14

296. Bridges CB, Olbrycht TM. 1926. The multiple stock "xple" and its use. Genetics 11: 41-55

297. Bridges CB, Skoog EN, Li J-c. 1936. Genetical and cytological studies of a deficiency (notopleural) in the second chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics 21: 788-95

298. Briffault R. 1930. Rational Evolution: The Making of Humanity. New York: Macmillan. 302 pp.

299. Briggs GE, Haldane JBS. 1925. A note on the kinetics of enzyme action. Biochemical Journal 19: 338-39

300. Briggs LH, Openshaw HT, Robinson R. 1946. Strychnine and brucine. Part XLII. Constitution of the neo-series of bases and their oxidation products Journal of the Chemical Society: 903-08

301. Briggs RW, King TJ. 1952. Transplantation of living nuclei from blastula cells into enucleated frog's eggs. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 38: 455-63

302. Brink RA, Cooper DC. 1935. A proof that crossing over involves an exchange of segments between homologous chromosomes. Genetics 20: 22-35

303. Brocklehurst WE. 1960. The release of histamine and formation of a slow reacting substance (SRS-A) during anaphylatic shock. The Journal of Physiology 151: 416-35

304. Broom RA. 1936. A new fossil anthropoid skull from South Africa. Nature 138: 486-88

305. Broom RA. 1937. The Sterckfontein ape. Nature 139: 326

306. Broom RA. 1938. The pleistocene anthropoid apes of South Africa. Nature 142: 377-79

307. Broom RA. 1949. Another new type of fossil ape-man. Nature 163: 57

308. Broser I, Kallman H. 1947. Über die anregung von leuchtstoffen durch schnelle korpuskularteilchen [About the excitation of phosphors by rapid corpuscular particles ]. Zeitschrift für Naturforschung 2: 439-40

309. Browman LG. 1937. Light in its relation to activity and estrous rhythms in the albino rat. The Journal of Experimental Zoology 75: 375-88

310. Brown AH, Goddard DR. 1941. Cytochrome oxidase in wheat embryos. American Journal of Botany 28: 319-24

311. Brown FA, , Jr., Cunningham O. 1939. Influence of the sinus gland of crustaceans on normal viability and ecdysis. The Biological Bulletin 77: 104-14

312. Brown H. 1972. Possible anti-cholinesterase-like effects of trans(−)delta 8 and -delta 9 tetrahydrocannabinol as observed in the general motor activity of mice. Psychopharmacologia 27: 111-16

313. Brown H, Sanger F, Kitai R. 1955. The structure of pig and sheep insulins. Biochemical Journal 60: 556-65

314. Brown JB. 1937. Homografting of skin: with report of success in identical twins. Surgery 1: 558-63

315. Brown PK, Wald G. 1963. Visual pigments in human and monkey retinas. Nature 200: 37-43

316. Brown PK, Wald G. 1964. Visual pigments in single rods and cones of the human retina. Science 144: 45-52

317. Brown WL, Anderson EG. 1947. The Northern Flint corns. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 34: 1-28

318. Brown WL, Anderson EG. 1948. The Southern Dent corns. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 35: 255-68

319. Brown WL, Anderson EG. 1952. Origin of corn belt maize and its genetic significance. In Heterosis, ed. JW Gowan, pp. 124-48. Ames, IA: Iowa State College Press

320. Brownell JE, Allis CD. 1995. An activity gel assay detects a single, catalytically active histone acetyltransferase subunit in Tetrahymena macronuclei. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 92: 6364-68

321. Brownell JE, Zhou J, Ranalli TA, Kobayashi R, Edmondson DG, et al. 1996. Tetrahymena histone acetyltransferase A: a homolog to yeast Gcn5p linking histone acetylation to gene activation. Cell 84: 843-51

322. Browning CH, ed. 1925. Immunochemical Studies. London: Constable. 239 pp.

323. Bruce R, van der Gaag H. 1963. A quantitative assay for the number of murine lymphoma cells capable of proliferation in vivo. Nature 199: 79-80

324. Bruijn LI, Miller TM, Cleveland DW. 2004. Unraveling the mechanisms involved in motor neuron degeneration in ALS. Annual Review of Neuroscience 27

325. Brukhonenko SS. 1929. Circulation artificielle du sang dans l’organisme entier d’un chien avec coeur exclu [Artificial blood circulation in the whole body of a dog with heart excluded]. Journal de Physiologie et de Pathologie Generale 27: 257-72

326. Bruner DW, Edwards PR. 1941. The demonstration of non-specific components in Salmonella paratyphi A by induced variation. Journal of Bacteriology 42: 467-78

327. Brunn H. 1929. Surgical principles underlying one-stage lobectomy. Archives of Surgery 18: 490-96

328. Brunschwig A. 1947. Radical Surgery in Advanced Abdominal Cancer. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 324 pp.

329. Brunschwig A. 1948. Complete excision of pelvic viscera for advanced carcinoma. A one-stage abdominoperineal operation with end colostomy and bilateral ureteral implantation into the colon above the colostomy. Cancer 1: 177-83

330. Buchanan JM, Sonne JC. 1946. The utilization of formate in uric acid synthesis. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 166: 781

331. Buchanan JM, Sonne JC, Delluva AM. 1948. Biological precursors of uric acid. II. The role of lactate, glycine, and carbon dioxide as precursors of the carbon chain and nitrogen atom 7 of uric acid. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 173: 81-98

332. Bücher T. 1942. Isolierung und kristallisation eines phosphatübertragenden gärungsferments [Isolation and crystallization of phosphorylated enzyme ferments]. Die Naturwissenschaften 30: 756-57

333. Bücher T. 1947. Über ein phosphatübertragendes gärungsferment [About a phosphate-transferring fermentation enzyme]. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1: 292-314

334. Buckman SS. 1909-1930. Yorkshire Type Ammonites. London: W. Wesley

335. Buehler HJ, Schantz EJ, Lamanna C. 1947. The elemental and amino acid composition of crystalline Clostridium botulinum type A toxin. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 169: 295-302

336. Büeler H, Aguzzi A, Sailer A, Greiner RA, Autenried P, et al. 1993. Mice devoid of PrP are resistant to scrapie. Cell 73: 1339-47

337. Buller AHR. 1909. Researches on Fungi. An account of the production, liberation, and dispersion of the spores of Hymenomycetes treated botanically and physically, also some observations upon the discharge and dispersion of the spores of Ascomycetes and of Pilobolus. London: Longmans, Green & Co. 287 pp.

338. Bullock TH, Diecke FPJ. 1956. Properties of an infra-red receptor. The Journal of Physiology 134: 47-87

339. Bünning E. 1935. Kenntnis der erblichen tagesperiodizität bei den primärblättern von Phaseolus multiflorus [Insight into the hereditary diurnal periodicity of the primordial leaves of Phaseolus multiflorus]. Jahrbucher für Wissenschaftliche Botanik 81: 411-18

340. Bünning E. 1936. Die endonome tagesrhythmik als grundlage der photoperiodischen reaktion [Endogenous daily rhythms as the basis of photoperiodism]. Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft 54: 590-607

341. Burdon KL. 1928. Bacterium melaninogenicum from normal and pathologic tissues. The Journal of Infectious Diseases 42: 161-71

342. Burk D. 1942. On the specificity of glycolysis in malignant liver tumors as compared with homologous adult or growing liver tissues. In A Symposium on Respiratory Enzymes. 1941 ed. O Meyerhof, pp. 235-45. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press

343. Burk D, Woods MW, Hunter J. 1967. On the significance of glycolysis for cancer growth, with special reference to Morris Rat hepatomas. National Cancer Institute Monographs 38: 839-63

344. Burkholder WH. 1926. A new bacterial disease of the bean. Phytopathology 16: 915-27

345. Burks BS. 1938. Autosomal linkage in man—the recombination ratio between congenital tooth deficiency and hair color. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 24: 512-19

346. Burman MS. 1931. Arthroscopy or the direct visualization of joints: an experimental cadaver study. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume 13: 669-95

347. Burnet FM. 1935. Propagation of the virus of epidemic influenza on the developing egg. The Medical Journal of Australia 2: 687-89

348. Burnet FM, Bull DH. 1943. Changes in influenza virus associated with adaptation to passage in chick embryos. The Australian Journal of Experimental Biology and Medical Science 21: 55-69

349. Burnet FM, Freeman M. 1937. Experimental studies on the virus of 'Q' fever. The Medical Journal of Australia 2: 299-305

350. Burnet FM, Freeman M. 1938. The rickettsia of 'Q' fever: further experimental studies. The Medical Journal of Australia 1: 296-98

351. Burnet FM, Freeman M. 1939c. A comparative study of rickettsial strains from an infection of ticks in Montana (United States of America) and from 'Q' fever. The Medical Journal of Australia 2: 887-91

352. Burnet FM, Freeman M. 1939d. Note on a series of laboratory infections with the rickettsia of 'Q' fever. The Medical Journal of Australia 1: 11-12

353. Burnet FM, Freeman M, Jackson AV, Lush D. 1941. The Production of Antibodies; A Review and Theoretical Discussion. Melbourne: Macmillan & Co. 76 pp.

354. Burnet FM, Lush D. 1936. Induced lysogenicity and mutation of bacteriophage within lysogenic bacteria. The Australian Journal of Experimental Biology and Medical Science 14: 27-38

355. Burnet FM, McKie M. 1929. Observations on a permanently lysogenic strain of B. enteritidis Gaertner. The Australian Journal of Experimental Biology and Medical Science 6: 277-84

356. Burnet FM, Stone JD. 1946b. The receptor-destroying enzyme of V. cholerae. The Australian Journal of Experimental Biology and Medical Science 25: 227-33

357. Burnet FM, Stone JD. 1947. Desquamation of intestinal epithelium in vitro by V. cholerae filtrates: Characterization of mucinase and tissue disintegrating enzymes. The Australian Journal of Experimental Biology and Medical Science 25: 219-26

358. Burnet FM, Williams SW. 1939a. Herpes simplex: a new point of view. The Medical Journal of Australia 1: 637-40

359. Burns RK. 1925. The sex of parabiotic twins in Amphibia. The Journal of Experimental Zoology 42: 31-89

360. Burns RK. 1939b. The differentiation of sex in the opossum (Didelphis virginiana) and its modification by the male hormone testosterone propionate. Journal of Morphology 65: 79-119

361. Burns RK. 1939c. Sex differentiation during the early pouch stages of the opossum (Didelphis virginiana) and a comparison of the anatomical changes induced by the male and female sex hormones. Journal of Morphology 65: 497-547

362. Burns RK. 1942. Hormones and experimental modification of sex in the opossum. Biological Symposia 9: 125-46

363. Burns RK. 1955. Experimental reversal of sex in the gonads of the opossum Didelphis virginiana. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 41: 669-76

364. Burns RK, Jr. 1939a. The effects of crystalline sex hormones on sex differentiation in Amblystoma. II. Testosterone propionate. Anatomical Record 73: 73-93

365. Burr GO, Burr MM. 1929. A new deficiency disease produced by the rigid exclusion of fat from the diet. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 82: 345-67

366. Burr GO, Burr MM. 1930. On the nature and role of the fatty acids essential in nutrition. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 86: 587-621

367. Burr GO, Burr MM, Miller ES. 1932. On the fatty acids essential in nutrition. III. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 97: 1-9

368. Burrage LJ, Smart JC. 1945. United Kingdom

369. Busch H. 1927. Über die Wirkungsweise der Konzentrierungsspule bei der Braunschen Röhre [About the effect of the concentration coil at the Braun tube]. Elektrotechnik 18: 583-94

370. Butenandt AFJ. 1929. Über 'progynon' ein krystallisiertes weibliches sexualhormon [About ' Progynon ' a crystallized female sex hormone]. Die Naturwissenschaften 17: 879

371. Butenandt AFJ, Hanisch G. 1935a. Über testosterone. Umwandlung des dehydro-androsterons in androstendiol und testosterone; ein weg zur darstellung des testosterons aus cholestrin [A method for preparing testosterone from cholesterol]. Hoppe-Seyler's Zeitschrift für Physiologische Chemie 237: 89-

372. Butenandt AFJ, Hanisch G. 1935b. Über die umwandlung des dehydro-androsterons in ∆4 - androsten-ol-(17)-on(3) (testosteron); ein weg zur darstellung des testosterons aus cholesterin (vorläuf. mitt.) [On the conversion of dehydro androsterons in Δ 4 -androstene-ol (17) -0n- (3) (testosterone); a way to show the testosterone from cholesterol (Vorläuf. msgs.)]. Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft 68: 1859-62

373. Butenandt AFJ, Tscherning K. 1934a. Über androstendion, einen hochwirksam männliches sexualhormon. Isolierung und reindarstellung aus mannerharn [About androstenedione, a highly effective male sex hormone. Isolated and purified from urine]. Hoppe-Seyler's Zeitschrift für Physiologische Chemie 229: 167-84

374. Butenandt AFJ, Weidel W, Becker E. 1940. Kynurenin als augenpigmentbildung auslösendes agens bei insekten [Kynurenine as eye pigmentation triggering agent in insects]. Die Naturwissenschaften 28: 63-64

375. Butenandt AFJ, Weidel W, Weichert R, Derjugin W. 1943. Kynurenine. Its physiology, constitution and synthesis. Hoppe-Seyler's Zeitschrift fur Physiologische Chemie 279: 27-43

376. Butenandt AFJ, Westphal U. 1934b. Zur isolierung und charakterisierung des corpusluteum-hormons [The isolation and characterization of the corpus luteum hormone]. Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft 67: 1440-42

377. Butt HR, Snell AM. 1938. The use of vitamin K and bile in treatment of the hemorrhagic diathesis in cases of jaundice. Proceedings of the Staff Meetings of the Mayo Clinic 13: 74-80

378. Butt HR, Snell AM, Osterberg AE. 1939. The preoperative and postoperative administration of vitamin K to patients having jaundice. Journal of the American Medical Association 113: 383-89

379. Butzengeiger O. 1927. Klinische erfahrungen mit Avertin (E 107) [Clinical experience with Avertin ( E 107 )]. Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift 53: 712-13

380. Buvat R. 1944. Recherches sur la différenciation des cellules végétales [Research on differentiation of plant cells]. Annales des Sciences Naturelles. Botanique et Biologie Végétale 5: 1-130

381. Bykov KM. 1924-1925. Versuche an hunden mit durchschneiden des corpus callosum [Experiments on dogs by cutting the corpus callosum]. Zentralblatt für die Gesamte Neurologie und Psychiatrie 39: 199-211

382. Bykov KM, Spranski AD. 1924. A dog with severed corpus callosum. Researches of the Physiological Laboratory of I.P. Pavlov 1: 47-59

383. Bywaters EGL, Beall D. 1941. Crush injuries with impairment of renal function. British Medical Journal 1: 427-32

384. Cairns HJF, Denny-Brown DE. 1935. Supplement 1620: Management of intracranial tumour. British Medical Journal 2: S233-S44

385. Caldwell ME, Ryerson DL. 1939. Salmonellosis in certain reptiles. The Journal of Infectious Diseases 65: 242-45

386. Cale GH. 1926. The first successful attempt to control the mating of queen bees. American Bee Journal 66: 533-34

387. Callaghan JC, Bigelow WG. 1951. An electrical artificial pacemaker for standstill of the heart. Annals of Surgery 134: 8-17

388. Callendar GS. 1939. The composition of the atmosphere through the ages. The Meteorological Magazine 74: 33-39

389. Callender S, Race RR, Paykoc ZV. 1945. Hypersensitivity to transfused blood. British Medical Journal 2: 83-84

390. Callow RK, d'Arcy Hart PM. 1946. Antibiotic material from Bacillus licheniformis (Weigmann, emend. Gibson) active against species of myxobacteria. Nature 157: 334-35

391. Calvin M. 1956. The photosynthetic carbon cycle. Journal of the Chemical Society: 1895-915

392. Calvin M. 1962. The Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis: The carbon cycle is a tool for exploring chemical biodynamics and the mechanism of quantum conversion. Science 135: 879-89

393. Calvin M, Benson AA. 1948. The path of carbon in photosynthesis. Science 107: 476-80

394. Calvin M, Benson AA. 1949. The path of carbon in photosynthesis IV: The identity and sequence of the intermediates in sucrose synthesis. Science 109: 140-42

395. Calvin M, Massini P. 1952. The path of carbon in photosynthesis. XX. The steady state. Experientia 8: 445-57

396. Campbell HA, Link KPG. 1941. Studies on the hemorrhagic sweet clover disease. IV. The isolation and crystallization of the hemorrhagic agent. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 138: 21-33

397. Campbell KHS, McWhir J, Ritchie WA, Wilmut I. 1996. Sheep cloned by nuclear transfer from a cultured cell line. Nature 380: 64-66

398. Camus A. 1942. Mythe de Sisyphe [Myth of Sisyphus]. Paris: Gallimard. 168 pp.

399. Cannon WB. 1926. Physiological regulation of normal states: some tentative postulates concerning biological homeostatics. In A. Charles Richet: Ses Amis, ses Collègues, ses Élèves [A. Charles Richet : His Friends, His Colleagues, His Students], ed. A Pettit, pp. 105. Paris: Les Éditions Médicales

400. Cannon WB. 1932. The Wisdom of the Body. New York: W.W. Norton & Co., Inc. 312 pp.

401. Cannon WB, Querido A, Britton SW, Bright EM. 1927. Studies on the conditions of activity in endocrine glands: XXI. The role of adrenal secretion in the chemical control of body temperature. The American Journal of Physiology 79: 466-507

402. Cardozo WW. 1937. Immunologic studies in sickle cell anemia. Archives of Internal Medicine 60: 623-53

403. Carrel A, Lindbergh CA. 1935. The culture of whole organs. Science 81: 621-23

404. Carter HE. 1979. Identification and synthesis of threonine. Federation Proceedings 38: 2684-86

405. Carter HE, Haines WJ, Ledyard WE, Norris WP. 1947. Biochemistry of sphingolipides. I. Preparation of sphingolipides from beef brain and spinal cord. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 169: 77-82

406. Casals J. 1969. Antigenic similarities between the virus causing Crimean hemorrhagic fever and Congo virus. Experimental Biology and Medicine 131: 233-36

407. Casals J, Olitsky PK, Anslow RO. 1951. Adaptarion of a Lansing strain of poliomyelitis virus to newborn mice. The Journal of Experimental Medicine 94: 111-12

408. Case EM. 1932. The determination of pyruvic acid. Biochemical Journal 26: 753-60

409. Caspari EW. 1933. Über die wirkung eines pleiotropen gens bei der mehlmotte Ephestia kühniella [The action of a pleiotropic gene in the flour moth Ephestia kuhniella Zeller]. Wilhelm Roux' Archiv für Entwicklungsmechanik der Organismen 130: 352-81

410. Caspari EW. 1971. The action of a pleiotropic gene in the flour moth Ephestia kuhniella Zeller. In Milestones in Developmental Physiology of Insects, ed. D Bodenstein, pp. 65-95. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts

411. Caspersson TO. 1936. Über den chemischen aufbau der strukturen des zellkerns [About the chemistry of the structures of the cell nucleus]. Skandinavisches Archiv für Physiologie 73

412. Caspersson TO. 1940b. Nukleinsäureketten und genvermehrung [Nucleic acid chains and gene augmentation]. Zeitschrift für Zellforschung und Mikroskopische Anatomie. Abteilung B, Chromosoma: Zeitschrift für Zellkernund Chromosomeforschung 1: 605-19

413. Caspersson TO. 1941. Studien über die eiweissumsatz der zelle [Studies on the protein turnover of the cell]. Die Naturwissenschaften 28: 33-43

414. Caspersson TO. 1946. The relations between nucleic acid and protein synthesis. In Society for Experimental Biology. Symposium, pp. 147. London: Cambridge University Press

415. Caspersson TO, Schultz J. 1938. Nucleic acid metabolism of the chromosomes in relation to gene reproduction. Nature 142: 294-95

416. Caspersson TO, Schultz J. 1939. Pentose nucleotides in the cytoplasm of growing tissue. Nature 143: 602-03

417. Caspersson TO, Schultz J. 1940a. Ribonucleic acids in both nucleus and cytoplasm, and the function of the nucleolus. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 26: 507-15

418. Caspersson TO, Schultz J. 1951. Cytochemical measurements in the study of the gene. In Genetics in the 20th century; Essays on the Progress of Genetics During its First 50 Years, ed. LC Dunn, pp. 155-71. New York: Macmillan

419. Castañeda MR. 1930. A new stain for rickettsia bodies. The Journal of Infectious Diseases 47: 4i6-417

420. Castañeda MR. 1938. Neumonia experimental producida por Rickettsia prowazeki. (communicacion preliminar) [Experimental pneumonia caused by Rickettsia prowazeki. (Preliminary communication). Medicina Revista Mexicana 18: 607-09

421. Castellanos A, Jr., Chapunoff E, Castillo C, Maytin O, Lemberg L. 1970. His bundle electrograms in two cases of Wolff-Parkinson-White (pre-excitation) syndrome. Circulation 41: 399-411

422. Castle WE. 1938. The relation of albinism to body size in mice. Genetics 23: 269-74

423. Cerletti U. 1940. L'Elettroshock [The electroshock]. Rivista Sperimentale di Freniatria e Medicina Legale delle Alienazioni Mentali 1: 209-310

424. Cerletti U, Bini L. 1938. Un nuovo metodo di shockterapia: “L’elettroshock” [A new method of shock therapy: " Electroshock "]. Bollettino della Royal Accademia Medica di Roma 64: 136-38

425. Cernescu C, Ruta SM, Tardei G, Grancea C, Moldoveanu L, et al. 1997. A high number of severe neurologic clinical forms during an epidemic of West Nile virus infection. Romanian Journal of Virology 48: 13-25

426. Chadwick LC, Kiplinger DC. 1938. The effect of synthetic growth substances on the rooting and subsequent growth of ornamental plants. Proceedings of the American Society for Horticultural Science 36: 809-16

427. Chadwick LE, Williams CM. 1943. Technique for stroboscopic studies of insect flight. Science 98: 522-24

428. Chailakhyan MK. 1936a. On the mechanism of photoperiodic reaction. Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences de l'Union des Républiques Soviétiques Socialistes 10: 89-93

429. Chailakhyan MK. 1936b. On the hormonal theory of plant development. Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences de l'Union des Républiques Soviétiques Socialistes 12: 443-47

430. Chailakhyan MK. 1936c. New factors in support of the hormonal theory of plant development. Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences de l'Union des Républiques Soviétiques Socialistes 13: 79-83

431. Chain EB, Florey HW, Gardner AD, Heatley NG, Jennings MA, et al. 1940. Penicillin as a chemotherapeutic agent. The Lancet 236: 226-28

432. Chambers GH, Melville EV, Hare RS, Hare K. 1945. Regulation of the release of pituitrin by changes in the osmotic pressure of the plasma. The American Journal of Physiology 144: 311-20

433. Chance B. 1943. The kinetics of the enzyme-substrate compound of peroxidase. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 151: 553-77

434. Chance RE, Ellis RM, Bromer WW. 1968. Porcine proinsulin: characterization and amino acid sequence. Science 161: 165-67

435. Chandler WH, Hoagland DR, Hibbard PL. 1932. Little leaf or rosette of fruit trees. II. Effect of zinc and other treatments. Proceedings of the American Society for Horticultural Science 29: 255-63

436. Chang MC. 1943. Disintegration of epididymal spermatozoa by application of ice to the scrotal testis. The Journal of Experimental Biology 20: 16-22

437. Chang MC. 1947. Effects of testis hyaluronidase and seminal fluids on the fertilization capacity of rabbit spermatozoa. Experimental Biology and Medicine 66: 51-54

438. Chang MC. 1950. Further study of the role of hyaluronidase in the fertilization of rabbit ova in vivo. Science 112: 118-19

439. Chang MM, Leeman SE, Niall HD. 1971. Amino-acid sequence of substance P. Nature New Biology 232: 86-87

440. Chapman RN. 1928. The quantitative analysis of environmental factors. Ecology 9: 111-22

441. Chargaff E. 1971. Preface to a grammar of biology. A hundred years of nucleic acid research. Science 172: 637-42

442. Chargaff E, Olson KB. 1937. Studies on the chemistry of blood coagulation. VI. Studies on the action of heparin and other anticoagulants, the influence of protamine on the anticoagulant effect in vivo. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 122: 153-67

443. Charlton W, Haworth WN, Peat S. 1926. A revision of the structural formula of glucose. Journal of the Chemical Society: 89-101

444. Chase MW. 1945. The cellular transfer of cutaneous hypersensitivity to tuberculin. Experimental Biology and Medicine 59: 134-35

445. Chatton E. 1925. Pansporella perplexa. Réflexions sur la biologie et la phylogénie des protozoaires [Pansporella perplexa. Reflections on the biology and phylogeny of Protozoa]. Annales des Sciences Naturelles. Zoologie et Biologie Animale 7: 1-84

446. Chatton E, ed. 1938. Titres et Travaux Scientifiques [Titles and Scientific Works]. Sottano, Italy: Sete

447. Chen S-H, Malcolm LA, Yoshida A, Giblett ER. 1971. Phosphoglycerate kinase: an X-linked polymorphism in man. American Journal of Human Genetics 23: 87-91

448. Chen TT, Li L, Chung D-H, Allen CDC, Torti SV, et al. 2005. TIM-2 is expressed on B cells and in liver and kidney and is a receptor for H-ferritin endocytosis. The Journal of Experimental Medicine 202: 955-65

449. Chen Y, Guillemin GJ. 2009. Kynurenine pathway metabolites in humans: disease and healthy states. International Journal of Tryptophan Research 2: 1-19

450. Chetverikov SS. 1926. [On certain aspects of the evolutionary process from the standpoint of modern genetics]. Zhurnal Eksperimenta'noi Biologii A2: 3-54

451. Chetverikov SS. 1961. On certain aspects of the evolutionary process from the standpoint of modern genetics. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 105: 167-95

452. Chevreul M-E. 1835. Recherches sur la composition chimique du bouillon de viande [Research on the chemical composition of meat broth]. Journal de Pharmacie 21: 231-42

453. Chibnall AC, Channon HJ. 1927. The ether-soluble substances of cabbage leaf cytoplasm. II. Calcium salts of glyceridephosphoric acids. Biochemical Journal 21: 233-46

454. Chown B. 1968. On Rh immunization and its prevention: observations and thoughts. Vox Sanguinis 15: 249-63

455. Christensen LR. 1945. Streptococcal fibrinolysis: A proteolytic reaction due to a serum enzyme activated by streptococcal fibrinolysin. The Journal of General Physiology 28: 363-83

