Study Questions

Schnaiberg and Gould, Chapter 7


(1)  What is the difference between preservation and conservation?  How would a preservationist define “sustainability?”  How would a conservationist define “sustainability?”  What is the relationship between each approach and the treadmill of production?


(2)  On p. 143, Schnaiberg and Gould quote Groves as follows: “If a single lesson can be drawn from the early history of conservation, it is that states will act to prevent environmental degradation only when their economic interests are shown to be directly affected.”  What does this suggest for the possibilities of conservation?  Of preservation?


(3)  What role does science play in modern environmental movement organizations?  What role does politics play?


(4)  Do all environmental movement organizations share the same goals?  Do the goals differ for local, national, and international organizations?  Distinguish seven types of environmental movements and identify the goals of each.


(5)  To what do Schnaiberg and Gould attribute the lack of a unifying goal among environmental movement organizations?  In what ways is this problematic?  How is this advantageous?


(6)  Has the environmental movement been a success or a failure?  What evidence supports your contention?


(7)  Why, according to Schnaiberg and Gould, does the Anacostia River in Washington, D.C. remain polluted, while the Potomac River has been cleaned up?  What are some consequences of the pollution in the Anacostia?