Delta State University

SOC 422/522 COD 522

Spring Semester 2004


Study Questions, Week 11


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Topics for the Week:


Air & Water Pollution


Readings for the Week:


Ringquist, Evan J. 1993. Does regulation matter? Evaluating the effects of state air pollution control programs. Journal of Politics 55(4):1022–1045.


Hockenstein, Jeremy B., Robert N. Stavins, and Bradley W. Whitehead. 1997. Crafting the next generation of market-based environmental tools. Environment 39(4):12–33.




(1)  Distinguish the “top-down” and the “bottom-up” approaches to environmental policy implementation.  Under what conditions is each approach most appropriate?  What factors might facilitate or impede effective policy implementation?


(2)  What sorts of variables might be important to consider in evaluating a policy outcome?


(3)  Does regulation matter?  Explain.


(4)  What is meant by market-based tools?  Describe five types of market-based environmental instruments and provide examples of specific market-based tools, and explain how they operate.


(5)  What are some of the advantages of market-based approaches to environmental management?  What are some of the drawbacks?


(6)  Who benefits most from market-based policy instruments?


(7)  Do you think we’ll see more market-based environmental management in the future?  In what ways might market-based approaches be adopted to deal with emerging environmental issues?