456. Christensen LR. 1954. Streptococcal infections. In Streptococcal infections; Symposium Held at the New York Academy of Medicine, February 25 and 26, 1953., ed. M McCarty, pp. 218. New York: Columbia University Press

457. Christensen LR, MacLeod CM. 1945. A proteolytic enzyme of serum: characterization, activation, and reaction with inhibitors. The Journal of General Physiology 28: 559-83

458. Christophers SR, Fulton JD. 1938. Observations on the respiratory metabolism of malaria parasites and  trvpanosomes. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 32: 43-75

459. Chrustschoff GK, Andres AH, Iljina-Kakujewa WI. 1931. Kulturen von blutleukozyten als methode zum studium des menschlichen karyotypus [Cultures of blood leukocytes as a method to study the human karyotypes]. Anatomischer Anzeiger 73: 159-68

460. Chrustschoff GK, Berlin EA. 1935. Cytological investigations on cultures of normal human blood. Journal of Genetics 31: 243-61

461. Chu CM. 1951. The action of normal mouse serum on influenza virus. Journal of General Microbiology 5: 739-57

462. Chumakov MP. 1945. A new tick-borne virus disease—Crimean Hemorrhagic Fever. In Crimean Hemorrhagic Fever (acute infectious capillary toxicosis), ed. AA Sokolov, MP Chumakov, AA Kolachev. Simferopol, Russia: Izd. Otd. Primorskoi Armii

463. Clark EP, Collip JB. 1925. A study of the Tisdall method for the determination of blood serum calcium with a suggested modification. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 63: 461-64

464. Clark ER, Clark EL. 1932. Observations on living preformed blood vessels as seen in a transparent chamber inserted into the rabbit ear. The American Journal of Anatomy 49: 441-47

465. Clark HE, Kerns KR. 1942. Control of flowering with phytohormones. Science 95: 536-37

466. Clark RW. 1971. Einstein: The Life and Times. New York: World Publishing Co. 718 pp.

467. Clarke CA. 1963a. Interactions between major genes and polygenes in the determination of mimetic patterns of Papilio dardanus. Evolution 17: 404-13

468. Clarke CA, Sheppard PM. 1959a. The genetics of some mimetic forms of Papilio dardanus Brown and Papilio glaucus Linn. Journal of Genetics 56: 236-59

469. Clarke CA, Sheppard PM. 1959b. The genetics of Papilio dardanus Brown. I. Race cenea from South Africa. Genetics 44: 1347-58

470. Clarke CA, Sheppard PM. 1960a. The genetics of Papilio dardanus Brown. II. Races dardanus, polytrophus, meseres and tibullus. Genetics 45: 439-57

471. Clarke CA, Sheppard PM. 1960b. The genetics of Papilio dardanus Brown. III. Race antimorii from Abyssinia and race meriones from Madagascar. Genetics 45: 683-97

472. Clarke CA, Sheppard PM. 1962. Disruptive selection and its effect on a metrical character in the butterfly Papilio dardanus. Evolution 16: 214-26

473. Claude A. 1938. Concentration and purification of chicken tumor I agent. Science 87: 467-68

474. Claude A. 1939. Chemical composition of the tumor producing fraction of chicken tumor I. Science 90: 213-14

475. Claude A. 1940. Particulate components of normal and tumor cells. Science 91: 77-78

476. Claude A. 1943. Distribution of nucleic acids in the cell and the morphological constitution of cytoplasm. Biological Symposia 10: 111-29

477. Claude A. 1946. Fractionation of mammalian liver cells by differential centrifugation. The Journal of Experimental Medicine 84: 51-61

478. Clausen JC, Keck D, Heisey W. 1948. Experimental studies on the nature of species. III. Environmental responses of climatic races of Achillea. Carnegie Institution of Washington Publication Pub. No. 581: 1-129

479. Clausen JC, Keck DD, Heisey WM. 1947. Heredity of geographically and ecologically isolated races. The American Naturalist 81: 114-33

480. Cleary JP, Beard PJ, Clifton CE. 1935. Studies of certain factors influencing the size of bacterial populations. Journal of Bacteriology 29: 205-13

481. Clements FE, Weaver JE, Hanson HC. 1929. Plant Competition: An Analysis of Community Functions. Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Institution of Washington. 340 pp.

482. Cleveland LR. 1947. Sex produced in the protozoa of Cryptocercus by molting. Science 105: 16-18

483. Cleveland LR. 1956. Brief accounts of the sexual cycles of the flagellates of Cryptocercus. The Journal of Protozoology 3: 161-80

484. Clevenger CV, Plank TL. 1997. Plasma prolactin levels and subsequent risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia 2: 59-68

485. Clevenger CV, Sillman AL, Prystowsky MB. 1990. Interleukin-2 driven nuclear translocation of prolactin in cloned T-lymphocytes. Endocrinology 127: 3151-59

486. Clifton CC, Schultz EW, Gebhardt LP. 1931. Ultrafiltration studies on the virus of poliomyelitis. Journal of Bacteriology 22: 7-13

487. Clifton CE. 1937. On he possibility of preventing assimilation in respiring cells. Enzymologia 4: 246-53

488. Clifton CE. 1943. Large-scale production of penicillin. Science 98: 69-70

489. Coffing K, Feibel CS, Leakey MG, Walker AC. 1994. Four-million-year-old hominids from East Lake Turkana, Kenya. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 93: 55-65

490. Coghill GE. 1926. The mechanism of integration in Amblystoma punctatum. The Journal of Comparative Neurology 41: 95-152

491. Coghill GE. 1929. Anatomy and the Problem of Behaviour. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 113 pp.

492. Coghill GE. 1930. The structural basis of the integration of behavior. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 16: 637-43

493. Coghill GE. 1931. Correlated anatomical and physiological studies of the growth of the nervous system of Amphibia. X. Corollaries of the anatomical and physiological study of Amblystoma from the age of earliest movement to swimming. The Journal of Comparative Neurology 53: 147-68

494. Cohen PP. 1940a. Transamination with purified enzyme preparations (transaminase). The Journal of Biological Chemistry 136: 565-84

495. Cohen PP. 1940b. Kinetics of transamination activity. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 136: 585-601

496. Cohen PP, Hayano M. 1946. Urea synthesis by liver homogenates. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 166: 251-59

497. Cohn EJ. 1941. The properties and functions of the plasma proteins with a consideration of the methods for their separation and purification. Chemical Reviews 28: 395-417

498. Cohn EJ, Strong LE, Hughes WL, Jr., Mulford DJ, Ashworth JN, et al. 1946. Preparation and properties of serum and plasma proteins. IV. A system for the separation into fractions of the protein and lipoprotein components of biological tissues and fluids. Journal of the American Chemical Society 68: 459-75

499. Colbert EH. 1939. A fossil comes to life. In Natural History

500. Colbert EH. 1947. The little dinosaurs of Ghost Ranch. Natural History 56: 392-99, 427-28

501. Colbert EH. 1989. The Triassic dinosaur Coleophysis. Museum of Northern Arizona Bulletin 57: 1-160

502. Cole KS, Curtis HJ. 1939. Electric impedance of the squid giant axon during activity. The Journal of General Physiology 22: 649-70

503. Colebrook L, Kenny M. 1936a. Treatment of human puerperal infections, and of experimental infections in mice, with prontosil. The Lancet 227: 1279-86

504. Colebrook L, Kenny M. 1936b. Treatment with prontosil of puerperal infections: due to haemolytic streptococci. The Lancet 228: 1319-22

505. Colebrook L, Purdie AW. 1937. Treatment of 106 cases of puerperal fever by sulphanilamide (streptocide). The Lancet 230: 1237-42; 91-94

506. Coles AC. 1930. Micro-organisms in Psittacosis. The Lancet 215: 1011-12

507. Collander PR, Bärlund H. 1933. Permeabilitätsstudien an Chara ceratophylla. II. Die permeabilität für nichtelektrolytes [Permeability in Chara ceratophylla. II. Permeability to non-electrolytes]. Acta Botanica Fennica 11: 1-14

508. Collingwood RG. 1942. The New Leviathan; or, Man, Society, Civilization and Barbarism. Oxford: The Clarendon Press. 387 pp.

509. Collins MLP, Salton MRJ. 1979. Solubility characteristics of Micrococcus lysodeikticus membrane components in detergents and chaotropic salts analyzed by immunoelectrophoresis. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 553: 40-53

510. Collip JB, Anderson EM, Thomson DL. 1933. The adrenotropic hormone of the anterior pituitary lobe. The Lancet 222: 347-48

511. Collip JB, Selye HHB, Thomson DL. 1933. Preparation of purified and highly potent extract of growth hormone of anterior pituitary lobe. Experimental Biology and Medicine 30: 544-46

512. Colowick SP, Kalckar HM. 1943. The role of myokinase in transphosphorylations. I. The enzymatic phosphorylation of hexoses by adenyl pyrophosphate. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 148: 117-26

513. Colp RA. 1934. A case of nonspecific granuloma of the terminal ileum and the cecum. The Surgical Clinics of North America 14: 443-49

514. Comly HH. 1945. Cyanosis in infants caused by nitrates in well-water. Journal of the American Medical Association 129: 112-16

515. Committee. 1935. Report on the St. Louis Outbreak of Encephalitis. Rep. 214, Public Health Bulletin, Washington, D.C.

516. Commoner B, Fogel S, Muller WH. 1943. The mechanism of auxin action. The effect of auxin on water absorption by potato tuber tissue. American Journal of Botany 30: 23-28

517. Commoner B, Thimann KV. 1941. On the relation between growth and respiration in the Avena coleoptile. The Journal of General Physiology 24: 279-96

518. Comstock JH. 1940. An Introduction to Entomology. Ithaca, NY: Comstock Publishing Co. 1064 pp.

519. Confalone PN, Pizzolato G, Baggiolini EG, Lollar D, Uskokovic MR. 1975. Letter: A stereospecific total synthesis of d-biotin from L-(+)-cysteine. Journal of the American Chemical Society 97: 5936-38

520. Confalone PNP, Giacomo, Baggiolini EG, Lollar D, Uskokovic MR. 1977. Stereospecific total synthesis of d-biotin from L(+)-cysteine. Journal of the American Chemical Society 99: 7020-26

521. Congress US. 1938. United States Statutes at Large. pp. 1040. Washington, D.C.: United States Printing Office

522. Conn HJ. 1942. Validity of the genus Alcaligenes. Journal of Bacteriology 44: 353-60

523. Conn JW, Newburgh LH, Johnston MW, Conn ES. 1938. A new interpretation of diabetes mellitus in obese, middle-aged persons: Recovery through reduction in weight. Transactions of the Association of American Physicians 53: 245-57

524. Connell JH. 1961a. The influence of interspecific competition and other factors on the distribution of the barnacle Chthamalus stellatus Ecology 42: 710-23

525. Connell JH. 1961b. Effects of competition, predation by Thais lapillus and other factors on natural populations of the barnacle Balanus balanoides Ecological Monographs 31: 61-104

526. Consden R, Gordon AH, Martin AJP. 1944. Quantitative analysis of proteins: A partition chromatographic method using paper. Biochemical Journal 38: 224-32

527. Contratto AW, Levine SA. 1937. Aortic stenosis with special reference to angina pectoris and syncope. Annals of Internal Medicine 10: 1636-53

528. Conway EJ. 1943. The chemical evolution of the ocean. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. Section B 48: 161-212

529. Cook JW, Hewett CL, Hieger I. 1933. The isolation of a cancer producing hydrocarbon from coal tar. Journal of the Chemical Society: 395-405

530. Cookson GH, Rimington C. 1953. Porphobilinogen: Chemical constitution. Nature 171: 875-76

531. Cookson GH, Rimington C. 1954. Porphobilinogen. Biochemical Journal 57: 476-84

532. Cooley TB, Lee P. 1925. Series of cases of splenomegaly in children with anemia and peculiar bone changes. Transactions of the American Pediatric Society 37: 29-30

533. Cooley TB, Witwer ER, Lee OP. 1927. Anemia in children, with splenomegaly and peculiar changes in the bones: Report of cases. American Journal of Diseases of Children 34: 347-63

534. Coombs RRA, Mourant AE, Race RR. 1945a. Detection of weak and 'incomplete' Rh agglutinins: a new test. The Lancet 246: 15

535. Coombs RRA, Mourant AE, Race RR. 1945b. A new test for the detection of weak and "incomplete" Rh agglutinins. British Journal of Experimental Pathology 26: 255-66

536. Coombs RRA, Mourant AE, Race RR. 1946. In vivo isosensitization of red cells in babies with hemolytic disease. The Lancet 247: 264-66

537. Coons AH, Creech HJ, Jones RN. 1941. Immunological properties of an antibody containing a fluorescent group. Experimental Biology and Medicine 47: 200-02

538. Coons AH, Creech HJ, Jones RN, Berliner E. 1942. The demonstration of pneumococcal antigen in tissues by the use of fluorescent antibody. The Journal of Immunology 45: 159-70

539. Coons AH, Kaplan MH. 1950. Localization of antigen in tiussue cells. II. Improvements in a method for the detection of antigen by means of fluorescent antibody. The Journal of Experimental Medicine 91: 1-13

540. Cooper S, Denny-Brown DE, Sherrington CS. 1926. Reflex fractionation of a muscle. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B, Containing Papers of a Biological Character 100: 448-62

541. Corey EJ, Kang M-C, Desai MC, Ghosh AK, Houpis IN. 1988. Total synthesis of (±)-ginkgolide B. Journal of the American Chemical Society 110: 649-51

542. Cori CF. 1945-1946. Enzymatic reactions in carbohydrate metabolism. Harvey Lectures 41: 253-72

543. Cori CF, Cori GTR. 1929. Glycogen formation in the liver from d- and l- lactic acid. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 81: 389-403

544. Cori CF, Cori GTR. 1936. Mechanism of formation of hexosemonophosphate in muscle and isolation of a new phosphate ester. Experimental Biology and Medicine 34: 702-05

545. Cori CF, Cori GTR. 1941. Carbohydrate metabolism. Annual Review of Biochemistry 10: 151-80

546. Cori CF, Schmidt G, Cori GTR. 1939. The synthesis of a polysaccharide from glucose-1-phosphate in muscle extract. Science 89: 464-65

547. Cori GTR, Colowick SP, Cori CF. 1938. The formation of glucose-1-phosphoric acid in extracts of mammalian tissues and of yeast. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 123: 375-80

548. Cori GTR, Cori CF. 1931. A method for the determination of hexose-monophosphate in muscle. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 94: 561-79

549. Cori GTR, Cori CF. 1943. Crystalline muscle phosphorylase. IV. Formation of glycogen. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 151: 57-63

550. Cori GTR, Cori CF, Schmidt G. 1939. The role of glucose-1-phosphate in the formation of blood sugar and synthesis of glycogen in the liver. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 129: 629-39

551. Cori GTR, Slein MW, Cori CF. 1945. Isolation and crystallization of d-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from rabbit muscle. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 159: 565-66

552. Corman VM, Eckerle I, Bleicker T, Zaki AM, Landt O, et al. 2012. Detection of a novel human coronavirus by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Eurosurveillance 17: pii=20285

553. Corner GW, Allen WM. 1929. Physiology of the corpus luteum: II. Production of a special uterine reaction (progestational proliferation) by extracts of the corpus luteum. The American Journal of Physiology 88: 326-39

554. Corner GW, Hartman CG, Bartelmez GW. 1945. Development, organization, and breakdown of the corpus luteum in the rhesus monkey. Contributions to Embryology: Carnegie Institution of Washington 204: 117-46

555. Coryell CD. 1940. The proposed terms "exergonic" and "endergonic" for thermodynamics. Science 92: 380

556. Couch JN. 1926. Heterothallism in Dictyuchus, a genus of the water moulds. Annals of Botany 40: 849-81

557. Couch JN. 1938. The Genus Septobasidium. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. 480 pp.

558. Coumel P, Cabrol C, Fabiato A, Gourgon R, Slama RD. 1967. Tachycardia permanente par rhythme réciproque. I. Preuve du diagnostic par stimulation auriculaire et ventriculaire. II. Traitement par l'implantation intracorporelle d'un stimulateur cardiaque avec entrainement stimultané de l'oreillette et du ventricule. Archives des Maladies du Coeur, des Vaisseaux et du Sang 60: 1830-64

559. Couri D, Racker E. 1959. The oxidative pentose phosphate cycle. V. Complete oxidation of glucose-6-phosphate in a reconstructed system of the oxidative pentose phosphate cycle. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 83: 195-205

560. Cox EG, Hirst EL, Reynolds RJW. 1932. Hexuronic acid as the antiscorbutic factor. Nature 130: 888

561. Cox HR. 1938. Use of yolk sac of developing chick embryo as medium for growing rickettsiae of Rocky Mountain spotted fever and typus groups. Public Health Reports 53: 2241-47

562. Cox HR, Olitsky PK. 1936. Active immunization of guinea pigs with the virus of equine encephalomyelitis.I. Quantitative experiments with various preparations of activie virus. The Journal of Experimental Medicine 63: 311-24

563. Crafoord C, Nylin G. 1943. Congenital coarctation of the aorta and its surgical treatment. The Journal of Thoracic Surgery 14: 347-61

564. Craig LC. 1944. Identificatin of small amounts of organic compounds by distribution studies. II. Separation by countercurrent distribution. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 155: 519-34

565. Craigie J. 1946. The significance and applications of bacteriophage in bacteriological and virus research. Bacteriological Reviews 10: 73-88

566. Crane J. 1934. Results of Undersea Descents in the Bathysphere with Special Reference to Those of 1934, National Geographic Society

567. Creighton HB, McClintock B. 1931. A correlation of cytological and genetical crossing-over in Zea mays. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 17: 492-97

568. Cremer E, Prior F. 1951. Anwendung der chromatographischen methode zur trennung von gasen und zur bestimmung von adsorptionsenergien [Application of chromatographic method for the separation of gases and determination of adsorption energies]. Zeitschrift für Elektrochemie 55: 66-70

569. Crohn BB, Ginzburg L, Oppenheimer GD. 1932. Regional ileitis; a pathologic and clinical entity. Journal of the American Medical Association 99: 1323-29

570. Cronin MJ, Rogol AD, MacLeod RM, Keefer DA, Login IS, et al. 1983. Biological activity of a growth hormone-releasing factor secreted by a human tumor. American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism 244: E346-E53

571. Cross BA, Green JD. 1959. Activity of single neurones in the hypothalamus: effect of osmotic and other stimuli. The Journal of Physiology 148: 554-69

572. Crowfoot DM, Schmidt GMJ. 1945. An X-ray diffraction pattern obtained on a single crystal of a tobacco necrosis virus. Nature 155: 504-05

573. Cruce WLR, Stuesse SL, Northcutt RG. 1999. Brainstem neurons with descending projections to the spinal cord in two elasmobranch fishes: Thornback Guitarfish, Platyrhinoidis triseriata, and Horn Shark, Heterodontus francisci. The Journal of Comparative Neurology 403: 534-60

574. Cuillé J, Chelle P-L. 1936a. La maladie dite tremblante du mouton, est-elle inoculable? [The so-called scrapie disease, it can be inoculated ?]. Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances de l'Academie des Sciences, Paris 203: 1552-54

575. Cuillé J, Chelle P-L. 1938. La tremblante du mouton. Son etiologie [Scrapie. Its etiology]. Revue de Pathologie Comparee et D'Hygiene Generale 38: 1358-72

576. Cuillé J, Chelle P-L. 1939. Transmission  expérimentale  de la tremblante à la chèvre. Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances de l'Academie des Sciences, Paris 208: 1058-60

577. Cunningham J. 1925. Serological observations on relapsing fever in Madras. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 19: 11-40

578. Cunningham J, Theodore JH, Fraser AGL. 1934. Further observations on Indian relapsing fever. Part I. Types of spirochetes found in experimental infections. The Indian Journal of Medical Research 22: 105-57

579. Curtis HJ, Bard AP. 1939. Intercortical connections of the corpus callosum as indicated by evoked potentials. The American Journal of Physiology 126: 473

580. Curtis HJ, Cole KS. 1940a. Membrane action potentials from the squid giant axon. Journal of Cellular and Comparative Physiology 15: 147-57

581. Cushing HW. 1931. The surgical-mortality percentages pertaining to a series of two thousand verified intracranial tumours. In First International Neurological Congress, pp. 73-78. Berne: Stämpfli & Cie

582. Cushing HW. 1932b. The basophil adenomas of the pituitary body and their clinical manifestations (pituitary basophilism). Bulletin of the Johns Hopkins Hospital 50: 137-95

583. Cushing HW, Bailey P. 1928b. Tumors Arising from the Blood-Vessels of the Brain: Angiomatous Malformations and Hemangioblastomas. London: Baillière Tindall & Cox. 219 pp.

584. Cushing HW, Bovie WT. 1928a. Electro-surgery as an aid to the removal of intracranial tumors. Surgery, Gynecology and Obstetrics 47: 751-84

585. Cushing HW, Eisenhardt LC. 1938. Meningiomas: Their Classification, Regional Behaviour, Life History, and Surgical End Results. Springfield / Baltimore: Charles C Thomas. 785 pp.

586. d'Herelle FH. 1926. The Bacteriophage and its Behavior. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins Co. 629 pp.

587. Dack GM, Cary WE, Woolpert OC, Wiggers H. 1930. An outbreak of food poisoning proved to be due to a yellow hemolytic staphylococcus. Journal of Preventive Medicine 4: 167-75

588. Daft FS, Sebrell WH. 1939. Hemorrhagic adrenal necrosis in rats on deficient diets. Public Health Reports 54: 2247-50

589. Daft FS, Sebrell WH, Babcock SH, Jr., Jukes TH. 1940. Effect of synthetic pantothenic acid on adrenal hemorrhage, atropy, and necrosis in rats. Public Health Reports 55: 1333-37

590. Dale HH, Feldberg WS. 1934. Proceedings of the Physiological Society: May 12, 1934: Chemical transmission at motor nerve endings in voluntary muscle. The Journal of Physiology 81: 39P-40P

591. Dale HH, Feldberg WS, Vogt ML. 1936. Release of acetylcholine at voluntary motor nerve endings. The Journal of Physiology 86: 353-80

592. Dalldorf GJ. 1939a. The simultaneous occurrence of the viruses of canine distemper and lymphocytic choriomengitis: A correction of "Canine distemper in the Rhesus monkey.". The Journal of Experimental Medicine 70: 19-27

593. Dalldorf GJ. 1939b. Studies of the sparing effect of lymphocytic choriomeningitis on experimental poliomyelitis: I. Effect on the infectivity of monkey tissues. The Journal of Immunology 37: 245-59

594. Dalldorf GJ, Douglass M. 1938. Simultaneous distemper and lymphocytic choriomeningitis in dog spleen and sparing effect on poliomyelitis. Experimental Biology and Medicine 39: 294-97

595. Dalldorf GJ, Douglass M, Robinson HE. 1937. The sparing effect of dog distemper on experimental poliomyelitis. Science 85: 184

596. Dam CPH. 1929. Cholesterinstoffwechsel in hühnereiern und hühnchen [Cholesterol metabolism in chicken eggs and chicken]. Biochemische Zeitschrift 215: 475-92

597. Dam CPH. 1933. Studies on the Biological Significance of Sterols. Dissertation thesis. University of Freiburg, Copenhagen, Freiburg. 162 pp.

598. Dam CPH. 1934. Haemorrhages in chicks reared on artificial diets: a new deficiency disease. Nature 133: 909-10

599. Dam CPH. 1935. The antihaemorrhagic vitamin of the chick: Occurrence and chemical nature. Nature 135: 652-53

600. Dam CPH, Glavind J, Orla-Jensen S, Orla-Jensen AD. 1941. Bildung von vitamin K in colibakterien auf synthetischem substrat [Formation of vitamin K in coli bacteria on synthetic medium]. Die Naturwissenschaften 29: 287-88

601. Dam CPH, Schönheyder F. 1934. A deficiency disease in chicks resembling scurvy. Biochemical Journal 28: 1355-59

602. Dam CPH, Schönheyder F, Tage-Hansen E. 1936. Studies on the mode of action of vitamin K. Biochemical Journal 30: 1075-79

603. Damodaran M, Jaaback G, Chibnal AC. 1932. The isolation of glutamine from an enzymic digest of gliadin. Biochemical Journal 26: 1704-13

604. Dandy WE. 1925. An operation for total removal of cerebellopontile (acoustic) tumors. Surgery, Gynecology and Obstetrics 41: 129-48

605. Dandy WE. 1928. Ménière's disease, its diagnosis and a method of treatment. Archives of Surgery 16: 1127-52

606. Dandy WE. 1929. Loose cartilage from intervertebral disc simulating tumor of the spinal cord. Archives of Surgery 19: 660-72

607. Dandy WE. 1934. Concerning the cause of trigeminal neuralgia. American Journal of Surgery 24: 447-55

608. Dandy WE. 1938. Intracranial aneurysm of internal carotid artery cured by operation. Annals of Surgery 107: 654-59

609. Dandy WE. 1941. The surgical treatment of Ménière's disease. Surgery, Gynecology and Obstetrics 72: 421-25

610. Danforth CH. 1930. The nature of racial and sexual dimorphism in the plumage of campines and leghorns. Biologia Generalis 6: 99-108

611. Danielli JF, Davson HA. 1935. A contribution to the theory of permeability of thin films. Journal of Cellular and Comparative Physiology 5: 495-508

612. Darling FF. 1937. A Herd of Red Deer; A Study in Animal Behavior. Cambridge: Oxford University Press, H. Milford. 240 pp.

613. Dart RA. 1925. Australopithecus africanus: the man-ape of South Africa. Nature 115: 195-99

614. Daubney R, Hudson JR, Garnham PCC. 1931. Enzootic hepatitis or Rift Valley fever: An undescribed virus disease of sheep, cattle and man from East Africa. The Journal of Pathology and Bacteriology 34: 545-79

615. Davenport CB. 1930. Sex-linkage in man. Genetics 15: 401-44

616. David KG, Dingemanse E, Freud J, Laqueur E. 1935. Über krystallinisches mannliches hormon aus hoden (testosteron) wirksamer als aus harn oder aus cholesterin bereitetes androsteron [About crystalline male hormone in the testes (testosterone) as effective as that prepared from urine or androsterone from cholesterol. Hoppe-Seyler's Zeitschrift für Physiologische Chemie 233: 281-

617. Davis GE, Cox HR. 1938. A filter-passing infectious agent isolated from ticks, I: Isolation from Dermacentor andersoni, reactions in animals, and filtration experiments. Public Health Reports 53: 2259-67

618. Davson HA, Danielli JF. 1952. The Permeability of Natural Membranes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 365 pp.

