Study Questions

Schnaiberg and Gould, Chapter 8


(1)  What is meant by “modernization theory?”  What were some of the successes and failures of policies based on modernization theory?


(2)  What has been the effect of the “treadmill of production” (broadly conceived) on nations of the south?  How has the treadmill affected their environment?  How has the treadmill affected their development?


(3)  Explain E.F. Schumacher’s argument in his book Small is Beautiful.  Is Schumacher’s economic vision feasible for modern industrial societies?  For developing countries?  Why or why not?


(4)  Are all nations of the Earth destined to adopt the treadmill of production?  What alternatives exist?  What barriers do nations attempting alternative paths face?  Illustrate with concrete examples.


(5)  What is meant by appropriate technology?  Does this definition differ by context?  What role does appropriate technology play in development?  In environmental protection?


(6)  Is development a unidimensional process?  What problems result from conflicts in development goals?


(7)  What are some of the environmental justice ramifications of modernization?  Explain, using a concrete example.