619. Dawson AB. 1926. A note on the staining of the skeleton of cleared specimens with alizarin red S. Stain Technology 1: 123-24

620. Dawson IM. 1949. The nature of the bacterial surface. In A Symposium of the Society for General Microbiology, pp. 119-21: Cambridge University Press

621. Dawson JR. 1939. Infection of chicks and chick embryos with rabies. Science 89: 300-01

622. de Beer GR. 1926. An Introduction to Experimental Embryology. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 148 pp.

623. de Beer GR. 1940. Embryos and Ancestors. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 108 pp.

624. de Candolle A-P. 1822. Sur les différentes espèces, races et variétés de choux et de raiforts cultivés en Europe [Of the different species, breeds and varieties of cabbage and radishes grown in Europe]. Annales de l'Agriculture Française 19 Ser. 2: 273-325

625. de Domenico I, Ward DM, Langelier C, Vaughn MB, Nemeth E, et al. 2007. The molecular mechanism of hepcidin-mediated ferroportin down-regulation. Molecular Biology of the Cell 18: 2569-78

626. de Hevesy GC, Baranowski T, Gutke AJ, Ostern P, Parnas JK. 1938. Untersuchungen über die phosphorübertragungen in der glykolyse und glykogenolyse [Studies on the phosphorus transfers in glycolysis and glycogenolysis]. Acta Biologiae Experimentalis 12: 34-39

627. de Jong LEdD. 1926. Bijdrage Tot de Kennis van het Mineralisatie-proces [Contribution to the Knowledge of the Mineralization Process]. Rotterdam, The Netherlands: Nijgh & van Ditmar's uitgevers-mij. 200 pp.

628. De Laubenfels MW. 1936. A Discussion of the Sponge Fauna of the Dry Tortugas in Particular and the West Indies in General; with Material for a Revision of the Families and Orders of the Porifera. Washington, DC: Carnegie Institution of Washington. 225 pp.

629. de Saint Exupéry A. 1939. Wind, Sand and Stars. New York: Reynal & Hitchcock. 306 pp.

630. de Saint-Rat L, Olivier HR. 1946. Extraction et purification de l'endosubtilysine [Extraction and purification of endosubtilysine]. Comptes Rendus des Seances de la Societe de Biologie et de ses Filiales 222: 297-99

631. Deam CC. 1940. Flora of Indiana. Indianapolis: W.B. Buford. 1236 pp.

632. Dean HT. 1956. Fluorine in the control of dental caries. Journal of the American Dental Association 52: 1-8

633. Dean HT, Arnold FA, Jr., Elvove E. 1942. Domestic water and dental caries. V. Additional studies of the relation of fluoride domestic waters to dental caries experiences in 4425 white children aged 12-14 years, of 13 cities in 4 states. Public Health Reports 57: 1115-79

634. Dean HT, McKay FS, Elvove E. 1938. Mottled enamel survey of Bauxite, Ark., 10 years after a change in the common water supply. Public Health Reports 53: 1736-47

635. Dean RB. 1941. Theories of electrolyte equilibrium in muscle. Biological Symposia 3: 331-48

636. Dean RB, Noonan TR, Haege LF, Fenn WO. 1941. Permeability of erythrocytes to radioactive potassium. The Journal of General Physiology 24: 353-65

637. DeBakey ME. 1934. A simple continuous-flow blood transfusion instrument. The New Orleans Medical and Surgical Journal 87: 386-89

638. Deevey ES, Jr. 1942. Studies on Connecticut lake sediments. III The biostratonomy of Linsley Pond. American Journal of Science 240: 233-64, 313-38

639. Deevey ES, Jr. 1947. Life tables for natural populations of animals. The Quarterly Review of Biology 22: 283-314

640. Deevey GB, Deevey ES, Jr. 1945. A life table of the black widow. Transactions of the Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences 36: 115-34

641. Dekker H. 1928. Asthma und milben [Asthma and mite]. Munchener Medizinische Wochenschrift 75: 515

642. Delafield FP, Doudoroff M, Palleroni NJ, Lusty CJ, Contopoulos R. 1965. Decomposition of poly-ß-hydroxybutyrate by pseudomonads. Journal of Bacteriology 90: 1455-66

643. Delay J, Deniker P. 1952a. Le traitement des psychoses par une méthode neurolytique dérivée de l'hibernothérapie (Le 4560 R.P. utilisé seul. En cure prolongée et continue) [The treatment of psychoses by a method derived from the neurolytic hibernation therapy (The RP 4560 alone. In prolonged treatment and continuing)]. Comptes Rendus: Congres des Medecins Alienistes et Neurologistes de France et des Pays de Langue Francaise 50: 497-502

644. Delbrück MLH, Bailey WT, Jr. 1946. Induced mutations in bacterial viruses. Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology 11: 33-37

645. Demerec ML, ed. 1947. Advances in Genetics. New York: Academic Press

646. Demerec ML, Fano U. 1945. Bacteriophage-resistant mutants in Escherichia coli. Genetics 30: 119-36

647. Demerec ML, Hartman Z, Hartman PE, Yura T, Gots JS, et al. 1956a. Genetic Studies with Bacteria. Washington, DC: Carnegie Institution of Washington. 136 pp.

648. Dennis C, Spreng DS, Jr., Nelson GE, Karlson KE, Nelson RM, et al. 1951. Development of a pump-oxygenator to replace the heart and lungs: An apparatus applicable to human patients, and application to one case. Annals of Surgery 134: 709-21

649. Denny-Brown D, Sciarra D. 1945b. Changes in the nervous system in acute porphyria. Brain 68: 1-16

650. Denny-Brown DE. 1929a. The histological features of striped muscle in relation to its functional activity. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B, Containing Papers of a Biological Character 104: 371-411

651. Denny-Brown DE. 1929b. On the nature of postural reflexes. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B, Containing Papers of a Biological Character 104: 252-301

652. Denny-Brown DE. 1941a. Delayed collapse after head injury. The Lancet 237: 371-75

653. Denny-Brown DE. 1942. The sequelae of war head injuries. The New England Journal of Medicine 227: 771-78, 813-21

654. Denny-Brown DE. 1943a. The principles of treatment of closed head injury. Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine 19: 3-16

655. Denny-Brown DE. 1943b. "Shell shock" and effects of high explosives. The Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine 28: 509-14

656. Denny-Brown DE. 1943c. Post-concussion syndrome - A critique. Annals of Internal Medicine 19: 427-32

657. Denny-Brown DE. 1945a. Disability arising from closed head injury. Journal of the American Medical Association 127: 429-36

658. Denny-Brown DE. 1949b. Interpretation of the electromyogram. Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry 61: 99-128

659. Denny-Brown DE. 1950. Disintegration of motor function resulting from cerebral lesion. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 112: 1-57

660. Denny-Brown DE. 1962a. The Basal Ganglia, and Their Relation to Disorders of Movement. London: Oxford University Press. 144 pp.

661. Denny-Brown DE. 1962b. Clinical symptomology in right and left hemispheric lesions, discussion. In Interhemispheric Relations and Cerebral Dominance, ed. VB Montcastle, pp. 244-52. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press

662. Denny-Brown DE. 1963. Behavioural effects of dorsal column lesions. Transactions of the American Neurological Association 88: 95-98

663. Denny-Brown DE. 1966a. The Cerebral Control of Movement. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press. 222 pp.

664. Denny-Brown DE, Banker BQ. 1954. Amorphosynthesis from left parietal lesion. A.M.A. Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry 71: 302-13

665. Denny-Brown DE, Botterell EH. 1947. The motor functions of the agranular frontal cortex. In The Frontal Lobes, pp. 235-345: A.R.N.M.D.

666. Denny-Brown DE, Gilman S. 1966b. Dystonic posture in relation to various levels of decerebration. Transactions of the American Neurological Association 91: 69-70

667. Denny-Brown DE, Gilman S, Van Der Muelen JP. 1964. Patterns of cortical ablations leading to dystonic postures. Transactions of the American Neurological Association 89: 119-21

668. Denny-Brown DE, Kirk EJ. 1967. Hyperesthesia from spinal and root lesions. Transactions of the American Neurological Association 93: 116-20

669. Denny-Brown DE, Meyer JS, Horenstein S. 1952. The significance of perceptual rivalry resulting from parietal lesions. Brain 75: 432-71

670. Denny-Brown DE, Robertson EG. 1933a. On the physiology of micturition. Brain 56: 149-90

671. Denny-Brown DE, Robertson EG. 1933b. The state of the bladder and its sphincters in complex transverse lesions of the spinal cord and cauda equina. Brain 56: 397-463

672. Denny-Brown DE, Roche AE. 1936-1937. The frequency of micturition in the adult. The Transactions of the Hunterian Society 

673. Denny-Brown DE, Russell WR. 1940. Experimental cerebral concussion. The Journal of Physiology 99: 153

674. Denny-Brown DE, Russell WR. 1941b. Proceedings of the Physiological Society: March 26 and 27, 1941: Traumatic shock in experimental cerebral concussion. The Journal of Physiology 99: 6P-7P

675. Denny-Brown DE, Russell WR. 1941c. Experimental cerebral concussion. Brain 64: 93-164

676. Denny-Brown DE, Twitchell TE, Saenz-Arroyo L. 1949a. The nature of spasticity resulting from cerebral lesions. Transactions of the American Neurological Association 14: 108-13

677. Denny-Brown DE, Yanagisawa N. 1971. The evolution of spastic paraplegia following cortical ablation in infant monkeys. Transactions of the American Neurological Association 96: 169-72

678. Derrick EH. 1937. "Q" fever. A new fever entity: Clinical features, diagnosis, and laboratory investigation. The Medical Journal of Australia 2: 281-89

679. Derrick EH. 1939. Rickettsia burneti: the cause of "Q" fever. The Medical Journal of Australia 1: 14-20

680. di Cesnola Ar, von Löwenstern B. 1964. Gli scavi dell'Instituto Italiano di preistoria e protostoria nel Salento durante l'ultimo triennio [The excavations of the Institute of Italian prehistory and early history in the Salento during the last three years]. Atti della VIII e IX Riunioni Scientifiche IIPP, Firenze: 27-44

681. Di Guglielmo G. 1926. Eritremie acute [ Acute erythremia]. Bollettino della Societa Medico Chirurgica di Pavia 1: 665-73

682. Diamant H, Funakoshi M, Strom I, Zotterman Y. 1963. Electro-physiological studies on human taste nerves. In Olfaction and Taste, ed. Y Zotterman, pp. 193-203. New York Macmillan Co.

683. Diamond LK. 1944. Progress Report to Committee on Medical Research of the Office of Scientific Research and Development

684. Dick S, Raper JR. 1961. Origin of expressed mutations in Schizophyllum commune. Nature 189: 81-82

685. Dick-Read G. 1944. Childbirth Without Fear; The Principles and Practice of Natural Childbirth. New York: Harper & Brothers. 259 pp.

686. Dickens F. 1936. Mechanism of carbohydrate oxidation. Nature 138: 1057

687. Dickens F. 1938. Oxidation of phosphohexonate and pentose phosphoric acids by yeast enzymes. Biochemical Journal 32: 1626-44

688. Dickens F, Glock GE. 1951. Direct oxidation of glucose-6-phosphate, 6-phosphogluconate and pentose-5-phosphate by enzymes of animal origin. Biochemical Journal 50: 81-95

689. Diels OPH, Gädke W. 1927a. Über die bildung von chrysen bei der dehydrierung des cholesterins. Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft 60: 140-

690. Diels OPH, Karstens A. 1927b. Über dehydrierungen mit selen (II. Miteil). Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft 

691. Digby K, Hupka MA, Wolff J. 1671. Eröffnung Unterschiedlicher Heimlichkeiten der Natur [Different Opening Secrets of Nature]. Frankfurt: Wust. 132 pp.

692. Diggs LW, Ahmann CF, Bibb J. 1933. The incidence and significance of the sickle cell trait. Annals of Internal Medicine 7: 769-78

693. Dill DB. 1938. Life, Heat and Altitude: Physiological Effects of Hot Climates and Great Heights. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. 211 pp.

694. Diller WF. 1934. Autogamy in a Paramecium aurelia. Science 79: 57

695. Dingle JH, Thomas L, Morton AR. 1941. Treatment of meningococcic meningitis and meningococcemia with sulfadiazine. Journal of the American Medical Association 116: 2666-68

696. Dische Z. 1940. Sur l'interdépendance des divers enzymes du système glycolytique et sur la régulation automatique de leur activité dans les cellules. 1. Inhibition de la phosphorylation du glucose dans les hèmaties par les acides mono- et diphosphoglycérique; état de l'acide diphosphoglycérique et phosphorylation du glucose [On some mechanisms of interdependence of partial enzymes of the glycolytic system and the self-regulation of their action. 1. Inhibition of the phosphorylation of glucose by mono- and di-phosphoglyceric acid and the combined state of the latter in the blood]. Bulletin de la Société Chimie Biologique 23: 1140-48

697. Dobell C. 1928-1938. Researches on the intestinal Protozoa of monkeys and man. Parasitology 20, 21, 23, 25, 28, 30: 357-412, 46-68, 1-72, 36-67, 541-93, 195-238

698. Dobell C, Bishop A. 1929. Researches on the intestinal protozoa of monkeys and man. Parasitology 21: 446-68

699. Dobrovolskaia-Zavadskaia N. 1927. Sur la mortification spontance de la queue chez la souris nouveau-nee et sur la existence d'un caractere (facteur hereditaire) non-viable [On spontanceous mortification of the tail in the newborn mice and the existence of a non-viable character (hereditary factors)]. Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances et Memoires de la Societe de Biologie et des ses Filiales 97: 114-19

700. Dobrovolskaia-Zavadskaia N, Kobozieff N. 1932. Les souris anoures et la queue filiforme qui se reproduisent entres elles sans disjunction [Anurans and filiform tail mice that breed among themselves without disjunction]. Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances et Memoires de la Societe de Biologie et des ses Filiales et Associees 110: 782-84

701. Dobzhansky TG. 1929a. Genetical and cytological proof of translocations involving the third and fourth chromosomes of Drosophila melanogaster. Biologisches Zentralblatt 49: 408-19

702. Dobzhansky TG. 1929b. A homozygous translocation in Drosophila melanogaster. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 15: 633-38

703. Dobzhansky TG. 1937. Genetics and the Origin of Species. New York: Columbia University Press. 364 pp.

704. Dobzhansky TG, Sturtevant AH. 1938. Inversions in the chromosomes of Drosophila pseudoobscura. Genetics 23: 28-64

705. Dodds EC. 1938. Significance of synthetic estrogens. Acta Medica Scandinavica Supp. 90: 141-45

706. Dodds EC. 1953. Relation of stilboestrol to naturally occurring substances. Acta Physiologica Latino Americana 3: 89-90

707. Dodge BO. 1927. Nuclear phenomena associated with heterothallism and homothallism in the Ascomycete Neurospora. Journal of Agricultural Research 35: 289-305

708. Dodge BO. 1939. Some problems in the genetics of fungi. Science 90: 379-85

709. Dodrill FD, Hill E, Gerisch RA. 1952a. Temporary mechanical substitute for the left ventricle in man. Journal of the American Medical Association 150: 642-44

710. Dodrill FD, Hill E, Gerisch RA. 1952b. Some physiologic aspects of the artificial heart problem. The Journal of Thoracic Surgery 24: 134-50

711. Doe CQ, Goodman CS. 1985. Early events in insect neurogenesis. II. The role of cell interactions and cell lineage in the determination of neuronal precursor cells. Developmental Biology 111: 206-19

712. Doerr HW, Hallauer C, eds. 1938. Handbuch der Virusforschung [Manual for Virus Research]. Vienna: Springer

713. Doisy EA, Thayer SA, Veler CD. 1930. The preparation of the crystalline ovarian hormone from the urine of pregnant women. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 86: 499-509

714. Dolby DE, Nunn LCA, Smedley-MacLean I. 1940. The constitution of arachidonic acid (preliminary communication). Biochemical Journal 34: 1422-26

715. Domagk GJ. 1935a. Ein beitrag zur chemotherapie der bakteriellen infektionen [A contribution to the chemotherapy of bacterial infections]. Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift 61: 250-53

716. Domagk GJ. 1935b. Eine neue klasse von desinfectionsmitteln [A new class of desinfection agents]. Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift 61: 829-32

717. Doolittle SP, Jones LR. 1925. The mosaic disease in the garden pea and other legumes. Phytopathology 15: 763-72

718. Dorfman A, Berkman S, Koser SA. 1942a. Pantothenic acid in the metabolism of Proteus morganii. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 144: 393-400

719. Dorner RW, Kahn A, Wildman SG. 1957. The proteins of green leaves. VII. Synthesis and decay of the cytoplasmic proteins during the life of a tobacco leaf. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 229: 945-52

720. Dott NM. 1933. Intracranial aneurysms: cerebral arterioradiography: surgical treatment. Edinburgh Medical Journal 40: 219-34

721. Dotter CT, Frische LH. 1958. Visualization of the coronary circulation by occlusion aortography: a practical method. Radiology 71: 503-23

722. Doudoroff M. 1938. Lactoflavin and bacterial luminescence. Enzymologia 5: 239-43

723. Doudoroff M. 1945. On the utilization of raffinose by Pseudomonas saccharophilia. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 157: 699-706

724. Doudoroff M. 1951. The problem of the direct utilization of disaccharides by certain microorganisms. In Phosphorus Metabolism, ed. WD McElroy, HB Glass, pp. 42-48. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University press

725. Doudoroff M, Barker HA, Hassid WZ. 1947. Studies with bacterial sucrose phosphorylase. I. The mechanism of action of sucrose phosphorylase as a glucose transferring enzyme (transglucosidase). The Journal of Biological Chemistry 168: 725-32

726. Doudoroff M, Kaplan NO, Hassid WZ. 1943. Phosphorolysis and synthesis of sucrose with a bacterial preparation. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 148: 67-75

727. Dougherty EC. 1957. Neologism needed for structures of primitive organisms. 1. Types of nuclei. The Journal of Protozoology 4: 14

728. Douglass AE. 1928. Climatic Cycles and Tree Growth. Volume II, A study of the annual rings of trees in relation to climate and solar activity. Washington: Carnegie Institution. 166 pp.

729. Doull JA. 1954. Clinical evaluation studies in lepromatous leprosy: First series: Diasone (Diamidin), 4-4' diaminodiphenyl sulfone, dihydrostreptomycin. International Journal of Leprosy and Other Mycobacterial Diseases 22: 377-402

730. Dowling JE, Wald G. 1958. Vitamin A deficiency and night blindness. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 44: 648-61

731. Dowson WJ. 1939. On the systematic position and generic names of the gram negative bacterial pathogens. Zentralblatt Bakteriologie Parasitenkunde Abt. II 100: 177-93

732. Drechsler C. 1937. Some hyphomycetes that prey on free-living terriculous nematodes. Mycologia 29: 447-552

733. Drinker P, McKhann CF. 1929. The use of a new apparatus for the prolonged administration of artificial respiration. Part I: A fatal case of poliomyelitis. Journal of the American Medical Association 92: 1658-60

734. Drury DR. 1940. The role of insulin in carbohydrate metabolism. The American Journal of Physiology 131: 536-43

735. Drury DR, McMaster PD. 1929. The liver as a source of fibrinogen. The Journal of Experimental Medicine 50: 569-78

736. du Toit AL. 1937. Our Wandering Continents: An Hypothesis of Continental Drifting. Edinburgh, London: Oliver and Boyd. 366 pp.

737. du Toit AL, Reed FRC. 1927. A Geological Comparison of South America and South Africa. Washington, D.C.: Carneigie Institution of Washington. 158 pp.

738. du Vigneaud V. 1942a. The structure of biotin. Science 96: 455-61

739. du Vigneaud V, Chandler JP, Cohn M, Brown GB. 1940. The transfer of the methyl group from methionine to choline and creatine. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 134: 787-88

740. du Vigneaud V, Chandler JP, Moyer AW, Keppel DM. 1939. The effect of choline on the ability of homocystine to replace methionine in the diet. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 131: 57-76

741. du Vigneaud V, Hofmann K, Melville DB. 1942b. On the structure of biotin. Journal of the American Chemical Society 64: 188-89

742. du Vigneaud V, Kilmer GW, Rachele JR, Cohn M. 1944. On the mechanism of the conversion in vivo of methionine to cystine. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 155: 645-51

743. Dubos RJ. 1939a. Studies on a bactericidal agent extracted from a soil bacillus. II. Protective effect of the bactericidal agent against experimental pneumococcus infections in mice. The Journal of Experimental Medicine 70: 11-17

744. Dubos RJ. 1939b. Bactericidal effect of an extract of a soil bacillus on Gram-positive cocci. Experimental Biology and Medicine 40: 311-12

745. Dubos RJ, Avery OT. 1931. Decomposition of the capsular polysaccharide of pneumonococcus type III by a bacterial enzyme. The Journal of Experimental Medicine 54: 51-71

746. Dubos RJ, Hotchkiss RD. 1941. The production of bactericidal substances by aerobic sporulating bacilli. The Journal of Experimental Medicine 73: 629-40

747. Dufy B, Dufy-Barbe L, Poulain D. 1974. Gonadotropin release in relation to electrical activity in hypothalamic neurons. Journal of Neural Transmission 35: 47-52

748. Duguid JP. 1946. Sensitivity of bacteria to the action of penicillin. Edinburgh Medical Journal 53: 401-12

749. Duke HL, Wallace JM. 1930. "Red-cell adhesion" in trypanosomiasis of man and animals. Parasitology 22: 414-56

750. Dumke PR, Schmidt CF. 1943. Quantitative measurements of cerebral blood flow in the macaque monkey. The American Journal of Physiology 138: 421-31

751. Dussik KT. 1942. On the possibility of using ultrasound waves as a diagnostic aid. Zeitschrift für die Gesamte Neurologie und Psychiatrie 174: 153-68

752. Dutky SR. 1942. Method for the preparation of spore-dust mixtures of type A milky disease of Japanese beetle larvae for field inoculation ET-192. United States Department of Agriculture Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine 

753. Dutton HJ, Manning WM. 1941. Evidence for carotenoid-sensitized photosynthesis in the diatom Nitzschia closterium. American Journal of Botany 28: 516-26

754. Dutton HJ, Manning WM, Duggar BM. 1943. Chlorophyll fluorescence and energy transfer in diatom Nitzschia closterium. The Journal of Physical Chemistry 47: 308-13

755. Dyar MT, Ordal EJ. 1946. Electrokinetic studies of bacterial surfaces: I. The effects of surface-active agents on the electrophoretic mobilities of bacteria. Journal of Bacteriology 51: 149-67

756. Eakin RE, McKinley WA, Williams RJ. 1940b. Egg white injury inchicks and its relationship to a deficiency of vitamin H (biotin). Science 92: 224-25

757. Eakin RE, Snell EE, Williams RJ. 1940a. A constituent of raw egg white capable of inactivating biotin in vitro. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 136: 801-02

758. Eakin RE, Snell EE, Williams RJ. 1941. The concentration and assay of avidin, the injury-producing protein in raw egg white. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 140: 535-43

759. Earle WR. 1943a. Changes induced in a strain of fibroblasts from a strain C3H mouse by the action of 20-methylcholanthrene. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 3: 555-58

760. Earle WR. 1944. A summary of certain data on the production of malignancy in vitro. In American Association for the Advancement of Science Research Conference on Cancer, ed. FR Moulton, pp. 139-53. Gibson Island, MD: American Association for the Advancement of Science

761. Earle WR, Nettleslip A. 1943c. Production of malignancy in vitro. V. Results of injections of cultures into mice. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 4: 213-28

762. Earle WR, Schilling EL, Stark TH, Straus NP, Brown MF, Shelton E. 1943b. Production of malignancy in vitro. IV. The mouse fibroblast cultures and changes seen in the living cells. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 4: 165-212

763. Earle WR, Shelton E, Schilling EL. 1950. Production of malignancy in vitro. XI. Further results from reinjection of in vitro cell strains into strain C3H mice. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 10: 1105-13

764. East EM, Mangelsdorf AJ. 1925. A new interpretation of the hereditary behaviour of self-sterile plants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 11: 166-71

765. Ebashi S. 1961. Calcium binding activity of vesicular relaxing factor. Journal de Chirurgie 50: 236-44

766. Ebashi S. 1963. Third component participating in the super precipitation of 'natural actomyosin'. Nature 200: 1010

767. Ebashi S, Ebashi F. 1964. A new protein component participating in the superprecipitation of myosin B. Journal of Biochemistry (Tokyo) 55: 604-13

768. Ebashi S, Endo M. 1968a. Calcium ion and muscle contraction. Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology 18: 123-83

769. Ebashi S, Endo M, Ohtsuki I. 1969. Control of muscle contraction. Quarterly Review of Biophysics 2: 351-84

770. Ebashi S, Kodama A. 1966. Native tropomyosin-like action of troponin on trypsin-treated myosin B. Journal of Biochemistry (Tokyo) 60: 733-34

771. Ebashi S, Kodama A, Ebashi F. 1968b. Troponin. I. Preparation and physiological function. Journal of Biochemistry (Tokyo) 64: 465-77

772. Ebashi S, Wakabayashi T, Ebashi F. 1971. Troponin and its components. Journal of Biochemistry (Tokyo) 69: 441-45

773. Eccles JC. 1931c. Studies on the flexor reflex. III.The central effects produced by an antidromic volley. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B, Containing Papers of a Biological Character 107: 557-85

774. Eccles JC, Sherrington CS. 1930a. Reflex summation in the ipsilateral spinal flexion reflex. The Journal of Physiology 69: 1-28

775. Eccles JC, Sherrington CS. 1930b. Proceedings of the Physiological Society: July 5, 1930: Flexor reflex responses to successive afferent volleys. The Journal of Physiology 70: xxv-xxvii

776. Eccles JC, Sherrington CS. 1931a. Studies on the flexor reflex. I.Latent period. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B, Containing Papers of a Biological Character 107: 511-34

777. Eccles JC, Sherrington CS. 1931b. Studies on the flexor reflex. II.The reflex evoked by two afferent volleys. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B, Containing Papers of a Biological Character 107: 535-56

778. Eccles JC, Sherrington CS. 1931d. Studies on the flexor reflex. IV. After-discharge. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B, Containing Papers of a Biological Character 107: 586-96

779. Eccles JC, Sherrington CS. 1931e. Studies on the flexor reflex. V. General conclusions. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B, Containing Papers of a Biological Character 107: 597-605

780. Eddy BE. 1944a. Nomenclature of pneumococcic types. Public Health Reports 59: 449-68

781. Eddy BE. 1944b. Cross reactions between the several pneumococcic types and their significance in the preparation of polyvalent antiserum. Public Health Reports 59: 485-99

782. Edinger JGO. 1929. Die Fossilen Gehirne [Fossil Brains]. Berlin: J. Springer. 249 pp.

783. Edinger JGO. 1948. The Evolution of the Horse Brain. New York: Geological Society of America. 177 pp.

784. Edsall JT. 1930. Studies in the physical chemistry of muscle globulin. II. On some physiochemical properties of muscle globulin (Myosin). The Journal of Biological Chemistry 89: 289-313

785. Edsall JT. 1936. Raman spectra of amino acids and related compounds. I. The ionization of the carboxyl group. The Journal of Chemical Physics 4: 1-8

786. Edsall JT. 1937a. Raman spectra of amino acids and related compounds. II. Guanidine and urea derivatives. The Journal of Physical Chemistry 41: 133-41

787. Edsall JT. 1937b. Raman spectra of amino acids and related compounds III. Ionization and methylation of the amino group. The Journal of Chemical Physics 5: 225-37

788. Edwards D. 1979a. A Late Silurian flora from the Lower Old Red Sandstone of south-west Dyfed. Palaeontology 22: 23-52

789. Edwards D, Rogerson ECW. 1979b. New records of fertile Rhyniophytina from the Late Silurian of Wales. Geological Magazine 116: 93-98

790. Effler DB, Favaloro RG, Groves LK. 1970. Coronary artery surgery utilizing saphenous vein graft techniques. Clinical experience with 224 operations. The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 59: 147-54

791. Egas Moniz ACAFD. 1931. Diagnostic des Tumeurs Cérébrales et Épreuve de l'Éncéphalographie Artérielle [Diagnostics of Cerebral Tumours and Application of Arterial Encephalography]. Paris: Masson et cie. 512 pp.

792. Egas Moniz ACAFD. 1934. L'Angiographie Cérébrale, ses Applications et Résultats en Anatomie, Physiologie et Clinique [The Cerebral Angiography, its applications and results in Clinical Anatomy and Physiology]. Paris: Masson et Cie. 328 pp.

793. Egas Moniz ACAFD. 1936a. Essai d'un traitment chirurgical de certaines psychoses [Test surgical treatement for certain psychoses]. Bulletin de l'Academie de Médecine 115: 385-92

794. Egas Moniz ACAFD. 1936b. Essai d'un Traitement Chirurgical de Certaines Psychoses [Testing Surgical Treatment for Some Psychoses]. Paris: Masson. 8 pp.

795. Eggleton P, Eggleton MGP. 1927. The physiological significance of "phosphagen". The Journal of Physiology 63: 155-61

796. Ehrlich J, Bartz QR, Smith RM, Joslyn DA, Burkholder PR. 1947. Chloromycetin, a new antibiotic from a soil actinomycete. Science 106: 417

797. Ehrlich J, Gottlieb D, Burkholder PR, Anderson LE, Pridham TG. 1948. Streptomyces Venezuelae, n. sp., the source of chloromycetin. Journal of Bacteriology 56: 467-77

798. Ehrmann RL, Knoth M. 1968. Choriocarcinoma. Transfilter stimulation of vasoproliferation in the hamster cheek pouch. Studied by light and electron microscopy. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 41: 1329-41

799. Eichholtz F, Butzengeiger O. 1927. Über rektale narkose mit Avertin (E 107) [About rectal anesthesia with Avertin ( E 107 )]. Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift 53: 710-112

800. Einarson L. 1933. Notes on the morphology of the chromophil material of nerve cells and its relations to nuclear substances. The American Journal of Anatomy 53: 141-75

801. Einstein A. 1929. What life means to Einstein. In Saturday Evening Post

802. Einstein A. 1930. What I believe. Forum 

803. Einstein A. 1931. Address, California Institute of Technology. London: The Times (London)

804. Elbe L, Harthern E. 1933. Man into Woman : An Authentic Record of a Change of Sex. London: Jarrold Publ. 287 pp.

805. Elema B. 1933. Oxidation-reduction potentials of chlororaphine. Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas 52: 569-83

806. Elford WJ. 1931. A new series of graded colloidal membranes suitable for general bacteriological use, especially in filterable virus studies. The Journal of Pathology and Bacteriology 34: 505-21

807. Elford WJ, Andrewes CH. 1932. The sizes of different bacteriophages. British Journal of Experimental Pathology 13: 446-56

808. Ellingboe AH, Raper JR. 1962. The Buller phenomenon in Schizophyllum commune: Nuclear selection in fully compatible dikaryotic-homokaryotic matings. American Journal of Botany 49: 454-59

809. Ellingboe AH, Raper JR. 1962. Somatic recombination in Schizophyllum commune. Genetics 47: 85-98

810. Elliott AJ. 1936. A preliminary report of a new method of blood transfusion. The Southern Medical and Surgical Journal 98: 643-45

811. Elliott AJ, Nesset NM. 1940a. A report on the use of a perfected evacuated unit for blood transfusion. The Southern Medical and Surgical Journal 102: 303-05

812. Elliott AJ, Tatum WL, Nesset NM. 1940b. The use of plasma as a substitute for whole blood. North Carolina Medical Journal 1: 283-89

813. Elliott SD. 1950. The crystallization and serological differentiation of a streptococcal proteinase and its precursor. The Journal of Experimental Medicine 92: 201-18

814. Elliott WB, Kalnitsky G. 1950. The oxidation of acetate. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 186: 477-86

815. Ellis EL, Delbrück MLH. 1939. The growth of bacteriophage. The Journal of General Physiology 22: 365-84

816. Elmquist R, Senning A. 1960. An implantable pacemaker for the heart In Medical Electronics : Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Medical Electronics, Paris, 24-27 June 1959, ed. CN Smyth, pp. 614. Paris: Iliffe & Sons

Charles C Thomas

817. Elschnig A. 1930. Keratoplasty. Archives of Ophthalmology 4: 165-73

818. Elton CS. 1927. Animal Ecology. London: Sedgwick and Jackson. 207 pp.

819. Elton CS. 1942. Voles, Mice and Lemmings; Problems in Population Dynamics. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 496 pp.

820. Elvehjem CA, Madden RJ, Strong FM, Woolley DW. 1937a. Relation of nicotinic acid and nicotinic acid amide to canine black tongue. Journal of the American Chemical Society 59: 1767-68

821. Elvehjem CA, Madden RJ, Strong FM, Woolley DW. 1937b. Relation of nicotinic acid and nicotinic acid amide to canine black tongue. Journal of the American Chemical Society 59: 1767-68

822. Elvehjem CA, Madden RJ, Strong FM, Woolley DW. 1938. The isolation and identification of the anti-black tongue factor. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 123: 137-49

823. Embden GG, Deuticke H-J, Kraft G. 1933. Über die intermediären vorgänge bei der glykolyse in der muskulatur [About the intermediate processes involved in glycolysis in the muscles]. Klinische Wochenschrift 12: 213-15

824. Emerson AE. 1937. Termite nests—a study of the phylogeny of behavior. Science 85: 56(A)

825. Emerson R, Arnold WA. 1932a. A separation of the reactions in photosynthesis by means of intermittent light. The Journal of General Physiology 15: 391-420

826. Emerson R, Arnold WA. 1932b. The photochemical reaction in photosynthesis. The Journal of General Physiology 16: 191-205

827. Emerson R, Lewis CM. 1941. Carbon dioxide exchange and the measurement of the quantum yield of photosynthesis. American Journal of Botany 28: 789-804

828. Emerson R, Lewis CM. 1942. The photosynthetic efficiency of phycocyanin in Chroococus and the problem of carotenoid participation in photosynthesis. The Journal of General Physiology 25: 579-95

829. Emerson R, Lewis CM. 1943. The dependence of the quantum yield of Chlorella photosynthesis on wavelength of light. American Journal of Botany 30: 165-78

830. Emerson SH. 1938. The genetics of self-incompatibility in Oenothera organensis. Genetics 23: 190-202

831. Emerson SH, Beadle GW. 1933. Crossing over near the spindle fiber in attached-X chromosomes of Drosophila melanogaster. Zeitschrift für Induktive Abstammungs- und Vererbungslehre 65: 129-40

832. Emmart EW. 1947. A new tuberculostatic antibiotic from a species of Nocardia. A preliminary report. American Review of Tuberculosis 56: 316

833. Emmons CW. 1934. Dermatophytes: natural groupings based on the form of the spores and accessory organs. Archiv für Dermatologie und Syphilis 30: 337-62

834. Emmons CW, Hollaender A. 1939. The action of ultraviolet radiation on dermatophytes: II. Mutations induced in cultures of dermatophytes by exposure of spores to monochromatic ultraviolet radiation. American Journal of Botany 26: 467-75

835. Enders JF. 1947. A review of some recently defined virus diseases. The New England Journal of Medicine 237: 897-900

836. Enders JF. 1952. Poliomyelitis. In Second International Poliomyelitis Conference. Philadelphia: Lippincott Co.

837. Enders JF, Peebles TC. 1954. Propagation in tissue cultures of cytopathogenic agents from patients with measles. Experimental Biology and Medicine 86: 277-86

838. Enders JF, Weller TH, Robbins FC. 1949. Cultivation of the Lansing strain of poliomyelitis virus in cultures of various human embryonic tissues. Science 109: 85-87

839. Engelhardt VA. 1930. Ortho- und pyrophosphat im aeroben und anaeroben stoffwechsel der blutzellen [Ortho and pyrophosphate in the aerobic and anaerobic metabolism of blood cells]. Biochemische Zeitschrift 227: 16-38

840. Engelhardt VA. 1932. Die beziehungen zwischen atmung und pyrophosphatumsatz in vogelerythrocyten [The relationships between respiration and pyrophosphatumsatz in bird erythrocytes]. Biochemische Zeitschrift 251: 343-68

841. Engelhardt VA, Barkash AP. 1938. Oxidative breakdown of phosphogluconic acid. Biokhimiya 3: 500-21

842. Engelhardt VA, Liubimova MN. 1939. Myosine and adenosinetriphosphatase. Nature 144: 668-69

843. Ephrussi B. 1942. Chemistry of "eye-color hormones" of Drosophila. The Quarterly Review of Biology 17: 327-38

844. Ephrussi B, Beadle GW. 1935. La transplantation des disques imaginaux chez la Drosophile [Transplantation of imaginal discs in Drosophila]. Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances de l'Academie des Sciences, Paris 201: 98-100

845. Epstein LA, Chain EB. 1940. Some observations on the preparation and properties of the substrate of lysozyme. British Journal of Experimental Pathology 21: 339-55

846. Ernst RR, Primas H. 1963. Nuclear magnetic resonance with stochastic high-frequency fields. Helvetica Physica Acta 36: 583-600

847. Eubanks LM, Rogers CJ, Beuscher AE, IV, Koob GF, Olson AJ, et al. 2006. A molecular link between the active component of marijuana and alzheimer's disease pathology. Molecular Pharmaceutics 3: 773-77

848. Evans AC. 1934. Streptococcus bacteriophage: A study of four serological types. Public Health Reports 49: 1386-401

849. Evans AcbT, G.G.]. 1934. Discussion on recent advances in the treatment of carcinoma of the esophagus from the surgical and radiological aspects. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine 27: 355-65

850. Evans HM. 1934. Exhibition of First Editions of Epochal Achievements in the History of Science. Berkeley: University of California Press. 48 pp.

851. Evans HM, Emerson OH, Emerson GA. 1936. The isolation from wheat germ oil of an alcohol, alpha-tocopherol, having the properties of vitamin E. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 113: 319-32

852. Evans HM, Simpson ME. 1929. Hyperplasia of mammary apparatus in precocious maturity induced by anterior hypophyseal hormone. Experimental Biology and Medicine 26: 598

853. Everett AJ, Lowe LA, Wilkinson S. 1970. Revision of the structures of (+)-tubocurarine chloride and (+)-chondrocurine. Journal of the Chemical Society D: Chemical Communications 16: 1020-21

854. Eyring H, Stearn AE. 1939. The application of the theory of absolute reaction rates to proteins. Chemical Reviews 24: 253-70

855. Faget GH. 1942. Symposium on tropical medicine IV. The story of leprosy in the United States. Bulletin of the Medical Library Association 30: 349-60

856. Faget GH, Johansen FA, Ross H. 1942. Sulfanilamide in the treatment of leprosy. Public Health Reports 57: 1892-99

857. Faget GH, Pogge RC, Johansen FA, Dinan JF, Prejean BM, Eccles CG. 1943. The promin treatment of leprosy. Public Health Reports 58: 1729-36

858. Faget GH, Pogge RC, Johansen FA, Dinan JF, Prejean BM, Eccles CG. 1966. The promin treatment of leprosy. A progress report. International Journal of Leprosy and Other Mycobacterial Diseases 34: 298-310

859. Fanconi G. 1927. Familiare, infantile perniciosähnliche anämie (perniziöses blutbild und konstitution) [Familial infantile pernicious-like anemia (pernicious blood picture and constitution)]. Jahrbuch für Kinderheilkunde und Physische Erziehung 117: 257-80

860. Fanconi G, Uehlinger E, Knauer C. 1936. Das coeliakiesyndrom bei angeborener zystischer pankreasfibromatose und bronchiektasien [The celiac disease syndrome in congenital cystic pancreatic fibromatosis and bronchiectasis]. Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift 86: 753-56

861. Farkas A, Aman J. 1940. The action of diphenyl on Penicillium and Diplodia moulds. Palestine Journal of Botany. Jerusalem series Ser. 2: 38-45

862. Fasciolo JC, Houssay BA, Taquini AC. 1938. The blood-pressure raising secretion of the ischaemic kidney. The Journal of Physiology 94: 281-93

863. Favaloro RG, Effler DB, Cheanvechai C, Quint RA, Sones FM, Jr. 1971. Acute coronary insufficiency (impending acute myocardial infarction and myocardial infarction): surgical treatment by the saphenous vein graft technique. The American Journal of Cardiology 28: 598-607

864. Feldberg WS, Fessard A. 1942. The cholinergic nature of the nerves to the electric organ of the torpedo (Torpedo marmorata). The Journal of Physiology 100: 200-16

865. Feldberg WS, Kellaway CH. 1938. Liberation of histamine and formation of lysocithin-like substance by cobra venom. The Journal of Physiology 94: 187-226

866. Feldberg WS, Krayer OH. 1933. Das auftreten eines azetylcholinartigen stoffes im herzvenenblut von warmblutern bei reizung der nervi vagi [The occurrence of an acetylcholine-like substance in cardiac vein blood of a warm blooded case with irritation of the vagus nerve]. Archiv für Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie 172: 170-93

867. Feldman WH, Hinshaw HC. 1944. Effects of streptomycin on experimental tuberculosis in guinea pigs. A preliminary report. Proceedings of the Staff Meetings of the Mayo Clinic 19: 593-99

868. Felix A, Pitt MR. 1934. A new antigen of B. typhosus: Its relation to virulence and to active and passive immunisation. The Lancet 224: 186-91

869. Fenn WO. 1927. The gas exchange of nerve during stimulation. The American Journal of Physiology 80: 327-46

870. Fenn WO. 1936b. Electrolytes in muscle. Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology 4: 252-59

871. Fenn WO. 1936c. Electrolytes in muscle. Physiological Reviews 16: 450-87

872. Fenn WO. 1937a. Loss of potassium in voluntary contraction. The American Journal of Physiology 120: 675-80

873. Fenn WO. 1937b. Loss of potassium from stimulated frog muscle. Experimental Biology and Medicine 37: 71-74

874. Fenn WO. 1938b. Factors affecting the loss of potassium from stimulated muscles. The American Journal of Physiology 124: 213-29

875. Fenn WO. 1938c. The potassium and water contents of cat nerves as affected by stimulation. Journal of Neurophysiology 1: 1-3

876. Fenn WO. 1939a. The fate of potassium liberated from muscles during activity. The American Journal of Physiology 127: 356-73

877. Fenn WO. 1939b. The deposition of potassium and phosphate with glycogen in rat livers. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 128: 297-307

878. Fenn WO. 1940. The role of potassium in physiological processes. Physiological Reviews 20: 377-415

879. Fenn WO, Cobb DM. 1934c. The potassium equilibrium in muscle. The Journal of General Physiology 17: 629-56

880. Fenn WO, Cobb DM. 1935. Evidence for a potassium shift from plasma to muscles in response to an increased carbon dioxide tension. The American Journal of Physiology 112: 41-55

881. Fenn WO, Cobb DM. 1936a. Electrolyte changes in muscle during activity. The American Journal of Physiology 115: 345-56

882. Fenn WO, Cobb DM, Hegnauer AH, Marsh BS. 1934a. Electrolytes in nerve. The American Journal of Physiology 110: 74-96

883. Fenn WO, Cobb DM, Manery JF, Bloor WR. 1938a. Electrolyte changes in cat muscle during stimulation. The American Journal of Physiology 121: 595-608

884. Fenn WO, Cobb DM, Marsh BS. 1934b. Sodium and chloride in frog muscle. The American Journal of Physiology 110: 261-72

885. Fenn WO, Haege LF. 1942. The penetration of magnesium into frog muscle. Journal of Cellular and Comparative Physiology 19: 37-46

886. Fenn WO, Rahn H, Otis AB. 1946. A theoretical study of the composition of the alveolar air at altitude. The American Journal of Physiology 146: 637-53

887. Ferguson WW, Lewis AH, Watson SJ. 1938. Action of molybdenum in nutrition of milking cows. Nature 141: 553

888. Fermi G, Perutz MF, Shaanan B, Fourme R. 1984. The crystal structure of human deoxyhaemoglobin at 1.74 Å resolution. Journal of Molecular Biology 175: 159-74

889. Fernald ML. 1925. Persistence of plants in unglaciated areas of boreal America. Memoirs of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 15: 239-342

890. Fernholz ER. 1938. On the constitution of alpha-tocopherol. Journal of the American Chemical Society 60: 700-05

891. Ferro C, Boshell J, Moncayo AC, Gonzalez M, Ahumada ML, et al. 2003. Natural enzootic vectors of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, Magdalena Valley, Colombia. Emerging Infectious Diseases 9: 49-54

892. Feuer G, Molnár F, Pettkó E, Straub FB. 1948. Studies on the composition and polymerization of actin. Hungarica Acta Physiologica 1: 150-63

893. Fevold HL, Hisaw FL, Leonard SL. 1931. The gonad stimulating and the luteinizing hormones of the anterior lobe of the hypophysis. The American Journal of Physiology 97: 291-301

894. Fiandra O. 1988. The first pacemaker implant in America. Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology : PACE 11: 1234-38

895. Fibiger JAG. 1914. Contributions to the biology and morphology of Spiroptera (Gongylonema) neoplastica n. sp. Mindeskrift for Japetus Steenstrup 25: 1-28

896. Figgins JD. 1933. A Further Contribution to the Antiquity of Man in America. Proceedings of the Colorado Museum of Natural History 12: 4-8

897. Finland M, Strauss E, Peterson OL. 1941. Sulfadiazine. Therapeutic evaluation and toxic effects on four hundred and forty-six patients. Journal of the American Medical Association 116: 2641-47

898. Fischer FG, Löwenberg K. 1928. Die konstitution des phytols [The constitution of phytol]. Justus Liebigs Annalen der Chemie 464: 69-90

899. Fischer FG, Löwenberg K. 1929. Die synthese des phytols [The synthesis of phytols]. Justus Liebigs Annalen der Chemie 475: 183-204

900. Fischer H, Hess R. 1931. Über neo-xanthone obilirubins und partial-synthese des mesobilirubins und mesobilirubin organs urobilinogens [About neo-xanthones obilirubins and partial synthesis of mesobilirubins and mesobilirubin organs urobilinogen]. Hoppe-Seyler's Zeitschrift für Physiologische Chemie 194: 193

901. Fischer H, Plieninger H. 1942. Synthese des bilverdins (uteroverdins) und bilirubins, der biliverdine XIII alpha und III alpha, sowie der vinylneoxanthosäure [Synthesis of bilverdins (uteroverdins) and bilirubin, the biliverdine XIII alpha and III alpha, and the vinylneoxanthic acid]. Hoppe-Seyler's Zeitschrift für Physiologische Chemie 274: 231

902. Fischer HOL, Baer E. 1932. Über die 3-glycerinaldehyd-phosphorsäure [About the 3- glyceraldehyde-phosphoric acid]. Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft 65: 337-45

903. Fisher RA. 1925. Statistical Methods for Research Workers. Edinburgh, London: Oliver and Boyd. 239 pp.

904. Fisher RA. 1927. On some objections to mimicry theory— statistical and genetic. Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London 75: 269-78

905. Fisher RA. 1930. The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection. Oxford: The Clarendon Press. 272 pp.

906. Fisher RA. 1936. The use of multiple measurements in taxonomic problems. Annals of Eugenics 7: 179-88

907. Fisher RA. 1947. The Rhesus factor. A study in scientific method. American Scientist 35: 95-103

908. Fisk RT. 1942. Studies on staphylococci. 1. Occurence of bacteriophage carriers among strains of Staphylococcus aureus. The Journal of Infectious Diseases 71: 153-60

909. Fiske CH, Subbarow Y. 1925. The colorimetric determination of phosphorus. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 66: 375-400

910. Fiske CH, Subbarow Y. 1927. The nature of the "inorganic phosphate" in involuntary muscle. Science 65: 401-03

911. Fiske CH, Subbarow Y. 1928. The isolation and function of phosphocreatine. Science 67: 169-70

912. Fiske CH, Subbarow Y. 1929a. Phosphorus compounds of muscle and liver. Science 70: 381-82

913. Fiske CH, Subbarow Y. 1929b. Phosphocreatine. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 81: 629-79

914. Fiske VM. 1941. Effect of light on sexual maturation, estrous cycles, and anterior pituitary in the rat. Endocrinology 29: 187-96

915. Flexner LB. 1933. Some problems of the origin, circulation and absorption of the cerebro-spinal fluid. The Quarterly Review of Biology 8: 397-422

916. Flexner LB. 1934. The chemistry and nature of the cerebro-spinal fluid. Physiological Reviews 14: 161-87

917. Folch J. 1942. Brain cephalin, a mixture of phospatides. Separation from it of phosphatidyl serine, phospatidyl ethanolamine and a fraction containing an inositol phosphatide. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 146: 35-44

918. Folch J. 1948. The chemical structure of phosphatidyl serine. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 174: 439-50

919. Folkman MJ. 1971a. Transplacental carcinogenesis by stilbestrol. The New England Journal of Medicine 285: 404-05

920. Folkman MJ. 1971c. Tumor angiogenesis: therapeutic implications. The New England Journal of Medicine 285: 1182-86

921. Folkman MJ. 1972. Anti-angiogenesis: New concept for therapy of solid tumors. Annals of Surgery 175: 409-16

922. Folkman MJ, Merler E, Abernathy C, Williams G. 1971b. Isolation of a tumor factor responsible for angiogenesis. The Journal of Experimental Medicine 133: 275-88

923. Følling IA. 1934. Über ausscheidung von phenylbrenztraubensäure in den harn als stoffwechselanomalie in verbindung mit imbezilität [About excretion of phenylpyruvic in the urine as a metabolic abnormality in conjunction with imbecility]. Hoppe-Seyler's Zeitschrift für Physiologische Chemie 227: 169-76

924. Foote FW, Jr., Stewart FW. 1941. Lobular carcinoma in situ: A rare form of mammary cancer. The American Journal of Pathology 17: 491-96

925. Ford CE, Jones KW, Polani PE, de Almeida JC, Briggs JH. 1959a. A sex chromosome anomaly in a case of gonadal dysgenesis (Turner's syndrome). The Lancet 273: 711-13

926. Ford EB. 1940. Polymorphism and taxonomy. In The New Systematics, ed. JS Huxley, pp. 493-513Ford, . Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press

927. Forestier J. 1929. L'aurothérapie dans les rhumatismes chroniques [The gold therapy in chronic rheumatism]. Bulletins et Mémoires de la Société Médicale des Hôpitaux de Paris: 323-27

928. Forsgren A, Sjöquist J. 1966. "Protein A" from S. aureus.: I. Pseudo-immune reaction with human gamma globulin. The Journal of Immunology 97: 822-27

929. Foster JW, Woodruff HB. 1946. Bacillin, a new antibiotic substance from a soil isolate of Bacillus subtilis. Journal of Bacteriology 51: 363-69

930. Foster RE, Burnside CE. 1933. Parafoulbrood. In Gleaning's Bee Culture, pp. 86-89

931. Fothergill LD, Dingle JH, Farber S, Connerley ML. 1938a. Human encephalitis caused by the virus of the eastern variety of equine encephalomyelitis. The New England Journal of Medicine 219: 411

932. Fothergill LD, Dingle JH, Fellow JC. 1938b. A fatal disease of pigeons caused by the virus of the eastern variety of equine encephalomyelitis. Science 88: 549-50

933. Fourneau EFA, Tréfouel JGM, Nitti F, Bovet D, Tréfouel TB. 1937. Action antistreptococcique des dérivés sulfurés organiques. Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances de l'Academie des Sciences, Paris 204: 1763-66

934. Føyn B. 1929. Untersuchungen über die sexualität und entwicklung von algen. IV. Vorläufige mitteilung über die sexualität und den generationswechsel von Cladophora und Ulva [Studies on sexuality and development of algae. IV. Preliminary communication on sexuality and the generational change of Cladophora and Ulva]. Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft 47: 495-506

935. Fraenkel GS, Pringle JWS. 1938. Halteres of flies as gyroscopic organs of equilibrium. Nature 141: 919-20

936. Fraenkel-Conrat HL, Li CH, Simpson ME, Evans HM. 1940a. Interstitial cell stimulating hormone. I. Biological properties. Endocrinology 27: 793-802

937. Fraenkel-Conrat HL, Simpson ME, Evans HM. 1940b. Interstitial cell stimulating hormone. III. Methods of estimating the hormonal content of pituitaries. Endocrinology 27: 809-17

938. Francis ETB. 1934. The Anatomy of the Salamander. Oxford: The Clarendon. 381 pp.

939. Francis T, Jr. 1947. Dissociation of hemagglutinating and antibody measuring capacities of influenza virus. The Journal of Experimental Medicine 85: 1-7

940. Frazer AC, Sammons HG. 1945. The formation of mono- and di-glycerides during the hydrolysis of triglyceride by pancreatic lipase. Biochemical Journal 39: 122-28

941. Fred EB, Baldwin IL, McCoy E. 1932. Root-nodule Bacteria and Leguminous Plants. Madison, WS: University of Wisconsin. 343 pp.

942. Frédéricq P. 1946. Sur la pluralité des récepteurs d'antibiose de E. coli [On the plurality of antibiosis receivers of E. coli]. Comptes Rendus des Seances de la Societe de Biologie et de ses Filiales 140: 1189-90

943. Frédéricq P. 1969. The recombination of colicinogenic factors with other episomes and plasmids. In Ciba Foundation Symposium on Bacterial Episomes and Plasmids, ed. GEW Wolstenholme, M O'Connor, pp. 163-74. London: Churchill

944. Frédéricq P, Betz-Bareau M. 1953a. Transfert génétique de la propriété colicinogène chez E. coli [Transfer of genetic colicinogenic property in E. coli]. Comptes Rendus des Seances de la Societe de Biologie et de ses Filiales 147: 1110-12

945. Frédéricq P, Betz-Bareau M. 1953b. Transfert génétique de la propriété de produire un antibiotique [Genetic transfer of the ability to produce an antibiotic]. Comptes Rendus des Seances de la Societe de Biologie et de ses Filiales 147: 1653-56

946. Fredrickson JK, Onstott TC. 1996. Microbes deep inside the earth. Scientific American 275: 68-73

947. Freeman WJ, Watts JW. 1937. Prefrontal lobotomy in the treatment of mental disorders. Southern Medical Journal 30: 23-31

948. Freeman WJ, Watts JW. 1944. Psychosurgery: an evaluation of two hundred cases over seven years. The Journal of Mental Science 90: 532-37

949. Freund J, McDermott K. 1942. Sensitization to horse serum by means of adjuvants. Experimental Biology and Medicine 49: 548-53

950. Frey E-K. 1926a. Zusammenhänge zwischen herzarbeit und nierentätigkeit [Correlations between cardiac work and kidneys]. Archiv für Klinische Chirurgie 142: 663-69

951. Frey E-K, Kraut H. 1926b. Über einen von der niere ausgeschiedenen, die herztätigkeit anregenden stoff [About a heart activity stimulating substance excreted by the kidney]. Hoppe-Seyler's Zeitschrift fur Physiologische Chemie 157: 32-61

952. Fridericia LS, Holm E. 1925. Experimental contribution to the study of the relation between night blindness and malnutrition: Influence of deficiency of fat-soluble A-vitamin in the diet on the visual purple in the eyes of rats. The American Journal of Physiology 73: 63-78

953. Fried J, Wintersteiner OP. 1945. Crystalline reineckates of streptothricin and streptomycin. Science 101: 613-15

954. Friedheim E, Michaelis L. 1931. Potentiometric study of pyocyanine. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 91: 355-68

955. Friedman MH. 1929. Mechanism of ovulation in the rabbit: II. Ovulation produced by the injection of urine from pregnant women. The American Journal of Physiology 90: 617-22

956. Friedman MH, Lapham M. 1931. A simple, rapid procedure for the laboratory diagnosis of early pregnancies. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 21: 405-10

957. Friedmann H. 1928. Social parasitism in birds. The Quarterly Review of Biology 3: 554-69

958. Friedmann H. 1929. The Cowbirds: A Study in the Biology of Social Parasitism. Springfield, Il: Charles C Thomas. 421 pp.

959. Friedmann H. 1930. Notes on the sharp-billed honey-guide, Prodotiscus regulus. The Bateleur 2: 99-102

960. Friedmann H. 1943. A new honey-guide from Cameron. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 33: 249-50

961. Friedmann H. 1954. A revision of the classification of the honey-guides, Indicatoridae. Annalen van het Koninklijk Museum van Belgisch-Congo, Tervuren, Zoology 50: 21-27

962. Friedmann H. 1955. The honey-guides. Bulletin of the United States National Museum 208: 1-292

963. Friedmann H. 1958. Advances in our knowledge of the honey-guides. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 108: 309-20

964. Friedmann H, Kern J. 1956a. The problem of cerophagy or wax-eating in the honey-guides. The Quarterly Review of Biology 31: 19-30

965. Friedmann H, Kern J. 1956b. Micrococcus cerolyticus nov. sp., an aerobic lipolytic organism isolated from the African honey-guide. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 2: 515-17

966. Friesen HG. 1965. Further purification and characterization of a placental protein with immunological similarity to human growth hormone. Nature 208: 1214-15

967. Friesen HG, Guyda HJ, Hardy J. 1970. Biosynthesis of human growth hormone and prolactin. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 31: 611-24

968. Fry FEJ. 1947. Effects of the Environment on Animal Activity. Toronto: University of Toronto. 62 pp.

969. Fujii K. 1926. [The Recent Progress in Cytology, and Methods of its Investigation], Japanese Association for the Advancement of Science

970. Fukuda S. 1940. [Induction of pupation in silkworm by transplanting the prothoracic gland]. Proceedings of the Imperial Academy, Tokyo 16: 414-16

971. Fukuda S. 1941. [Role of the prothoracic gland in differentiation of the imaginal characters in the silkworm pupa]. Annotationes Zoologicae Japonenses 20: 9-13

972. Fukuda S. 1971. Hormonal control of molting and pupation in the silkworm. In Milestones in Developmental Physiolofy of Insects, ed. D Bodenstein, pp. 222-25. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts

973. Fukuda S. 1971. Induction of pupation in silkworm by transplanting the prothoracic gland. In Milestones in Developmental Physiolofy of Insects, ed. D Bodenstein, pp. 219-21. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts

974. Fukushi T. 1933. Transmission of the virus through the eggs of an insect vector. Proceedings of the Imperial Academy (of Japan) 9: 457-60

975. Fukushi T. 1935. Multiplication of virus in its insect vector. Proceedings of the Imperial Academy (of Japan) 11: 301-03

976. Fukushi T. 1940. Further studies on the dwarf disease of rice plant. Journal of the Faculty of Agriculture, Hokkaido University 45: 83-154

977. Fulton JF. 1928. Observations upon the vascularity of the human occipital lobe during visual activity. Brain 51: 310-20

978. Fulton RA, Mason HC. 1937. The translocation of derris constituents in bean plants. Journal of Agricultural Research 55: 903-07

979. Funahashi S, Bruce CJ, Goldman-Rakic PS. 1989. Mnemonic coding of visual space in the monkey's dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Journal of Neurophysiology 61: 331-49

980. Funke HD. 1978. Die optimierte sequentielle stimulation von vorhof und kammer-ein neuartiges konzept zur behandlung bradykarder dysrhythmien [The optimized sequential stimulation of the atrium and ventricle - a novel concept for the treatment of bradycardial dysrhythmias]. Herz-Kreislauf 10: 479-83

981. Furth J, Kahn MC. 1937. The transmission of leukaemia of mice with a single cell. The American Journal of Cancer 31: 276-82

982. Furukawa S. 1932. [Studies on the constituents of the Ginkgo biloba L., leaves, Part I and II]. Scientific Papers of the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (Tokyo) 19: 27-42

983. Furukawa S. 1933. [Studies on the constituents of Ginkgo biloba leaves. Part III and IV]. Scientific Papers of the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (Tokyo) 21: 273-85

984. Furukawa S. 1934. [Studies on the constituents of Ginkgo biloba L., fruits, partsI, II and III]  Scientific Papers of the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (Tokyo) 24: 304-24

985. Fuson RC, Christ RE. 1936. The condensation of beta-cyclocitral with dimethylacrolein. Science 84: 294-95

986. Gaffron H. 1939. Reduction of carbon dioxide with molecular hydrogen in green algae. Nature 143: 204-05

987. Gajdusek DC. 1977a. Unconventional viruses and the origin and disappearance of kuru. Revised version. Science 197: 943-60

988. Gajdusek DC, Gibbs CJ, Jr., Alpers MP. 1966. Experimental transmission of a Kuru-like syndrome to chimpanzees. Nature 209: 794-96

989. Gajdusek DC, Zigas V. 1957. Degenerative disease of the central nervous system in New Guinea: the endemic occurence of "kuru" in the native population. The New England Journal of Medicine 257: 974-78

990. Gallagher JR. 1934. Bronchopneumonia in adolescence. The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine 7: 23-40

991. Gambow HJ, Kao KN, Miller RA, Gamborg OL. 1972. Cell division and plant development from protoplasts of carrot cell suspension cultures. Planta 103: 348-55

992. Ganz T. 2006. Hepcidin—a peptide hormone at the interface of innate immunity and iron metabolism. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology 306: 183-98

993. Gardner FE, Marth PC, Batjer LP. 1939. Spraying with plant growth substances to prevent apple fruit dropping. Science 90: 208-09

994. Gardner JA. 1943. Mollusca of the Tertiary Formations of Northeastern Mexico. New York. 332 pp.

995. Gardner JA, Vaughan TW, Popenoe WP. 1935. The Midway Group of Texas. Austin, TX: The University of Texas. 403 pp.

996. Garner RL, Tillet WS. 1934a. Biochemical studies on the fibrinolytic activity of hemolytic streptococci. I. Isolation and characterization of fibrinolysin. The Journal of Experimental Medicine 60: 239-54

997. Garner RL, Tillet WS. 1934b. Biochemical studies on the fibrinolytic activity of hemolytic streptococci. II. Nature of the reaction. The Journal of Experimental Medicine 60: 255-67

998. Garrett HE, Dennis EW, DeBakey ME. 1973. Aortocoronary bypass with saphenous vein graft: Seven-year follow-up. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association 223: 792-94

999. Garrod DAE, Bate DMA. 1937. Excavations at the Wady el-Mughara. Oxford: The Clarendon Press

1000. Gause GF. 1946. Colistatin: A new antibiotic substance with chemotherapeutic activity. Science 104: 289-90

1001. Gause GF. 1946. Litmocidin, a new antibiotic substance produced by Proactinomyces cyaneus. Journal of Bacteriology 51: 649-53

1002. Gautheret R-J. 1933. Cultures de méristèmes de racines de Zea mays [Cultures of meristems and roots of Zea mays]. Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances de l'Academie des Sciences, Paris 197: 85-87

1003. Gautheret R-J. 1934. Culture du tissu cambial. Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances de l'Academie des Sciences, Paris 198: 2195-96

1004. Gautheret R-J. 1939a. Sur la possibilité de réaliser la culture indéfinie des tissus de tubercules de carotte [On the possibility of carrying out the indefinite culture of tissue of carrot tuber]. Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances de l'Academie des Sciences, Paris 208: 118-20

1005. Gautheret R-J. 1939b. Sur la mesure de la croissance des tissus de carotte cultivés in vitro [To the measure of the growth of in vitro cultivated carrot tissue]. Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances de l'Academie des Sciences, Paris 208: 1340-42

1006. Gavin G, McHenry EW. 1941. Inositol: A lipotropic factor. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 139: 485

1007. Gavrilescu N, Meiklejohn AP, Passmore R, Peters RA. 1932. Carbohydrate metabolism in birds. The site of the biochemical lesion in avian polyneuritis. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B, Containing Papers of a Biological Character 110: 431-47

1008. Gentles JC. 1958. Experimental ringworm in guinea pigs: Oral treatment with griseofulvin. Nature 182: 476-77

1009. Gerard NP, Garraway LA, Eddy RL, Jr., Shows TB, Iijima H, et al. 1991. Human substance P receptor (NK-1): organization of the gene, chromosome localization, and functional expression of cDNA clones. Biochemistry 30: 10640-46

1010. Gershenfeld L, Milanick VE. 1941a. Bactericidal and bacteriostatic properties of surface tension depressants. The American Journal of Pharmacy 113: 306-26

1011. Gershenfeld L, Perlstein D. 1941b. Significance of hydrogen ion concentration in the evolution of the bactericidal efficiency of surface tension depressants. The American Journal of Pharmacy 113: 89-92

1012. Gerstmann J, Sträussler E, Scheinker IM. 1936. Über eine eigenartige hereditär-familiäre erkrankung des zentralnervensystems. Zugleich ein beitrag zur frage des vorzeitigen lokalen alterns [About a rare hereditary familial disease of the central nervous system. At the same time a contribution to the question of the premature local aging]. Zeitschrift für die Gesamte Neurologie und Psychiatrie 154: 736-62

1013. Gesell R. 1940a. Forces driving the respiratory act. Science 91: 229-33

1014. Gesell R, Atkinson AK, Brown RC. 1940b. The origin of respiratory patterns. The American Journal of Physiology 128: 629-34

1015. Gesell R, Bricker JW, Magee CS. 1936. Structural and functional organization of the central mechanism controlling breathing. The American Journal of Physiology 117: 423-52

1016. Gesell R, Magee CS, Bricker JW. 1940c. Activity patterns of the respiratory neurons and muscles. The American Journal of Physiology 128: 615-28

1017. Gey GO, Bang FB. 1939. Experimental studies on the cultural behavior and the infectivity of lymphopathia venera virus maintained in tissue culture. Bulletin of the Johns Hopkins Hospital 65: 393-417

1018. Gibbon JH, Jr. 1937. Artificial maintenance of the circulation during experimental occlusion of the pulmonary artery. Archives of Surgery 34: 1105-31

1019. Gibbon JH, Jr. 1939. The maintenance of life during experimental occlusion of the pulmonary artery followed by survival. Surgery, Gynecology and Obstetrics 69: 602-14

1020. Gibbon JH, Jr. 1953. The development of the heart-lung apparatus. American Journal of Surgery 135: 608-19

1021. Gibbon JH, Jr. 1958. Extracorporeal maintenance of cardiorespiratory functions. Harvey Lectures 53: 186-224

1022. Gibbon JH, Jr., Dobell ARC, Voigt GB. 1954. The closure of interventicular septal defects on dogs during open cardiotomy with the maintenance of the cardio-respiratory functions by a pump oxygenator. The Journal of Thoracic Surgery 28: 235-40

1023. Gibbs OS. 1930. An artificial heart. The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 38: 197-215

1024. Gibbs OS. 1933. An artificial heart for dogs. The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 49: 181-86

1025. Gibson KD, Laver WG, Neuberger A. 1958. Initial stages in the biosynthesis of porphyrins. II. The formation of 5-aminolevulinic acid from glycine and succinyl-CoA by particles from chicken erythrocytes. Biochemical Journal 70: 71-81

1026. Gibson T, Medawar PB. 1943. The fate of skin homografts in man. Journal of Anatomy 77: 299-310

1027. Gilbert SF. 1997. Developmental Biology. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates

1028. Giles NH, Jr. 1951. Studies on the mechanism of reversion in biochemical mutants of Neurospora crassa. Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology 16: 283-313

1029. Gillam AE, Heilbron IM, Jones WE, Lederer E. 1938. On the occurrence and constitution of the 693 millimicron chromagen (vitamin A2?) of fish liver oils. Biochemical Journal 32: 404-16

1030. Gillies HD, Millard R. 1957. The Principles and Art of Plastic Surgery. Boston: Little, Brown

1031. Gilman S, Denny-Brown DE. 1966. Disorders of movement and behaviour following dorsal column lesions. Brain 89: 397-418

1032. Gimbrone MA, Jr., Leapman SB, Cotran RS, Folkman MJ. 1972. Tumor dormancy in vivo by prevention of neovascularization. The Journal of Experimental Medicine 136: 261-76

1033. Girard G, Robic J-M. 1936. La vaccination de l’homme contre la peste au moyen de bacilles vivants (virus vaccin EV) son application à Madagascar’ [Vaccination against human plague through live bacilli (vaccine virus EV) application in Madagascar ']. Bulletin de l'Office International d'Hygiene Publique 28: 1078-87

1034. Gleason HA. 1926. The individualistic concept of the plant association. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 53: 7-26

1035. Goddard DR. 1944. Cytochrome C and cytochrome oxidase from wheat germ. American Journal of Botany 31: 270-76

1036. Goddard DR, Michaelis L. 1935. Derivatives of keratin. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 112: 361-71

1037. Goldblatt H, Cameron G. 1953. Induced malignancy in cells from rat myocardium subjected to intermittent anaerobiosis during long propagation in vitro. The Journal of Experimental Medicine 97: 525-52

1038. Goldblatt MW. 1933. A depressor substance in seminal fluid. Journal of the Society of Chemical Industry 52: 1056-57

1039. Goldblatt MW. 1935. Properties of human seminal plasma. The Journal of Physiology 84: 208-18

1040. Goldfarb LG, Petersen RB, Tabaton M, Brown P, LeBlanc AC, et al. 1992. Fatal familial insomnia and familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: disease phenotype determined by a DNA polymorphism. Science 258: 806-08

1041. Goldgaber D, Goldfarb LG, Brown P, Asher DM, Brown WT, et al. 1989. Mutations in familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and Gerstmann-Straüssler-Scheinker's syndrome. Experimental Neurology 106: 204-06

1042. Goldman JB. 1933. Ergänzender beitrag zur lipoidfarbung mit Sudan III (Scharlach-R.)-a-Naphtol [Supplementary contribution to lipid staining with Sudan III ( scarlet - R . ) - A- naphthol]. Zentralblatt für Allgemeine Pathologie und Pathologische Anatomie 58: 275

1043. Goldschmidt RB. 1933. Lymantria. Bibliographia Genetica 11: 1-186

1044. Goodpasture EW. 1929-30. Etiological problems in the study of filterable virus diseases. Harvey Lectures 25: 77-102

1045. Goormaghtigh N. 1932. Les segments neuro-myo-artérieles juxta-glomérulaires du rein [The neuro-myo-arterioles in the juxtaglomerular segments of the kidney]. Archives de Biologie (Liege) 43: 575-91

1046. Goormaghtigh N. 1937. L'appareil neuro-myo-artériel juxtaglomérulaire du rein: ses réactions en pathologie et ses rapports avec le tube urinifère [The neuro-myo-arterial juxtaglomerular device in the kidney: its reactions in pathology and its relationship with the uriniferous tube]. Comptes Rendus de la Societe de Biologie 129: 293-96

1047. Goormaghtigh N. 1939a. Existence of an endocrine gland in the arteriolar media of renal arterioles. Experimental Biology and Medicine 42: 688-89

1048. Goormaghtigh N. 1940a. Le cycle glandulaire de la cellule endocrine de l'artériole renale du lapin [The cycle of endocrine gland cell of the renal artery of the rabbit]. Archives de Biologie (Gand) 51: 293-311

1049. Goormaghtigh N. 1940b. Les cellules afibrilaires artériolaires dans l’ischémie rénale chez le chien [The afibrillar arteriolar cells in dogs with renal ischemia]. Revue Belge des Sciences Médicales 12: 85-107

1050. Goormaghtigh N. 1944. La Fonction Endocrine des Artérioles Rénales. Son Rôle dans la Pathogénic de l'Hypertension Artérielle [Endocrine Function of Renal Arterioles . Its Role in the Pathogenesis of Hypertension]. Louvain: Librairie R. Fonteyn. 110 pp.

1051. Goormaghtigh N. 1945. La fonction endocrine des arterioles renales [Endocrine function of renal arterioles]. Revue Belge des Sciences Médicales 16: 65-71

1052. Goormaghtigh N. 1951. Le mesangium du floculus glomérulaire. Ses réactions aigués et les nephrites hypertensive [Mesangium of the glomerular flocculus; its reactions in acute glomerulonephritis and hypertensive nephritis]. The Journal of Urology 57: 569-85

1053. Goormaghtigh N, Grimson KS. 1939b. Vascular changes in renal ischemia: cell mitosis in the media of arteries. Experimental Biology and Medicine 42: 227-28

1054. Göpfert H, Schaefer H. 1938. Über den direkt und indirekt erregten aktionsstorm und die funktion der motorischen endplatte [About the direct and indirect action storm aroused and the function of the neuromuscular junction]. Pflüger's Archiv für die Gesamte Physiologie des Menschen und der Tiere 239: 597-619

1055. Gordon MS, Schmidt-Nielsen K, Kelly HM. 1961. Osmotic regulation in the crab-eating frog (Rana cancrivora). The Journal of Experimental Biology 38: 659-78

1056. Gorer PA. 1936. The detection of antigenic differences in mouse erythrocytes by the employment of immune sera. British Journal of Experimental Pathology 17: 42-50

1057. Gorer PA. 1937. The genetic and antigenic basis of tumor transplantation. The Journal of Pathology and Bacteriology 44: 691-97

1058. Gorovsky MA, Pleger GL, Keevert JB, Johmann CA. 1973. Studies on histone fraction F2A1 in macro- and micronuclei of Tetrahymena pyriformis. The Journal of Cell Biology 57: 773-81

1059. Gorter E, Grendel F. 1925. On bimolecular layers of lipoids on the chromocytes of the blood. The Journal of Experimental Medicine 41: 439-43

1060. Gottschalk CW, Lassiter WE, Mylle M, Ullrich KJ, Schmidt-Nielsen B, et al. 1963. Micropuncture study of composition of loop of Henle fluid in desert rodents. The American Journal of Physiology 204: 532-35

1061. Gottschalk CW, Mylle M. 1956. A micropuncture study of the pressures in the proximal tubules and peritubular capillaries of the rat kidney and their relation to ureteral and venous pressure. The American Journal of Physiology 185: 430-39

1062. Gottschalk CW, Mylle M. 1959. Micropuncture study of the mammalian urinary concentrating mechanism: evidence for the countercurrent hypothesis. The American Journal of Physiology 196: 927-36

1063. Grady HG, Stewart HL. 1940. Histogenesis of induced pulmonary tumors in strain A mice. The American Journal of Pathology 16: 417-32

1064. Graff S, Moore DH, Stanley WM, Randall HT, Haagensen CD. 1948. The milk agent. Acta - Unio Internationalis Contra Cancrum 6: 191-96

1065. Graff S, Moore DH, Stanley WM, Randall HT, Haagensen CD. 1949. Isolation of mouse mammary carcinoma virus. Cancer 2: 755-62

1066. Granit R. 1943. A physiological theory of color perception. Nature 151: 11-14

1067. Granit R. 1945. The colour receptors of the mammalian retina. Journal of Neurophysiology 8: 195-210

1068. Granit RA, Therman P-O. 1934. Proceedings of Physiological Society: May 12, 11934: Inhibition of the off-effect in the optic nerve and its relation to the equivalent phase of the retinal response. The Journal of Physiology 81: 47P-48P

1069. Granit RA, Therman P-O. 1935. Excitation and inhibition in the retina and in the optic nerve. The Journal of Physiology 83: 359-81

1070. Gratia A, Frédéricq P. 1946. Diversité des souches antibiotiques de E. coli et étendue variable de leur champs d'action [Diversity of antibiotics from strains of E. coli and the variable extent of their fields of action]. Comptes Rendus des Seances de la Societe de Biologie et de ses Filiales 140: 1032-33

1071. Gray CH, Tatum EL. 1944. X-ray induced growth factor requirements in bacteria. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 30: 404-10

1072. Gray J. 1933a. Studies in animal locomotion: I. The movement of fish with special reference to the eel. The Journal of Experimental Biology 10: 88-104

1073. Gray J. 1933b. Studies in animal locomotion: II. The relationship between waves of muscular contraction and the propulsion mechanism of the eel. The Journal of Experimental Biology 10: 386-90

1074. Gray J. 1933c. Studies in animal locomotion: III. The propulsive mechanism of the whiting (Gadus merlangus). The Journal of Experimental Biology 10: 391-400

1075. Gray J. 1944. Studies in the mechanics of the tetrapod skeleton. The Journal of Experimental Biology 20: 88-116

1076. Greaser ML, Gergely J. 1971. Reconstitution of troponin activity from three protein components. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 246: 4226-33

1077. Greatbatch W. 1960. United States of America

1078. Green AA, Cori CF, Cori GTR. 1942. Crystalline muscle phosphorylase. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 142: 447-48

1079. Green AA, Cori GTR, Oncley JL. 1943. Crystalline muscle phosphorylase I. Preparation, properties and molecular weight. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 151: 21-30

1080. Green JD, Harris GW. 1946. The neurovascular link between the neurohypophysis and adenohypophysis. The Journal of Endocrinology 5: 136-46

1081. Greenblatt M, Shubik P. 1968. Tumor angiogenesis: Transfilter diffusion studies in the hamster by the transparent chamber technique. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 41: 111-24

1082. Greenwood M, Lane-Claydon JE. 1927. On the possibility of reducing the rate of mortality from cancer of the breast and cancer of the uterus. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine 20: 569-84

1083. Gregory JE, Rich AR. 1946. The experimental production of anaphylactic pulmonary lesions with the basic characteristic of rheumatic pneumonitis. Bulletin of the Johns Hopkins Hospital 78: 1-12

1084. Griffith F. 1928. The significance of pneumococcal types. The Journal of Hygiene 27: 113-59

1085. Griffith HR, Johnson GE. 1942. The use of curare in general anesthesia. Anesthesiology 3: 418-20

1086. Griffith JS. 1967. Self-replication and scrapie. Nature 215: 1043-44

1087. Griggs RF. 1940. The ecology of rare plants. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 67: 575-94

1088. Grinstein M, Aldrich RA, Hawkinson V, Watson CJ. 1949. An isotopic study of porphyrin and hemoglobin metabolism in a case of porphyria. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 179: 983-84

1089. Gross RE. 1945b. Surgical relief for tracheal obstruction from a vascular ring. The New England Journal of Medicine 233: 586-

1090. Gross RE. 1945c. Surgical correction for coarctation of the aorta. Surgery 18: 673-78

1091. Gross RE. 1948. Surgical treatment for coarctation of the aorta. Surgery, Gynecology and Obstetrics 86: 756-58

1092. Gross RE, Hubbard JP. 1939. Surgical ligation of patent ductus arteriosus; report of the first successful case. Journal of the American Medical Association 112: 729-31

1093. Gross RE, Hufnagel CA. 1945a. Coarctation of the aorta. Experimental studies regarding its surgical correction. The New England Journal of Medicine 233: 287-93

1094. Grov A, Myklestad B, Oeding P. 1964. Immunochemical studies on antigen preparations from Staphylococcus aureus. 1. Isolation and chemical characterization of antigen A. Acta Pathologica et Microbiologica Scandinavica 61: 588-96

1095. Gsell O. 1940. Chemotherapie akuter Infektionskrankheiten durch Ciba 3714 (Sulfanilamidothiazol) [Chemotherapy of acute infectious diseases by Ciba 3714 (Sulfanilamidothiazol)]. Schweizerische Medizinische Wochenschrift 342-350

1096. Guillemin GJ, Brew BJ. 2002. Implications of the kynurenine pathway and quinolinic acid in Alzheimer’s disease. Redox Report 7: 199-206

1097. Guillemin GJ, Kerr SJ, Brew BJ. 2005. Involvement of quinolinic acid in AIDS dementia complex. Neurotoxicity Research 7: 103-23

1098. Guillemin GJ, Meininger V, Brew BJ. 2006. Implications for the kynurenine pathway and quinolinic acid in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Neuro-degenerative Diseases 2: 166-76

1099. Guillemin R, Brazeau P, Bohlen P, Esch F, Ling N, Wehrenberg WB. 1982. Growth hormone releasing factor from a pancreatic tumor Immunohistological localization of growth-hormone releasing hor-

that caused acromegaly. Science 218: 585-87

1100. Gulland JM. 1947. The structure of nucleic acids. Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology 12: 95-103

1101. Gulland JM, Robinson R. 1925. Constitution of codeine and thebaine. Memoirs and Proceedings of the Manchester Literary & Philosophical Society 69: 79-86

1102. Gunshin H, Mackenzie B, Berger UV, Gunshin Y, Romero MF, et al. 1997. Cloning and characterization of a mammalian proton-coupled metal-ion transporter. Nature 388: 482-88

1103. Gurdon JB. 1962a. Adult frogs derived from nuclei of single somatic cells. Developmental Biology 4: 256-73

1104. Gurdon JB. 1962b. The developmental capacity of nuclei taken from intestinal epithelium cells of feeding tadpoles. Journal of Embryology and Experimental Morphology 10: 622-40

1105. Gurdon JB. 1968. Transplanted nuclei and cell differentiation. Scientific American 219: 24-35

1106. Gurdon JB. 1974. The Control of Gene Expression in Animal Development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. 160 pp.

1107. Gustafson FG. 1936. Inducement of fruit development by growth-promoting chemicals. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 22: 628-36

1108. Gustafsson A. 1941. Mutation experiments in barley. Hereditas 27: 225-42

1109. Gustafsson A. 1947. Mutation in agricultural plants. Hereditas 33: 1-100

1110. Gutman AB, Gutman EB. 1938. An "acid" phosphatase occuring in the serum of patients with metastasizing carcinoma of the prostate gland. The Journal of Clinical Investigation 17: 473

1111. Gutmann E, Guttmann L, Medawar PB, Young JZ. 1942. The rate of regeneration of nerve. The Journal of Experimental Biology 19: 14-44

1112. Gutmann E, Young JZ. 1944. The reinnervation of muscle after various periods of atrophy. Journal of Anatomy 78: 15-42

1113. Guttmann L. 1947. Discussion on the treatment and prognosis of traumatic paraplegia. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine 40: 219-25

1114. Guttmann L, Frankel HL. 1966. The value of intermittent catheterization in early management of traumatic paraplegia and tetraplegia. Paraplegia 4: 63-84

1115. György P. 1938. Crystalline vitamin B6. Journal of the American Chemical Society 60: 983-84

1116. György P. 1939. The curative factor (vitamin H) for egg white injury, with reference to its presence in different foodstuffs and in yeast. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 131: 733-44

1117. György P, Melville DB, Burk D, du Vigneaud V. 1940. The possible identity of vitamin H with biotin and coenzyme R. Science 91: 243-45

1118. György P, Poling CE. 1940. Pantothenic acid and nutritional achromotrichia in rats. Science 92: 202-03

1119. Haas E. 1938. Isolierung eines neuen gelben ferments [Isolation of a new yellow enzyme]. Biochemische Zeitschrift 298: 378-90

1120. Habel K. 1945. Cultivation of mumps virus in the developing chick embryo and its application to the study of immunity to mumps in man. Public Health Reports 60: 201-12

1121. Hadley NF. 1989. Lipid water barriers in biological systems. Progress in Lipid Research 28: 1-33

1122. Hadlow WJ. 1959. Scrapie and kuru [letter to the editor]. The Lancet 274: 289-90

1123. Hadorn E. 1951. Developmental action of lethal factors in Drosophila. Advances in Genetics 4: 53-85

1124. Hagedorn HC, Jensen BN, Krarup NB, Wodstrup I. 1936. Protamine insulinate. Journal of the American Medical Association 106: 177-80

1125. Hahn P. 1943. Abolishment of alimentary lipemia following injection of heparin. Science 98: 19-20

1126. Haldane JBS. 1932. The time of action of genes, and its bearing on some evolutionary problems. The American Naturalist 66: 5-24

1127. Haldane JBS. 1933. The genetics of cancer. Nature 132: 265-67

1128. Haldane JBS. 1935. The rate of spontaneous mutation of a human gene. Journal of Genetics 31: 317-26

1129. Haldane JBS. 1937a. The effect of variation on fitness. The American Naturalist 71: 337-49

1130. Haldane JBS. 1937b. My Friend Mr. Leakey. London: Cresset Press. 179 pp.

1131. Haldane JBS. 1963. Biological possibilities for the human species of the next ten-thousand years. In Man and His Future, ed. G Wolstenholme. Boston: Little, Brown and Company

1132. Haldane JBS. 1985. On Being the Right Sise and Other Essays. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press. 191 pp.

1133. Hall RH, Robertus TA, Webb RF. 1957. Nucleotides. Part XLI. Mixed anhydrides as intermediates in the synthesis of dinucleoside phosphates. Journal of the Chemical Society 1957: 3291-96

1134. Halle WL. 1906. Über die bildung des adrenalins im organismus [About the formation of adrenaline in the body]. Beiträge zur Chemischen Physiologie und Pathologie 8: 276-80

1135. Haltia M, Kovanen J, Goldfarb LG, Brown P, Gajdusek DC. 1991. Familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in Finland: epidemiological, clinical, pathological and molecular genetic studies. European Journal of Epidemiology 7: 494-500

1136. Ham TH. 1937. Chronic hemolytic anemia with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. A study of the mechanism of hemolysis in relation to acid-base equilibrium. The New England Journal of Medicine 217: 915-17

1137. Hamilton JB. 1943. Notes on the forms of keratitis presumably due to the virus ofherpessimplex. The British Journal of Ophthalmology 27: 80-87

1138. Hamilton WF, Moore JW, Kinsman JM, Spurling RG. 1932. Studies on the circulation: IV. Further analysis of the injection method, and of changes in hemodynamics under physiological and pathological conditions. The American Journal of Physiology 99: 534-51

1139. Hamlyn PJ, King TT. 1992. Neurovascular compression in trigeminal neuralgia: A clinical and anatomical study. Journal of Neurosurgery 76: 948-54

1140. Hämmerling J. 1932. Entwicklung und formbildungsvermögen von Acetabularia mediterranea. II. Das formbildungsvermögen kernhaltiger und kernloser teilstücke [Development and morphogenic qualities in Acetabularia mediterranea. II . The shape-forming ability of nucleated and coreless cuts]. Biologisches Zentralblatt 52: 42-61

1141. Hämmerling J. 1934. Über formbildende substanzen bei Acetabularia mediterranea, ihre räumliche und zeitliche verteilung und ihre herkunft [About shape-forming substances in Acetabularia mediterranea, their spatial and temporal distribution and its origin]. Wilhelm Roux' Archiv für Entwicklungsmechanik der Organismen 131: 1-81

1142. Hämmerling J. 1935. Über genomwirkungen und formbildungsfähigkeit bei Acetabularia [About genome effects and morphogenic ability in Acetabularia]. Wilhelm Roux' Archiv für Entwicklungsmechanik der Organismen 132: 424-62

1143. Hämmerling J. 1943. Ein- und zweikernige transplantate zwischen Acetabularia mediterranea und A. crenulata [Inputs and binuclear transplants between Acetabularia mediterranea and A. crenulata]. Zeitschrift für Induktive Abstammungs- und Vererbungslehre 81: 114-80

1144. Hämmerling J. 1955. Neuere versuche über polarität und differenzierung bei Acetabularia [Recent experiments on polarity and differentiation in Acetabularia]. Biologisches Zentralblatt 74: 545-54

1145. Hämmerling J. 1963. Nucleo-cytoplasmic interactions in Acetabularia and other cells. Annual Review of Plant Physiology 14: 65-92

1146. Hämmerling J, Hämmerling C. 1959. Kernaktivität bei aufgehobener photosynthese [Core activity in reversed photosynthesis]. Planta 52: 516-27

1147. Hampson JL, Harrison CR, Woolsey CN. 1952. Cerebro-cerebellar projections and somatotopic localization of motor function in the cerebellum. Research Publications - Association for Research in Nervous and Mental Disease 30: 299-316

1148. Hanahan D, Folkman JJ. 1996. Patterns and emerging mechanisms of the angiogenic switch during tumorigenesis. Cell 86: 353-64

1149. Hanahan DJ, Chaikoff IL. 1947. A new phospholipid-splitting enzyme specific for the ester linkage between the nitrogenous base and the phosphoric acid grouping. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 169: 699-705

1150. Hanes CS. 1940. The breakdown and synthesis of starch by an enzyme from pea seeds. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B, Biological Sciences 128: 421-50

1151. Hankinson SE, Willett WC, Michaud DS, Manson JE, Colditz GA, et al. 1999. Plasma prolactin levels and subsequent risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 91: 629-34

1152. Hanström B. 1928. Vergleichende Anatomie des Nervensystems der Wirbellosen Tiere, unter Berücksichtigung Seiner Funktion [Comparative Anatomy of the Nervous System of Invertebrate Animals, Taking into Account its Function]. Berlin: J. Springer. 628 pp.

1153. Hanström B. 1931. Neue untersuchungen iiber sinnesorgane und nervensystem der Crustaceen I [New studies of sense organs and nervous system of crustaceans I]. Zeitschrift für Morphologie und Ökologie der Tiere 23: 80-236

1154. Hanström B. 1933. Neue untersuchungen iiber sinnesorgane und nervensystem der Crustaceen II [New studies of sense organs and nervous system of crustaceans II]. Zoologische Jahrbucher. Abteilung für Allgemeine Zoologie und Physiologie der Tiere 56: 387-520

1155. Harden A. 1926. The formation of lactic acid in muscle. Nature 118: 895-96

1156. Hardy AC, Ennis N. 1936. The continuous plankton recorder. In Discovery Reports ; v.11, pp. 457-510. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

1157. Hargitay B, Kuhn W. 1951. Das multiplikationsprinzip als grundlage der harnkonzentrierung in der niere [The multiplication principle as the basis of the urine concentration in the kidney]. Zeitschrift für Elektrochemie 55: 539-58

1158. Hargraves MM, Robinson H, Morton RJ. 1948. Presentation of two bone marrow elements: The ”Tart” cell and the ”L.E.” cell. Proceedings of the Staff Meetings of the Mayo Clinic 23: 25-28

1159. Harington CR. 1935a. Biochemical basis of thyroid function. The Lancet 225: 1199-204, 261-266

1160. Harington CR, Mead TH. 1935b. Synthesis of glutathione. Biochemical Journal 29: 1602-11

1161. Harington CR, Randall SS. 1929. Observations on the iodine-containing compounds of the thyroid gland. Isolation of dl-3:5-di-iodotyrosine. Biochemical Journal 23: 373-83

1162. Harper AA, Raper HS. 1943. Pancreozymin, a stimulant of the secretion of pancreatic enzymes in extracts of the small intestine. The Journal of Physiology 102: 115-25

1163. Harris GW. 1948. Electrical stimulation of the hypothalamus and the mechanism of neural control of the adenohypophysis. The Journal of Physiology 107: 418-29

1164. Harris SA, Folkers KA. 1939. Synthesis of vitamin B6. I-II. Journal of the American Chemical Society 61: 1245-47, 3307-10

1165. Harris SA, Stiller ET, Folkers KA. 1939. Structure of vitamin B6. II. Journal of the American Chemical Society 61: 1242-44

1166. Harris SA, Wolf DE, Mozingo R, Anderson RC, Arth GE, et al. 1944. Biotin. II. Synthesis of biotin. Journal of the American Chemical Society 66: 1756-57

1167. Harris TM. 1938. The British Rhaetic Flora. London: British Museum. 84 pp.

1168. Harris TM. 1939. Naiadita, a fossil bryophyte with reproductive organs. Annales Bryologici 12: 57-70

1169. Harrison RW, Moore E. 1936. Cultivation of the virus of St. Louis encephalitis. Experimental Biology and Medicine 35: 359-61

1170. Hart EB, Steenbock H, Elvehjem CA, Waddell J. 1925. Iron in nutrition. I. Nutritional anemia on whole milk diets and the utilization of inorganic iron in hemoglobin building. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 65: 67-80

1171. Hart EB, Steenbock H, Elvehjem CA, Waddell J, Van Donk E, Riising BM. 1928. Iron in nutrition. VII. Copper as a supplement to iron for hemoglobin building in the rat. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 77: 797-812

1172. Hartline HK. 1940. The receptive fields of optic nerve fibers. The American Journal of Physiology 130: 690-99

1173. Hartline HK, Graham CH. 1930. Nerve impulses from single receptors in the eye. Journal of Cellular and Comparative Physiology 1: 277-95

1174. Hartman CG. 1936. Time of Ovulation in Women; A Study on the Fertile Period in the Menstrual Cycle. Baltimore: The Williams & Wilkins Co. 226 pp.

1175. Hartman CG. 1939. The use of the monkey and ape in the study of human biology, with special reference to primate affinities. The American Naturalist 73: 139-55

1176. Hartman FA, Brownell KA. 1930. The hormone of the adrenal cortex. Science 72: 76

1177. Hartmann M. 1929. Untersuchungen über die sexualität und entwicklung von algen. III. Über die sexualität und den generationswechsel von Chaetomorpha und Enteromorpha [Studies on sexuality and development of algae. III . About sexuality and the new generation of Chaetomorpha and Enteromorpha]. Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft 47: 485-94

1178. Hartmann M, Wettstein A. 1934. Ein krystallisiertes hormon aus corpus luteum [A crystallized hormone from the corpus luteum]. Helvetica Chimica Acta 17: 878-82

1179. Harvey RM, Ferrer MI, Cathcart RT, Richards DW, Cournand AF. 1949. Some effects of digoxin upon the heart and circulation in man. I. Digoxin in left ventricular failure. The American Journal of Medicine 7: 439-53

1180. Hassid WZ, Chaikoff IL. 1938. The molecular structure of liver glycogen of the dog. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 123: 755-59

1181. Hatton H. 1938. Essais de bionomie explicative sur quelques especes intercotidales d'algues et d'animaux [Explanatory bionomy tests on several intertidal species of algae and animals]. Bulletin de l'Institut Océanographique 17: 241-348

1182. Haurowitz F. 1938. Das gleichgewicht zwischen haemoglobin und sauerstoff [The balance between hemoglobin and oxygen]. Hoppe-Seyler's Zeitschrift für Physiologische Chemie 254: 266-74

1183. Haworth WN. 1929. The Constitution of Sugars. London: Edward Arnold and Co. 100 pp.

1184. Haworth WN, Hirst EL. 1933. Synthesis of ascorbic acid. Journal of the Society of Chemical Industry 52: 645-46

1185. Haworth WN, Hirst EL, Isherwood FA. 1937. Polysaccharides, Part XXIII. Determination of the chain length of glycogen. Journal of the Chemical Society: 577-81

1186. Haworth WN, Hirst EL, Smith F. 1939. Polysaccharides. Part. XXXVIII. The constitution of glycogen from fish liver and fish muscle. Journal of the Chemical Society: 1914-22

1187. Haworth WN, Loach JV, Long CW. 1927a. The constitution of the disaccharides. Part XVII. Maltose and melibiose. Journal of the Chemical Society: 3146-55

1188. Haworth WN, Long CW, Plant JHG. 1927b. The constitution of the disaccharides. Part XVI. Cellobiose. Journal of the Chemical Society: 2809-14

1189. Haworth WN, Peat S, Bourne EJ. 1944. Synthesis of amylopectin. Nature 154: 236

1190. Hayashi M. 1934. Ubertragung des virus von encephalitis epidemica auf affen [Transmission of the virus of epidemic encephalitis  in monkeys]. Proceedings of the Imperial Academy (of Japan) 10: 41-44

1191. Haynes CV, Jr. 1964. Fluted Projectile Points: Their Age and Dispersion. Science 145: 1408-13

1192. Head H. 1926. Aphasia and Kindred Disorders of Speech. London: Cambridge University Press

1193. Health CoARDatNYSDo. 1945. The relationship between epidemics of acute bacterial pneumonia and influenza. Science 102: 561-63

1194. Hecht S. 1937. Rods, cones, and the chemical basis of vision. Physiological Reviews 17: 239-90

1195. Hecht S, Shlaer S, Pirenne MH. 1941. Energy at the threshold of vision. Science 93: 585-87

1196. Hecht S, Shlaer S, Pirenne MH. 1942. Energy, quanta, and vision. The Journal of General Physiology 25: 819-40

1197. Hegnauer AH, Fenn WO, Cobb DM. 1934. The cause of the rise in oxygen consumption of frog muscles in excess of potassium. Journal of Cellular and Comparative Physiology 4: 505-26

1198. Heidelberger M, Kendall FE. 1929. A quantitative study of the precipitin reaction between type III pneumococcus polysaccharide and purified homologous antibody. The Journal of Experimental Medicine 50: 809-23

1199. Heidelberger M, Pedersen KO. 1937. The molecular weight of antibodies. The Journal of Experimental Medicine 65: 393-414

1200. Heilbrunn LV. 1940. The action of calcium on muscle protoplasm. Physiological Zoology 13: 88-94

1201. Heilbrunn LV. 1943. An Outline of General Physiology. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders. 748 pp.

1202. Heilbrunn LV, Wiercinski FJ. 1947. The action of various cations on muscle protoplasm. Journal of Cellular and Comparative Physiology 29: 15-32

1203. Heine L. 1931. Use of contact glasses. The Lancet 217: 631-32

1204. Heitz JHE. 1928. Das heterochromatin der moose, 1. [The heterochromatin of moose. 1]. Jahrbucher für Wissenschaftliche Botanik 69: 762-818

1205. Heitz JHE. 1931. Nukleolen und chromosomen der gattung vicia [Nucleoli and chromosomes of the genus Vicia]. Planta 15: 495-505

1206. Hektoen L. 1930. The determination of the infectious nature of acute endocarditis. Transactions of the Chicago Pathological Society 13: 269

1207. Henderson Y, Haggard HW, Coryllos PN, Birnbaum GL. 1930. The treatment of pneumonia by inhalation of carbon dioxide. I. The relief of atelectasis. Archives of Internal Medicine 45: 72-91

1208. Hendrici AT. 1933. Studies of freshwater bacteria I. A direct microscopic technique. Journal of Bacteriology 25: 277-86

1209. Hendricks SB, Fry WH. 1930. The results of X-ray and microscopical examinations of soil colloids. Soil Science 29: 457-79

1210. Hendricks SB, Hill WL, Jacob KD, Jefferson ME. 1931. Structural characteristics of apatite-like substances and composition of phosphate rock and bone as determined from microscopical and X-ray diffraction examinations. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry 23: 1413-18

1211. Henle G, Deinhardt F. 1955. Propagation and primary isolation of mumps virus in tissue culture. Experimental Biology and Medicine 89: 556-60

1212. Henrici AT. 1928. Morphologic Variation and Rate of Growth of Bacteria. Springfield: Charles C Thomas. 194 pp.

1213. Heppel LA. 1939. The electrolytes of muscle and liver in potassium-depleted rats. The American Journal of Physiology 127: 385-92

1214. Heppel LA. 1940a. The diffusion of radioactive sodium into the muscles of potassium-deprived rats. The American Journal of Physiology 128: 449-54

1215. Heppel LA. 1940b. Effect of age and diet on electrolyte changes in rat muscle during stimulation. The American Journal of Physiology 128: 440-48

1216. Hepting GH. 1939. A Vascular Wilt of the Mimosa Tree (Albizzia julibrissin). Rep. Circular, no. 535, U.S. Department of Agriculture

1217. Hepting GH. 1947. Stimulation of oleoresin flow in pines by a fungus. Science 105: 209

1218. Hepting GH, Blaisdell DJ. 1936. A protective zone in red gum fire scars. Phytopathology 26: 62-67

1219. Hepting GH, Roth ER. 1946. Pitch canker, a new disease of some southern pines. Journal of Forestry 44: 742-44

1220. Herbert RW, Hirst EL, Percival EGV, Reynolds RJW, Smith F. 1933. The constitution of ascorbic acid. Journal of the Chemical Society: 1270-90

1221. Hern F. 2004. Norman Bethune : the incredible life and tragic death of a revered Canadian doctor. Canmore, Alta: Altitude Pub. Canada. 136 pp.

1222. Heron WT, Hales WM, Ingle DJ. 1934. Capacity of skeletal muscle in rats to maintain work output. The American Journal of Physiology 110: 357-61

1223. Hershey AD. 1946. Spontaneous mutations in bacterial viruses. Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology 11: 67-77

1224. Hershey AD, Rotman R. 1948. Linkage among genes controlling inhibition of lysis in a bacterial virus. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 34: 89-96

1225. Hesseltine HC. 1937. Biologic and clinical import of vulvovaginal mycoses. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 34: 855-

1226. Heuser CH, Streeter GL. 1941. Development of the macaque embryo. Contributions to Embryology: Carnegie Institution of Washington 29: 15-55

1227. Higham TFG, Compton T, Stringer C, Jacobi R, Shapiro B, et al. 2011. The earliest evidence for anatomically modern humans in Northwestern Europe. Nature 479: 521-24

1228. Hill AV. 1938. The heat of shortening and the dynamic constants of muscle. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B, Biological Sciences 126: 136-95

1229. Hill JP. 1932. Croonian Lecture: The developmental history of the primates. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B, Containing Papers of a Biological Character 221: 45-178

1230. Hill R, Scarisbrick R. 1951. The haematin compounds of leaves. The New Phytologist 50: 98-111

1231. Hill RL. 1937. Oxygen evolved by isolated chloroplasts. Nature 139: 881-82

1232. Hill RL. 1939. Oxygen produced by isolated chloroplasts. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B, Biological Sciences 127: 192-210

1233. Hill RL. 1965. The biochemists' green mansions: the photosynthetic electron transport chain in plants. Essays in Biochemistry 1: 121-52

1234. Hill RL, Bendall F. 1960. Function of two cytochrome components in chloroplasts: A working hypothesis. Nature 186: 136-37

1235. Hill RL, Scarisbrick R. 1940a. The reduction of ferric oxalate by isolated chloroplasts. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B, Biological Sciences 129: 238-55

1236. Hill RL, Scarisbrick R. 1940b. Production of oxygen by illuminated chloroplasts. Nature 146: 61-62

1237. Himsworth HP. 1936. Diabetes mellitus: its differentiation into insulin-sensitive and insulin-insensitive types. The Lancet 227: 127-30

1238. Hines EA, Jr., Brown GE. 1932. A standard stimulus for measuring vasomotor reactions: its application in the study of hypertension. Proceedings of the Staff Meetings of the Mayo Clinic 7: 332-35

1239. Hinsey JC, Markee JE. 1933. Pregnancy following bilateral section of the cervical sympathetic trunk in the rabbit. Experimental Biology and Medicine 31: 270-71

1240. Hinshaw HC, Feldman WH. 1945. Streptomycin in treatment of clinical tuberculosis: A preliminary report. Proceedings of the Staff Meetings of the Mayo Clinic 20: 313-18

1241. Hinton WA. 1936. Syphilis and Its Treatment. New York: Macmillan Co. 321 pp.

1242. Hirst GK. 1941. The agglutination of red cells by allantoic fluid of chick embryos infected with influenza virus. Science 94: 22-23

1243. Hirst GK. 1942. Direct isolation of human influenza virus in chick embryos. The Journal of Immunology 45: 293-302

1244. Hitchcock AS, Chase MA. 1951. Manual of the Grasses of the United States. Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture. 1051 pp.

1245. Hitchcock AS, Chase MA. 1971. Manual of the Grasses of the United States. NewYork: Dover Publications

1246. Hobby GL, Meyer K, Chafee E. 1942. Observations on the mechanism of action of penicillin. Experimental Biology and Medicine 50: 281-85

1247. Hodgkin AL. 1937a. Evidence for electrical transmission in nerve. Part I. The Journal of Physiology 90: 183-210

1248. Hodgkin AL. 1937b. Evidence for electrical transmission in nerve: Part II. The Journal of Physiology 90: 211-32

1249. Hodgkin AL, Huxley AF. 1939. Action potentials recorded from inside a nerve fibre. Nature 144: 710-11

1250. Hodgkin AL, Huxley AF. 1945. Resting and action potentials in single nerve fibres. The Journal of Physiology 104: 176-95

1251. Hodgkin DMC. 1935. X-ray single crystal photographs of insulin. Nature 135: 591-92

1252. Hoekstra PJ, Anderson GM, Troost PW, Kallenberg CGM, Minderas RB. 2007. Plasma kynurenine and related measures in tic disorder patients. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 16 Suppl. 1: 537-

1253. Hoffman H. 1950. Local reinnervation in partially dennervated muscle; a histopathological study. The Australian Journal of Experimental Biology and Medical Science 28: 383-97

1254. Hoffman WS. 1925. The isolation of crystalline adenine nucleotide from blood. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 63: 675-79

1255. Hoffman WS. 1937. A rapid photoelectric method for the determination of glucose in blood and urine. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 120: 51-55

1256. Hogeboom GH, Claude A, Hotchkiss RD. 1946. The distribution of cytochrome oxidase and succinoxidase in the cytoplasm of the mammalian liver cell. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 165: 615-29

1257. Hogeboom GH, Schneider WC, Palade GE. 1948. Cytochemical studies of mammalian tissues. I. Isolation of intact mitochondria from rat liver; some biochemical properties of mitochondria and submicroscopic particulate material. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 172: 619-35

1258. Holmberg CG. 1939. Uricase purification and properties. Biochemical Journal 33: 1901-06

1259. Holmes FO. 1929. Local lesions in tobacco mosaic. Botanical Gazette 87: 39-55

1260. Holmes GM. 1925. A case of virilism associated with a suprarenal tumour: recovery after its removal. The Quarterly Journal of Medicine 18: 143-52

1261. Holmes HN, Corbet RE. 1937. The isolation of crystalline vitamin A. Journal of the American Chemical Society 59: 2042-47

1262. Holt AS, Morley HV. 1959. A proposed structure for chlorophyll d. Canadian Journal of Chemistry 37: 507-14

1263. Holtfreter JFK. 1933a. Der einfluss von wirtsalter und verschiedenen organbezirken auf die differenzierung von angelagertem gastrulaektoderm [The effect of host age and different body districts on the differentiation of unattached gastrula ectoderm]. Wilhelm Roux' Archiv für Entwicklungsmechanik der Organismen 127: 619-775

1264. Holtfreter JFK. 1933b. Organisierungsstufen nach regionaler kombination von entomesoderm mit ektoderm [Organizing regional levels by combining entomesoderm with ectoderm]. Biologisches Zentralblatt 53: 404-31

1265. Holtfreter JFK. 1933d. Die totale exogastrulation, eine selbstablösung des ektoderms vom entomesoderm [The total exogastrulation, a self-separation of the ectoderm from entomesoderm]. Roux's Archives of Developmental Biology 129: 669-793

1266. Holtfreter JFK. 1936. Regionale Induktionen in xenoplastisch zusammengesetzen explantaten [Laws of regional inductions with explants of foreign tissues together] Wilhelm Roux' Archiv für Entwicklungsmechanik der Organismen 134: 466-549

1267. Holtfreter JFK. 1939. Gewebeaffinität, ein mittel der embryonalen formbildung [Tissue affinity, a means of embryonic morphogenesis]. Archiv für Experimentelle Zellforschung Besonders Gewebezüchtung 23: 169-209

1268. Holtfreter JFK. 1948a. The mechanism of embryonic induction and its relation to parthenogenesis and malignancy. In Symposia of the Society for Experimental Biology [Growth in Relation to Differentiation and Morphogenesis], ed. JF Danielli, R Brown. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

1269. Holtfreter JFK. 1948b. Significance of the cell membrane in embryonic processes. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 49: 709-60

1270. Holtz P, Heise R, Lüdtke K. 1938. Fermentativer abbau von L-dioxyphenylalanin (DOPA) durch niere [Fermentative decomposition of L- dioxyphenylalanine ( DOPA ) by kidney]. Archiv für Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie 191: 87-118

1271. Hooker SB, Follensby EM. 1934. Studies of scarlet fever II. Different toxins produced by hemolytic streptococci of scarlatinal origin. The Journal of Immunology 27: 177-93

1272. Hope J, Reekie LJD, Hunter N, Multhaup G, Beyreuther K, et al. 1988. Fibrils from brains of cows with new cattle disease contain scrapie-associated protein. Nature 336: 390-92

1273. Hopwood AT. 1932. Miocene primates from Kenya. Journal of the Linnean Society: Zoology 30: 437-64

1274. Hopwood AT. 1933. Miocene primates from British East Africa. Annals and Magazine of Natural History 11: 96-98

1275. Horecker BL. 1951b. The metabolism of pentose and triose phosphates. In Phosphorus Metabolism: A Symposium on the Role of Phosphorus in the Metabolism of Plants and Animals, ed. WD McElroy, HB Glass, pp. 117-44. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press

1276. Horecker BL, Hurwitz J, Weissbach A. 1956. The enzymatic synthesis and properties of ribulose 1,5-diphosphate. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 218: 785-94

1277. Horecker BL, Smyrniotis PZ. 1953a. Transaldolase: the formation of fructose 6-phosphate from sedoheptulose 7-phosphate. Journal of the American Chemical Society 75: 2021-22

1278. Horecker BL, Smyrniotis PZ, Hiatt HH, Marks PA. 1955. Tetrose phosphate and the formation of sedoheptulose diphosphate. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 212: 827-36

1279. Horecker BL, Smyrniotis PZ, Klenow H. 1953b. The formation of sedoheptulose phosphate from pentose phosphate. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 205: 661-82

1280. Horecker BL, Smyrniotis PZ, Seegmiller JE. 1951a. The enzymatic conversion of 6-phosphogluconate to ribulose-5-phosphate and ribose-5-phosphate. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 193: 383-96

1281. Horowitz NH. 1945. On the evolution of biochemical synthesis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 31: 153-57

1282. Horowitz NH. 1948. The one-gene one-enzyme hypothesis. Genetics 33: 612-13

1283. Horowitz NH, Hubbard JS. 1974. The origin of life. Annual Review of Genetics 8: 393-410

1284. Horowitz NH, Leupold U. 1951. Some recent results bearing on the one gene-one enzyme hypothesis. Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology 16: 65-74

1285. Horsfall JG. 1931. Dusting tomato seed with copper sulfate monohydrate for combating damping-off. New York (State). Agricultural Experiment Station, Geneva Technical Bulletin 198: 5-6

1286. Horsfall JG. 1956. Principles of Fungicidal Action. Waltham, MA: Chronica Bot. Co. 279 pp.

1287. Horsfall JG, Magie RO, Suit RF. 1938. Bordeaux injury to tomatoes and its effect on ripening. New York (State). Agricultural Experiment Station, Geneva Technical Bulletin 251: 34

1288. Hörstadius SO. 1939. The mechanics of sea urchin development, studied by operative methods. Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 14: 132-79

1289. Hörstadius SO. 1973. Experimental Embryology of Echinoderms. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 192 pp.

1290. Hoskins M. 1935. A protective action of neurotropic against viscerotropic yellow fever virus in Macacus rhesus. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 15: 675-80

1291. Hotchkiss RD. 1948. The quantitative separation of purines, pyrimidines, and nucleosides by paper chromatography. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 175: 315-32

1292. Houssay BA. 1936. The hypophysis and metabolism. The New England Journal of Medicine 214: 961-71

1293. Houssay BA, Biasotti A. 1930. La diabetes pancreática de los porros hipofisoprivos [Pancreatic diabetes of joints hypophyseoprivic]. Revista de la Sociedad Argentina de Biologia 6: 251-96

1294. Houssay BA, Biasotti A. 1931a. The hypophysis, carbohydrate metabolism and diabetes. Endocrinology 15: 511-23

1295. Houssay BA, Biasotti A. 1931b. Phlorrhizindiabetes beim hypophysektomierten hund [Phlorrhizin diabetes in hypophysectomized dog]. Pflüger's Archiv für die Gesamte Physiologie des Menschen und der Tiere 227: 657-63

1296. Hove EL, Elvehjem CA, Hart EB. 1940. The relation of zinc to carbonic anhydrase. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 136: 425-34

1297. Howard KS, Shepherd RG, Eigner EA, Davies DS, Bell PH. 1955. Structure of beta-corticotropin: Final sequence studies. Journal of the American Chemical Society 77

1298. Howard RB, Watson CJ. 1947. Antecedent jaundice in cirrhosis of the liver. Archives of Internal Medicine 80: 1-10

1299. Howell JBL, Permutt S, Proctor DF, Riley RL. 1961. Effect of inflation of the lung on different parts of pulmonary vascular bed. Journal of Applied Physiology 16: 71-76

1300. Howitt BF. 1938. Recovery of the virus of equine encephalitis from the brain of a child. Science 88: 305

1301. Howitt BF. 1939. Viruses of equine and of St. Louis encephalitis in relationship to human infections in California. American Journal of Public Health and the Nation's Health 29: 1083-97

1302. Hrdlicka A. 1937. The Question of Ancient Man in America. In Ledger Syndicate. Philadelphia

1303. Hsiao K, Baker HF, Crow TJ, Poulter M, Owen F, et al. 1989. Linkage of a prion protein missense variant to Gerstmann-Sträussler syndrome. Nature 338: 342-45

1304. Hsu T-C. 1952. Mammalian chromosomes in vitro. I. The karyotype of man. The Journal of Heredity 43: 167-72

1305. Huang R-c, Bonner JF. 1962. Histone, a suppressor of chromosomal RNA synthesis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 48: 1216-33

1306. Huang R-C, Maheshwari N, Bonner JF. 1960. Enzymatic synthesis of RNA. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 3: 689-94

1307. Hubbard R, Wald G. 1951. Synthesis of rhodopsin from vitamin A and opsin. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 37: 69

1308. Hubbard R, Wald G. 1952. Cis-trans isomers of vitamin A and retinene in the rhodopsin system. The Journal of General Physiology 36: 269-315

1309. Hudack SS, McMaster PD. 1931. The breakdown of lymph transport. Experimental Biology and Medicine 28: 853-54

1310. Hudack SS, McMaster PD. 1932a. The gradient of permeability of the skin vessels as influenced by heat, cold, and light. The Journal of Experimental Medicine 55: 431-39

1311. Hudack SS, McMaster PD. 1932b. The permeability of the wall of the lymphatic capillary. The Journal of Experimental Medicine 56: 223-38

1312. Hudack SS, McMaster PD. 1932c. Normal and pathological permeability of the lymphatic capillaries in human skin. Experimental Biology and Medicine 29: 944-45

1313. Hudack SS, McMaster PD. 1933. The lymphatic participation in human cutaneous phenomena; a study of the minute lymphatics of the living skin. The Journal of Experimental Medicine 57: 751-74

1314. Hudack SS, McMaster PD. 1934. Agglutination formation within the lymph nodes of resistant and susceptible mice. Experimental Biology and Medicine 31: 753-55

1315. Hudson CS. 1945. The Fischer cyanohydrin synthesis and the configurations of higher-carbon sugars and alcohols. Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry 1: 1-36

1316. Huebner RJ, Jellison WL, Armstrong C. 1947. Rickettsialpox—A newly recognized rickettsial disease. V. Recovery of Rickettsia akari from a house mouse (Mus musculus). Public Health Reports 62: 777-80

1317. Huebner RJ, Jellison WL, Pomerantz C. 1946b. Rickettsialpox—A newly discovered rickettsial disease. IV. Isolation of a rickettsia apparently identical with the causative agent of rickettsialpox from Allodermanyssus sanguineus, a rodent mite. Public Health Reports 61: 1677-82

1318. Huebner RJ, Stamps P, Armstrong C. 1946a. Rickettsialpox—A newly recognized rickettsial disease. I. Isolation of the etiological agent. Public Health Reports 61: 1605-14

1319. Huggins CB, Hodges CV. 1941a. Studies on prostatic cancer. Part I: The effect of castration, of estrogen, and of androgen injection on serum phosphatases in metastatic carcinoma of the prostate. Cancer Research 1: 293-97

1320. Huggins CB, Stevens RE, Hodges CV. 1941b. Studies on prostatic cancer. II. Effects of castration on advanced carcinoma of the prostate gland. Archives of Surgery 43: 209-23

1321. Hughes A. 1952. Some effects of abnormal tonicity on dividing cells in chick tissue cultures. The Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science 93: 207-20

1322. Hughes-Schrader S, Ris H. 1941. The diffuse spindle attachment of coccids, verified by the mitotic behavior of induced chromosome fragments. The Journal of Experimental Zoology 87: 429-56

1323. Huguenard P, Boue A. 1948. Paris (165 observations). 79 pp.

1324. Hungate RE. 1943. Further experiments on cellulose digestion by the protozoa in the rumen of cattle. The Biological Bulletin 84: 157-63

1325. Hurwitz J, Weissbach A, Horecker BL, Smyrniotis PZ. 1956. Spinach phosphoribulokinase. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 218: 769-83

1326. Huxley JS. 1939. Clines: An auxiliary method in taxonomy. Bijdragen tot de Dierkunde 27: 491-520

1327. Hyman AS. 1932. Resuscitation of the stopped heart by intracardial therapy. II. Experimental use of an artificial pacemaker. Archives of Internal Medicine 50: 283-305

1328. Hyman J. 1952. United States Patent No. 618,432

1329. Ichiba A, Michi K. 1938. Isolation of vitamin B6. Scientific Papers of the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (Tokyo) 34: 623-26; 1014-

1330. Ide AG, Baker NH, Warren SL. 1939. Vascularization of the brown Pearce rabbit epithelioma transplant as seen in the transparent ear chamber. AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology 42: 891-99

1331. Ikawa M, Stahmann MA, Link KPG. 1944. Studies on 4-hydroxycoumarins. V. The condensation of alpha, beta-unsaturated ketones with 4-hydroxycoumarin. Journal of the American Chemical Society 66: 902-06

1332. Ingle DJ. 1938. The effects of administering large amounts of cortin on the adrenal cortices of normal and hypophysectomized rats. The American Journal of Physiology 124: 369-71

1333. Ingle DJ. 1946b. Experimental hyperadrenocorticism and its possible relationship to some of the metabolic changes caused by stress in the rat. In Conference on Metabolic Aspects of Convalescence, Transactions of the 13th Meeting of the Josiah Macy, Jr., Foundation, pp. 117-42. New York: Josiah Macy, Jr., Foundation

1334. Ingle DJ. 1951. The functional interrelationship of the anterior pituitary and the adrenal cortex. Annals of Internal Medicine 35: 652-72

1335. Ingle DJ, Kendall EC. 1937. Atropy of the adrenal cortex of the rat produced by the administration of large amounts of cortin. Science 86: 245

1336. Ingle DJ, Li CH, Evans HM. 1944. Sensitivity of the reproductive system of hypophysectomized rats. Endocrinology 35: 91-95

1337. Ingle DJ, Li CH, Evans HM. 1946a. The effect of adrenocorticotrophic hormone on the urinary excretion of sodium, chloride, potassium, nitrogen and glucose in normal rats. Endocrinology 39: 32-42

1338. Ingraham RC, Visscher MB. 1938. Further studies on intestinal absorption with the performance of osmotic work. The American Journal of Physiology 121: 771-85

1339. Ingvar DH, Risberg J. 1965. Influence of mental activity upon regional cerebral blood flow in man. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica. Supplementum 14: 183-86

1340. Inoué S. 1953. Polarization optical studies of the mitotic spindle. I. The demonstration of spindle fibers in living cells. Chromosoma 5: 487-500

1341. Irvine VC. 1938. Studies in growth promoting substances as related to x-radiation and photoperiodism. University of Colorado Studies 26: 69-70

1342. Irving L. 1939. Respiration in diving mammals. Physiological Reviews 19: 112-34

1343. Irving L, Scholander PFT, Grinnell SW. 1942. The regulation of arterial blood pressure in the seal during diving. The American Journal of Physiology 135: 557-66

1344. Irwin MR, Cole LJ. 1936. Immunogenetic studies of species and of species hybrids in doves, and the separation of species-specific substances in the backcross. The Journal of Experimental Zoology 73: 85-108

1345. Issacs R. 1937. An article contributed to an anniversary volume in honor of doctor Joseph Hersey Pratt: Lymphosarcoma cell leukemia. Annals of Internal Medicine 11: 657-62

1346. Itsenko NM. 1926. Pluriglandulares syndrom mit pathologish-anatomishen bild [Multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome with pathologiical- anatomical image]. Zeitschrift für die Gesamte Neurologie und Psychiatrie 103: 63

1347. Ivy AC, Oldberg E. 1928. A hormone mechanism for gall-bladder contraction and evacuation. The American Journal of Physiology 86: 599-613

1348. Jacobsen CF. 1935. Functions of the frontal association cortex in primates. Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry 33: 558-69

1349. Jacobsen CF. 1936. Studies of cerebral function in primates. I. The functions of the frontal associations areas in monkeys. Comparative Psychology Monographs 13: 3-60

1350. Jagger IC, Chandler N. 1934. Big vein, a disease of lettuce. Phytopathology 24: 1253-56

1351. Jakoby WB, Brummond DO, Ochoa S. 1956. Formation of 3-phosphoglyceric acid by carbon dioxide fixation with spinach leaf enzymes. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 218: 811-22

1352. James AT, Martin AJP. 1952. Gas-liquid partition chromatography: the separation and micro-estimation of volatile fatty acids from formic acid to dodecanoic acid. Biochemical Journal 50: 679-90

1353. James GM, James WO. 1940. The formation of pyruvic acid in barley respiration. The New Phytologist 39: 266-70

1354. James WO, Heard CRC, James GM. 1944. On the oxidative decomposition of hexosediphosphate by barley. The New Phytologist 43: 62-74

1355. James WO, James GM, Bunting AH. 1941. On the method of formation of pyruvic acid by barley. Biochemical Journal 35: 588-94

1356. Janet PMF. 1932. La Force et la Faiblesse Psychologiques. Texte Intégral des Conférences d’Après les Notes Sténographiques Recueillies et Rédigées par m. Miron Epstein [Strength and Psychological Weakness. Full Text of Conferences According to the Transcript Collected and Written by Mr. Miron Epstein]. Paris: N. Maloine. 326 pp.

1357. Jansen BCP. 1936. Chemical determination of aneurin (vitamin B 1 ) by the thiochrome reaction. Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas 55: 1046-52

1358. Jansen EF, Hirschmann DJ. 1944. Subtilin. An antibacterial product of Bacillus subtilis. Culturing conditions and properties. Archives of Biochemistry 4: 297-309

1359. Jefferson G. 1925. Report of a successful case of emboletctomy with a review of the literature. British Medical Journal 2: 985-87

1360. Jensen E. 2005. Teaching with the Brain in Mind. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. 186 pp.

1361. Jensen KA. 1932. Reinzuchtung und typen bestimmung von tuberkelbazillen stämmen [Determination of tubercle bacilli strains and types from pure cultures]. Zentralblatt für Bakteriologie, Parasitenkunde, Infektionskrankheiten und Hygiene. Erste Abteilung Originale. Reihe A: Medizinische Mikrobiologie und Parasitologie 125: 222-39

1362. Johanson DC, Edey MA. 1981. Lucy: The Beginnings of Humankind. New York: Simon and Schuster. 409 pp.

1363. Johnson BA, Anker H, Meleney FL. 1945. Bacitracin: A new antibiotic produced by a member of the B. subtilis group. Science 102: 376-77

1364. Johnson CD, Goodpasture EW. 1934. An investigation into the etiology of mumps. The Journal of Experimental Medicine 59: 1-19

1365. Johnson EA, Burdon KL. 1946. Eumycin—a new antibiotic active against pathogenic fungi and higher bacteria, including bacilli of tuberculosis and diphtheria. Journal of Bacteriology 51: 591

1366. Johnson MJ. 1941. The role of aerobic phosphorylation in the Pasteur effect. Science 94: 200-02

1367. Johnson T. 1946b. Variation and the inheritance of certain characters in rust fungi. Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology 11: 85-93

1368. Johnson T, Newton M. 1946a. Specialization, hybridization, and mutation in cereal rusts. Botanical Review 12: 337-92

1369. Johnson TB, Cogshill RD. 1925. Research on pyrimidines. C111. The discovery pf 5-methylcytosine in tuberculinic acid, the nucleic acid of tubercule bacillus. Journal of the American Chemical Society 47: 2838-44

1370. Johnson WD, Flemma RJ, Lepley D, Jr., Ellison EH. 1969. Extended treatment of severe coronary artery disease: a total surgical approach. Annals of Surgery 170: 460-70

1371. Joliot F, Joliot-Curie I. 1936. Hommage à Madame et Monsieur Joliot-Curie, Prix Nobel de Chimie 1935 [Tribute to Mr. and Mrs. Joliot-Curie, Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1935]. Paris: Faculté des sciences de l'Université de Paris-Institut du radium-Société chimique de France. 38 pp.

1372. Joliot-Curie I, Joliot F. 1934. Un nouveau type de radioactivité [A new type of radioactivity]. Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances de l'Academie des Sciences, Paris 198: 254-56

1373. Joliot-Curie I, von Halban H, Preiswerk P. 1935. Sur la création artificielle d'éléments appartenant à une familie radioactive inconnue lors de l'irradiation du thorium par les neutrons [On artificially creating elements belonging to an unknown radioactive familie during irradiation of thorium by neutrons]. Journal of Physics Radium 6: 361

1374. Jolliffee N, Shannon JA, Smith HW. 1932a. The excretion of urine in the dog: III. The use of non-metabolized sugars in the measurement of the glomerular filtrate. The American Journal of Physiology 100: 301-12

1375. Jones FD. 1945. New chemical weed killers. American Nurseryman 81: 9-10

1376. Jones FD. 1953. Priority claims on 2,4-D. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 1: 912

1377. Joyce LD, DeVries WC, Hastings WL, Olsen DB, Jarvik RK, Kolff WJ. 1983. Response of the human body to the first permanent implant of the Jarvik-7 Total Artificial Heart. ASAIO journal (American Society for Artificial Internal Organs: 1992) 29: 81-87

1378. Judson HF. 1996. The Eighth Day of Creation: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. 714 pp.

1379. Jukes TH. 1939. Pantothenic acid and the filtrate (chick anti-dermatitis) factor. Journal of the American Chemical Society 61: 975-76

1380. Julianelle LA, Wieghard CW. 1934. Immunological specificity of carbohydrates derived from staphylococci. Experimental Biology and Medicine 31: 947-49

1381. Juller E. 1937. Der generations— und phasenwechsel bei Stigeoclonium subspinosum [The generations — and phase changes of Stigeoclonium subspinosum]. Archiv für Protistenkunde 89: 55-93

1382. Jung W, Lüderitz B. 1996. [Intra-atrial defibrillation--limits and possibilities]. Zeitschrift für Kardiologie 85: 75-81

1383. Jung W, Lüderitz B. 1997. Implantation of an arrhythmia management system for patients with ventricular and supraventricular tachyarrhythmias. The Lancet 349: 853-54

1384. Just EE. 1939. The Biology of the Cell Surface. Philadelphia: P. Blakiston's Son & Co. 392 pp.

1385. Kabat EA. 1939. The molecular weight of antibodies. The Journal of Experimental Medicine 69: 103-18

1386. Kabat EA, Glusman M, Knaub V. 1948a. Quantitative estimation of the albumin and gamma globulin in normal and pathologic cerebrospinal fluid by immunochemical methods. The American Journal of Medicine 4: 653-62

1387. Kabat EA, Landow H, Moore DH. 1942b. Electrophoretic patterns of concentrated cerebrospinal fluid. Experimental Biology and Medicine 49: 260-63

1388. Kabat EA, Moore DH, Landow H. 1942a. Electrophoretic study of protein components in cerebrospinal fluid and their relationship to serum proteins. The Journal of Clinical Investigation 21: 571-77

1389. Kabsch W, Mannherz HG, Suck D, Pai EF, Holmes KC. 1990. Atomic structure of the actin: DNase I complex. Nature 347: 37-44

1390. Kaighn ME, Prince AM. 1971. Production of albumin and other serum proteins by clonal cultures of normal human liver. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 68: 2396-400

1391. Kalckar HM. 1937. Phosphorylation in kidney tissues. Enzymologia 2: 47-52

1392. Kalckar HM. 1938. Formation of a new phosphate ester in kidney extracts. Nature 142: 871

1393. Kalckar HM. 1939. Coupling between phosphorylations and oxidations in kidney extracts. Enzymologia 6: 209-12

1394. Kalckar HM. 1941. The nature of energetic coupling in biological syntheses. Chemical Reviews 28: 71-178

1395. Kalckar HM. 1942. The enzymatic action of myokinase. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 143: 299-300

1396. Kalckar HM. 1945. Enzymatic synthesis of a nucleoside. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 158: 723-24

1397. Kalckar HM. 1969. Biological Phosphorylation: Development of Concepts. Engelwood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. 735 pp.

1398. Kalckar HM, Shafran M. 1947. The enzymatic synthesis of purine ribosides. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 167: 477-86

1399. Kamen MD. 1963. The early history of carbon-14. Journal of Chemical Education 40: 234-42

1400. Kamm O, Aldrich TB, Grote IW, Rowe LW, Bugbee EP. 1928. The active principles of the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland. The demonstration of the presence of two active principles and their concentration in the form of potent solid preparations. Journal of the American Chemical Society 50: 573-601

1401. Kanazawa K. 1936. Sur la culture in vitro du virus de la rage [In vitro culture of the rabies virus]. Japanese Journal of Experimental Medicine 14: 519-22

1402. Kaneko R, Aoki Y. 1928. Über die encephalitis epidemica in Japan [About the encephalitis epidemic in Japan]. Ergebnisse der Inneren Medizin und Kinderheikunde 34: 342-456

1403. Kappers CUA, Huber GC, Crosby EC. 1936. The Comparative Anatomy of the Nervous System of Vertebrates, Including Man. New York: Macmillan

1404. Karlsson JL, Barker HA. 1949. Biosynthesis of uric acid labeled with radioactive carbon. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 177: 597-99

1405. Karpe G. 1945. The basis of clinical electroretinography. Acta Ophthalmologica. Supplement 24: 1-118

1406. Karrer P, Becker B, Benz F, Frei P, Saloman H, Schöpp K. 1935. Synthesis of lactoflavin. Helvetica Chimica Acta 18: 1435-48

1407. Karrer P, Fritzsche HH, Ringier BH, Salomon H. 1938. Die niedrigeren homologen des a-tocopherols [The lower homologues of a- tocopherol]. Helvetica Chimica Acta 21: 1234-40

1408. Karrer P, Helfenstein A. 1931b. Synthese des squalens [Synthesis of squalene]. Helvetica Chimica Acta 14: 78-85

1409. Karrer P, Quibell TH. 1936. Synthesis of some new flavins. Helvetica Chimica Acta 19: 1034-

1410. Kato H, Takeuchi M. 1966. Embryogenesis from the epiderma cells of carrot hypocotyl. Scientific Papers of the College of General Education of the University of Tokyo Biology 16: 245-54

1411. Katz B. 1949. The efferent regulation of the muscle spindle in the frog. The Journal of Experimental Biology 26: 201-17

1412. Kaufmann F. 1954. Entero-bacteriaceae : Collected Studies on Salmonella, Arizona, Escherichia (including alkaliscens-dispar and Bethesda-ballerup), Klevisella, Cloaca, Hafnia, Shigella, Proteus and Providencia. Copenhagen: Ejnar Munksgaard. 382 pp.

1413. Kausche GA, Ruska H. 1940. Zur frage der chloroplastenstruktur [On the question of chloroplasts]. Die Naturwissenschaften 28: 303-04

1414. Kauzmann WJ. 1959. Some factors in the interpretation of protein denaturation. Advances in Protein Chemistry 14: 1-63

1415. Kearns CW, Ingle L, Metcalf RL. 1945. New chlorinated-hydrocarbon insecticide. Journal of Economic Entomology 38: 661-68

1416. Keil H. 1942. The manifestations in the skin and mucous membranes in dermatomyositis with special reference to the differencial diagnosis from systemic lupus erythematosus. Annals of Internal Medicine 16: 828-71

1417. Keilin D, Hartree EF. 1938. On the mechanism of the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide by catalase. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B, Biological Sciences 124: 397-405

1418. Keilin D, Mann TRR. 1939b. Carbonic anhydrase. Nature 144: 442-43

1419. Keith A. 1927. Report on a fragment of a human jaw found at a depth of (101⁄2 ft) 3.2 m. in the cave earth of the vestibule of Kent’s Cavern. Transactions and Proceedings of the Torquay Natural History Society 5: 1-2

1420. Keith NM, Osterberg AE, King HE. 1940. The excretion of potassium by the normal and diseased kidney. Transactions of the Association of American Physicians 55: 219-22

1421. Keith NM, Wagener HP, Barker NW. 1939. Some different types of essential hypertension; their course and prognosis. American Journal of the Medical Sciences 197: 332-43

1422. Keith NM, Wegener HP, Barker NW. 1939. Some different types of essential hypertension: Their course and prognosis. American Journal of the Medical Sciences 197: 332-43

1423. Keller AD, Hare WK. 1932. The hypothalamus and heat regulation. Experimental Biology and Medicine 29: 1069-70

1424. Keller PD. 1946. A clinical syndrome following exposure to atomic bomb explosions. Journal of the American Medical Association 131: 504-06

1425. Kellogg R. 1928. The history of whales—their adaptation to life in the water. The Quarterly Review of Biology 3: 29-76; 174-208

1426. Kellogg R. 1936. A Review of the Archaeoceti. Washington: Carnegie Institute of Washington. 366 pp.

1427. Kemmerer AR, Elvehjem CA, Hart EB. 1931. Studies on the relation of manganese to the nutrition of the mouse. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 92: 623-30

1428. Kempf GA, McKay FS. 1930. Mottled enamel in a segregated population. Public Health Reports 45: 2923-40

1429. Kendall EC. 1971. Cortisone. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. 175 pp.

1430. Kendall EC, Ingle DJ. 1937. The significance of the adrenals for adaptation to mineral metabolism. Science 86: 18-19

1431. Kendall EC, Mason HL, McKenzie BF, Myers CS, Koelsche GA. 1934. Isolation in crystalline form of the hormone essential to life from the suprarenal cortex: its chemical nature and physiologic properties. Proceedings of the Staff Meetings of the Mayo Clinic 9: 245-50

1432. Kendrick DB, Jr. 1941. Prevention and treatment of shock in the combat zone. Military Surgery 88: 97

1433. Kennaway EL, Hieger I. 1930. Carcinogenic substances and their fluorescence spectra. British Medical Journal 1: 1044-46

1434. Keresztesy JC, Stevens JR. 1938. Crystalline vitamin B6. Experimental Biology and Medicine 38: 64-65

1435. Kety SS, Schmidt CF. 1945. The determination of cerebral blood flow in man by the use of nitrous oxide in low concentrations. The American Journal of Physiology 143: 53-66

1436. Kety SS, Schmidt CF. 1948. The nitrous oxide method for the quantitative determination of cerebral blood flow in man; theory, procedure and normal values. The Journal of Clinical Investigation 27: 476-83

1437. Key SN, 3rd, Green WR, Willaert E, Stevens AR, Key SN, Jr. 1980. Keratitis due to Acanthamoeba castellani. A clinicopathologic case report. Archives of Ophthalmology 98: 475-79

1438. Kiesel AP, Beloserskii AN. 1934. Über die nucleinsaure und die nucleoproteide der erbsenkeime [About the nucleic acid and nucleoproteins of pea seeds]. Hoppe-Seyler's Zeitschrift für Physiologische Chemie 229: 160-66

1439. Kiessling W. 1934. Über die synthese der dioxyacetonphosphosäure [The synthesis of dihydroxyacetone phosphate]. Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft 67: 869-74

1440. Kiessling W. 1939a. Über ein neues fermentprotein der hefe und eine reversible enzymatische synthese des glykogens [About a new enzymatic protein of yeast and a reversible enzymatic synthesis of glycogen]. Die Naturwissenschaften 27: 129-30

1441. Kiessling W. 1939b. Über den glykogen phosphorylierenden fermentproteinkomplex und eine enzymatische, reversible glykogensynthese [About the  glycogen phosphorylating enzyme-protein-complex and enzymatic, reversible glycogen synthesis]. Biochemische Zeitschrift 302: 50-72

1442. Kiessling W, Meyerhof OF. 1938a. Über eine dinucleotidpyrophosphorsäure der hefe [About a dinucleotidpyrophosphoric  yeast]. Die Naturwissenschaften 26: 13-14

1443. Kiessling W, Meyerhof OF. 1938b. Über ein adenindinucleotid der hefe: Di (adenosin-5'-phosphorsäure) [An adenine dinucleotide of the yeast di (adenosine- 5' -phosphoric acid)]. Biochemische Zeitschrift 296: 410-25

1444. Kikuth W. 1932. Zur weiterentwicklung synthetisch dargestellter malariamittel. I. Über die chemotherapeutische wirkung des Atebrin [For further synthetically prepared antimalarials. I. About the chemotherapeutic effect of Atebrin]. Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift 58: 530-31

1445. Kim KJ, Bing L, Winer J, Armanini M, Gillett N, et al. 1993. Inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor-induced angiogenesis suppresses tumor growth in vivo. Nature 362: 841-44

1446. Kimmelstiel Ph, Wilson C. 1936a. Benign and malignant hypertension and nephrosclerosis. A clinical and pathological study. The American Journal of Pathology 12: 45-48

1447. Kimmelstiel PH, Wilson C. 1936b. Intercapillary lesions in the glomeruli of the kidney. The American Journal of Pathology 12: 82-97

1448. King CG, Waugh WA. 1932. The chemical nature of vitamin C. Science 75: 357-58

1449. King H. 1935a. Tubocurare. Journal of the Society of Chemical Industry 54: 739-40

1450. King H. 1935b. Curare alkaloids. I. Tubocurarine. Journal of the Chemical Society: 1381-89

1451. Kingsbury BF. 1930. The developmental significance of the floor plate of the brain and spinal cord. The Journal of Comparative Neurology 50: 177-207

1452. Kinosita R. 1937. Studies on the cancerogenic chemical substances. Transactions of the Japanese Pathological Society 27: 665-725

1453. Kirk EJ, Denny-Brown DE. 1970. Functional variation in dermatomes in the macaque monkey following dorsal root lesions. The Journal of Comparative Neurology 139: 307-20

1454. Kirklin JW, Dushane JW, Patrick RT, Donald DE, Hetzel PS, et al. 1955. Intracardiac surgery with the aid of a mechanical pump-oxygenator system (Gibbon-type). Report of eight cases. Proceedings of the Staff Meetings of the Mayo Clinic 30: 201-06

1455. Klatzo I, Gajdusek DC, Zigas V. 1959. Pathology of kuru. Laboratory Investigation 8: 799-847

1456. Klemperer P, Pollack AD, Baehr G. 1942. Diffuse collagen disease; acute disseminated lupus erythematosus and diffuse scleroderma. Journal of the American Medical Association 119: 331-32

1457. Klenk E. 1934. Über die nature der phosphatide der milz bei der Niemann-Pickschen krankheit [About the nature of phosphatides of the spleen in the Niemann-Pick disease]. Hoppe-Seyler's Zeitschrift für Physiologische Chemie 229: 151-59

1458. Klenk E. 1935. Über die natur der phosphatide und anderer lipoide des gehirns und der leber bei der Niemann-Pickschen Krankhei [The nature of the phosphatides and other lipoids of the brain and liver in Niemann-Pick. disease]. Hoppe-Seyler's Zeitschrift für Physiologische Chemie 235: 24-36

1459. Klenk E. 1941. Neuraminsäure, das spaltprodukt eines neuen gehirnlipoids [Neuraminic acid, the cleavage product of a new brain lipid]. Hoppe-Seyler's Zeitschrift für Physiologische Chemie 268: 50-58

1460. Klenk E. 1942. Über die ganglioside, eine neue gruppe von zuckerhaltigen gehirnlipoiden [Gangliosides, new group of sugar-containing cerebral lipoids]. Hoppe-Seyler's Zeitschrift für Physiologische Chemie 273: 76-86

1461. Klieneberger E. 1935. The natural occurrence of pleuropneumonia-like organisms inapparent symbiosis with Streptobacillus moniliformis and other bacteria. The Journal of Pathology and Bacteriology 40: 93-105

1462. Kligler IJ, Bernkopf H. 1939. Cultivation of rabies virus in the developing chick embryo. Nature 143: 899-900

1463. Klinefelter HF, Jr., Reifenstein EC, Jr., Albright F. 1942. Syndrome characterized by gynecomastia, aspermatogenesis without A-leydigism, and increased excretion of follicle-stimulating hormone. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 2: 615-27

1464. Klüver H, Bucy PC. 1938. An analysis of certain effects of bilateral temporal lobectomy in the rhesus monkey, with special reference to "psychic blindness". Journal of Psychology 5: 33-54

1465. Kluyver AJ. 1931. The Chemical Activities of Microorganisms. London: University of London Press. 109 pp.

1466. Kluyver AJ, Donker HJL. 1926. Die einheit in der biochemie [The unit in biochemistry]. Chemie der Zelle und Gewebe 13: 134-90

1467. Kluyver AJ, van Niel CBK. 1936. Prospects for a natural system of classification of bacteria. Centralblatt für Bakteriologie und Parasitenkunde 94: 369-403

1468. Knapp E, Reuss A, Risse O, Schreiber H. 1939. Quantitative analyse der mutationsauslösenden wirkung monochromatischen UV-lichtes [Quantitative analysis of the mutation-inducing effect of monochromatic UV light]. Die Naturwissenschaften 27: 304

1469. Kniep KJ. 1928. Die Sexualität der Niederen Pflanzen : Differenzierung, Veteilung, Bestimmung und Vererbung des Geschlechts bei den Thallophyten [The Sexuality of Lower Plants: Differentiation, Heredity, Determination and Inheritance of Sex in the Thallophytes]. Jena: G. Fischer. 544 pp.

1470. Knight BCJG. 1937. The nutrition of Staphylococcus aureus; nicotinic acid and vitamin B1. Biochemical Journal 31: 731-37

1471. Knight BCJG, Fildes PG. 1930. Oxidation-reduction studies in relation to bacterial growth. Biochemical Journal 24: 1496-502

1472. Knoll M. 1935. Aufladepotentiel und sekundäremission elektronenbestrahlter körper [Recharge potential and secondary emission from an electron irradiated body] Zeitschrift für Technische Physik 16: 467-75

1473. Knoll M, Ruska EAF. 1932. Das Elektronenmikroskop [The electron microscope]. Zeitschrift für Physik 78: 318-39

1474. Knoop F, Martius C. 1936. Über die bildung der citronensäure [About the formation of citric acid]. Hoppe-Seyler's Zeitschrift für Physiologische Chemie 242: 204

1475. Knott JE. 1934. Effect of localized photoperiod on spinach. Proceedings of the American Society for Horticultural Science 31: 152-54

1476. Koffka K. 1935. Principles of Gestalt Psychology. New York: Harcourt Brace and Co. 720 pp.

1477. Kögl F, Haagen-Smit AJ, Erxleben H. 1934a. Über ein neues auxin (hetero-auxin) aus ham [About a new auxin (hetero-auxin) of ham]. Hoppe-Seyler's Zeitschrift für Physiologische Chemie 228: 90-103

1478. Kögl F, Kostermans DGFR. 1934c. Hetero-auxin als stoffwechselprodukt niederer pflanzlicher organismen [Hetero-auxin metabolite of lower plant organisms]. Hoppe-Seyler's Zeitschrift für Physiologische Chemie 228: 113-21

1479. Kögl F, Tönnis B. 1936. Isolate from the yolk. Hoppe-Seyler's Zeitschrift für Physiologische Chemie 242: 43-73, 74-80

1480. Köhler W. 1925. The Mentality of Apes. London: K. Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co. 342 pp.

1481. Köhler W. 1929. Gestalt Psychology. London: H. Liveright. 403 pp.

1482. Kohn GC. 1995. Encyclopedia of Plague and Pestilence. New York: Facts on File Inc. 408 pp.

1483. Kolessov VI. 1967. Mammary artery-coronary artery anastomosis as method of treatment for angina pectoris. The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 54: 535-44

1484. Koller G. 1925. Über den farbwechsel bei Crangon vulgaris [About the color change in Crangon vulgaris]. Verhandlungen der Deutschen Zoologischen Gesellschaft 30: 128-32

1485. Koller G. 1927. Über chromatophoren-system, farbenseinn und farbwechsel bei Crangon vulgaris. Zeitschrift für Vergleichende Physiologie 5: 191-246

1486. Koller G. 1928. Versuche über die inkretorischen vorgänge beim garnelenfarbwechsel [Experiments on the endocrine processes in the shrimp color change]. Zeitschrift für Vergleichende Physiologie 8: 601-12

1487. Koltin Y, Raper JR. 1967. The genetic structure of the incompatibility factors of Schizophyllum commune: The resolution of class III beta factors. Molecular and General Genetics 100: 275-82

1488. Konijn TM, Raper KB. 1961. Cell aggregations in Dictyostelium discoideum. Developmental Biology 3: 725-56

1489. Koprowski H, Jervis GA, Norton TW. 1952. Immune responses in human volunteere upon oral administration of a rodent-adapted strain of poliomyelitis virus. American Journal of Hygiene 55: 108-24

1490. Korkes S, Stern JR, Gunsalus IC, Ochoa S. 1950. Enzymatic synthesis of citrate from pyruvate and oxalacetate. Nature 166: 439-40

1491. Korn ED. 1954. Properties of clearing factor obtained from rat heart acetone powder. Science 120: 399-400

1492. Korn ED. 1955a. Clearing factor, a heparin-activated lipoprotein lipase. I. Isolation and characterization of the enzyme from normal rat heart. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 215: 1-14

1493. Korn ED. 1955b. Clearing factor, a heparin-activated lipoprotein lipase. II. Substrate specificity and activation of coconut oil. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 215: 15-26

1494. Kornberg HL, Racker E. 1955. Enzymatic reactions of erythrose-4-phosphate. Biochemical Journal 61: iii

1495. Korzybski TW, Parnas JK. 1939. Observations sur les échanges des atomes du phosphore renfermés dans l'acide adénosinetriphosphorique, dans l'animal vivant, a l'aide du phosphore marqué par du radiophosphore [Observations on the trade of phosphorus atoms contained in adenosine triphosphate in the living animal by means of the phosphorus marked with radiophosphorus]. Bulletin de la Société Chimie Biologique 21: 713-16

1496. Koser SA, Wright MH, Dorfman A. 1942b. Aspartic acid as a partial substitute for the growth-stimulating effect of biotin on Torula cremoris. Experimental Biology and Medicine 51: 204-05

1497. Kottmann U. 1942. Morphologische befunde aus taches vierges von colikulturen [Morphological observations, on "laches vierges" on coli cultures]. Archives of Virology 2: 388-96

1498. Kramer PJ. 1939. The forces concerned in the uptake of water by transpiring plants. American Journal of Botany 26: 784-91

1499. Kramer PJ, Decker JP. 1944. Relation between light intensity and rate of photosynthesis of loblolly pine and certain hardwoods. Plant Physiology 19: 350-58

1500. Krantz JC, Jr., Carr CJ, Forman SE, Evans WE, Jr. 1940. Anesthesia I. The anesthetic action of cyclopropyl methyl ether. The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 69: 207-20

1501. Krasne FB. 1969. Excitation and habituation of the crayfish escape reflex: The depolarizing response in lateral giant fibres of the isolated abdomen. The Journal of Experimental Biology 50: 29-46

1502. Kraus AP, Langston MF, Jr., Lynch BL. 1968. Red cell phosphoglycerate kinase deficiency: a new cause of non-spherocytic hemolytic anemia. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 30: 173-77

1503. Kraus EJ, Mitchell JW. 1947. Growth-regulating substances as herbicides. Botanical Gazette 108: 301-50

1504. Krause A, Neitz S, Mägert H-J, Schulz A, Forssmann W-G, et al. 2000. LEAP-1, a novel highly disulfide-bonded human peptide, exhibits antimicrobial activity. FEBS Letters 480: 147-50

1505. Kraut H, Frey E-K, Werle E. 1930. Über die inaktivierung des kallikreins [On the inactivation of kallikrein]. Hoppe-Seyler's Zeitschrift fur Physiologische Chemie 192: 1-21

1506. Krayer OH. 1929. Die akute kreislaufwirkung des Neosalvarsans. I. Mitteilung: Die analyse der kreislaufwirkung [Acute circulatory effect of Neosalvarsans. I. Notification: The analysis of circulation effect]. Archiv für Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie 146: 20-43

1507. Krayer OH. 1930a. Die akute kreislaufwirkung des neosalvarsans. II. Mitteilung: Über die ursache der kreislaufwirkung [Acute circulatory effect of neosalvarsans . . II News: About cause of the circulatory effect]. Archiv für Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie 153: 50-66

1508. Krayer OH. 1930b. Über die beziehung zwischen pulsfrequenz, minutenvolumen und venendruck am isolierten saugetierherzen [On the relationship between heart rate, minute volume and venous pressure in the isolated mammalian heart]. Verhandlungen der Deutschen Pharmakol Ges 157: 90-91

1509. Krayer OH. 1931a. Die theorie der digitaliswirkung [The theory of digitalis]. Verhandlungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Kreislaufforschung IV. Tagung: 163-90

1510. Krayer OH. 1931b. Die physiologie der coronardurchblutung [The physiology of coronary circulation]. Verhandlungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Innere Medizin XLIII. Kongress Wiesbaden: 237-47

1511. Krayer OH. 1931c. Versuche am insuffizienten herzen [Attempts on the failing heart]. Archiv für Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie 162: 1-28

1512. Krayer OH. 1933. Zur pharmakotherapie der herzinsuffizienz [To pharmacotherapy of heart failure]. In Erkrankungen des Herzmuskels und der Herzklappen [Diseases of the Heart Muscle and Heart Valves], pp. 84-94. Dresden and Leipzig: Steinkopff

1513. Krayer OH, Schutz E. 1932a. Mechanische leistung und aktionsstrom des warmbluterherzens [Mechanical power and action power of the warm blooded heart]. Verhandlungen der Deutschen Pharmakologie Gesellschaft XI. Tagung: 99-100

1514. Krayer OH, Schutz E. 1932b. Mechanische leistung und einphasisches elektrogramm am herz-lungen-präparat des hundes [Mechanical power and monophasic electrogram on cardiopulmonary preparation of the dog]. Zeitschrift für Biologie 92: 453-61

1515. Krebs HA. 1935a. Metabolism of amino-acids. III. Deamination of amino-acids. Biochemical Journal 29: 1620-44

1516. Krebs HA. 1935b. Metabolism of amino-acids. IV. The synthesis of glutamine from glutamic acid and ammonia, and the enzymatic hydrolysis of glutamine in animal tissues. Biochemical Journal 29: 1951-69

1517. Krebs HA. 1981. Reminiscences and Reflections / Hans Krebs. New York: Oxford University Press. 298 pp.

1518. Krebs HA, Eggleston LV. 1940. Biological synthesis of oxaloacetic acid from pyruvic acid and carbon dioxide. Biochemical Journal 34: 1383-95

1519. Krebs HA, Henseleit K. 1932a. Untersuchungen über die harnstoffbildung im tierkörper [Studies on urea formation in the animal organism]. Hoppe-Seyler's Zeitschrift für Physiologische Chemie 210: 33-66

1520. Krebs HA, Henseleit K. 1932b. Untersuchungen über die harnstoffbildung im tierkörper [Studies on urea formation in the animal organism]. Klinische Wochenschrift 11: 757-59

1521. Krebs HA, Henseleit K. 1932c. Untersuchungen über die harnstoffbildung im tierkörper [Studies on urea formation in the animal organism]. Klinische Wochenschrift 11: 1137-39

1522. Krebs HA, Johnson WA. 1937. The role of citric acid in intermediate metabolism in animal tissues. Enzymologia 4: 148-56

1523. Krehl WA, Teply LJ, Elvehjem CA. 1945a. Corn as an etiological factor in the production of nicotinic acid deficiency in the rat. Science 101: 283

1524. Krehl WA, Teply LJ, Sarma PS, Elvehjem CA. 1945b. Growth-retarding effect of corn in nicotinic acid-low rations and its counteraction by tryptophane. Science 101: 489-90

1525. Kremer EJ, Pritchard MA, Lynch M, Yu S, Holman K, et al. 1991. Mapping of DNA instability at the fragile X to a trinucleotide repeat sequence p(CCG)n. Science 252: 1711-14

1526. Krog AJ, Marshall CG. 1940. Alkyl-dimethyl-benzyl-ammonium-chloride for sanitization of eating and drinking utensils. American Journal of Public Health and the Nation's Health 30: 341-48

1527. Krogh SAS. 1939. Osmotic Regulation in Aquatic Animals. London: Cambridge University Press. 242 pp.

1528. Krogh SAS. 1946. The active and passive exchanges of inorganic ions through the surfaces of living cells and through living membranes generally. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B, Biological Sciences 133: 140-200

1529. Krogh SAS, Landis EM, Turner AH. 1932. The movement of fluid through the human capillary wall in relation to venous pressure and to the colloid osmotic pressure of the blood. The Journal of Clinical Investigation 11: 63-95

1530. Kubes V, Ríos FA. 1939. The causative agent of infectious equine encephalomyelitis in Venezuela. Science 90: 20-21

1531. Kubowitz F, Ott P. 1944. Isolierung von gärungsfermenten aus menschlichen muskeln [Isolation of fermentation enzymes from human muscles]. Biochemische Zeitschrift 317: 193-203

1532. Kuehl FA, Jr., Peck RL, Hoffhine CE, Jr., Folkers KA. 1948. Streptomyces antibiotics. XVIII. Structure of streptomycin. Journal of the American Chemical Society 70: 2325-30

1533. Kuehl FA, Jr., Peck RL, Walti A, Folkers KA. 1945. Streptomyces antibiotics. I. Crystalline salts of streptomycin and streptothricin. Science 102: 34-35

1534. Kuhn A, Butenandt AFJ. 1935. Über einen fall von geschlechtsgekoppelter vererbung mit wechselnder merkmalsauspragung bei der mehlmotte Epestia kuhniella Zeller [About a case of gender inheritance coupled with changing characteristic value in the flour moth Ephestia kühniella Zeller]. Nachrichten von der Konigliche Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften und der Georg-Augusts-Universitat zu Gottingen 1: 247-59

1535. Kuhn R, György P, Wagner-Jauregg T. 1933a. Das vitamin B2 [The vitamin B2]. Die Naturwissenschaften 21: 560-61

1536. Kuhn R, György P, Wagner-Jauregg T. 1933b. Über ovoflavin, den farbstoff des eiklars [About ovoflavin, the dye of albumin]. Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft 66: 576-80

1537. Kuhn RJ. 1935a. Sur les flavines [The flavins]. Bulletin de la Société Chimie Biologique 17: 905-26

1538. Kuhn RJ, Morris CJOR. 1937. Synthese von vitamin A [Synthesis of vitamin A]. Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft 70: 853-58

1539. Kuhn RJ, Reinemund K, Weygand F, Ströbele R. 1935b. Über die synthese lactoflavins (vitamin B2) [The synthesis of lactoflavins (vitamin B2)]. Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft 68: 1765-

1540. Kuhn RJ, Rudy H, Weygand F. 1936. Synthese der lactoflavin-5'-phosphorsäure [Synthesis of lactoflavin -5' -phosphoric acid]. Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft 69: 1543-47

1541. Kuhn RJ, Wendt G. 1938. Über das antidermatitische vitamin der hefe [About the anti-dermatitis vitamin yeast]. Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft 71: 780-82; 1118; 534

1542. Kuhn W, Ryffel K. 1942. Herstellung konzentrierter Lösungen aus verdünnten durch blosse Membranewirkung. Ein Modellversuch zur Funktion der Niere [Preparation of concentrated solutions from diluted solutions by effective working membrane. A pilot project for the function of the kidney]. Hoppe-Seyler's Zeitschrift für Physiologische Chemie 276: 145-47

1543. Kulka AM. 1942. Studies on antigen-antibody mixtures: I. Effect on normal living excised tissue. The Journal of Immunology 43: 273-88

1544. Kulka AM. 1943. Studies on antigen-antibody mixtures: II. The effect on normal living excised tissue and its dependence on the presence of free antibody in the mixture. The Journal of Immunology 46: 235-38

1545. Kunitz M. 1940. Crystalline ribonuclease. The Journal of General Physiology 24: 15-32

1546. Kunitz M, Northrop JH. 1933. Isolation of a crystalline protein from pancreas and its conversion into a new crystalline proteolytic enzyme by trypsin. Science 78: 558-59

1547. Kunitz M, Northrop JH. 1935. Crystalline chymo-trypsin and chymo-trypsinogen: I. Isolation, crystallization, and general properties of a new proteolytic enzyme and its precursor. The Journal of General Physiology 18: 433-58

1548. Kunitz M, Northrop JH. 1936. Isolation from beef pancreas of crystalline trypsinogen, trypsin, a trypsin inhibitor, and an inhibitor-trypsin compound. The Journal of General Physiology 19: 991-1007

1549. Kunkel LO. 1926. Studies on aster yellows. American Journal of Botany 3: 646-705

1550. Kunstadter RH, Pendergrass RC, Schubert JH. 1946. Bronchopulmonary geotrichosis. The American Journal of The Medical Sciences 211: 583-89

1551. l'Héritier P, Teissier G. 1934. Une expérience de sélection naturelle. Courbe d'élimination du gène 'bar' dans une population de Drosophiles en équilibre [A natural selection experiment. Gene elimination curve for 'bar' in a population of Drosophila in balance]. Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances et Memoires de la Societe de Biologie et des ses Filiales et Associees 117: 1049-51

1552. l'Héritier P, Teissier G. 1937a. Elimination des formes mutantes dans les populations de Drosophiles. I. Cas des Drosophiles 'bar' [Elimination of mutant forms in populations of Drosophila. I. Case of Drosophila 'bar']. Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances et Memoires de la Societe de Biologie et des ses Filiales et Associees 124: 882-84

1553. l'Héritier P, Teissier G. 1937b. Une anomalie physiologique héréditaire chez la Drosophile [A hereditary physiological abnormality in Drosophila]. Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances de l'Academie des Sciences, Paris 205: 1099-101

1554. l'Héritier P, Teissier G. 1945. Transmission héréditaire de la sensibilité au gaz carbonique chez Drosophila melanogaster [Inheritance of sensitivity to carbon dioxide in Drosophila melanogaster]. École Normale Supérieure, Publications des Laboratories 1: 35-74

1555. Labouisse EC, Sheean V. 1937. Madame Curie: A Biography by Eve Curie: Doubleday, Doran & Co. 385 pp.

1556. Lack DL. 1943. The Galapagos Finches (Geospizinae) a Study in Variation. San Francisco: California Academy of Sciences. 152 pp.

1557. Lack DL. 1943. The Lif